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  • 1. Evaluating the Impacts of Agricultural Development Programming on Gender Inequalities, Asset Disparities, and Rural Livelihoods Overview of the initiative INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 2. Purpose  To reduce the gap between men’s and women’s control and ownership of assets, broadly defined, by evaluating how and how well agricultural development programs build women’s assets  Three-year project, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation  Dreaming big and thinking ahead: might be the start of a new paradigm in agricultural development programming!
  • 3. Why assets?  Control over and ownership of assets is a critical component to well-being  Increasing control/ownership of assets help create pathways out of poverty more than measures that aim to increase incomes or consumption alone  Different types of assets matter
  • 4. Different types of assets matter  Natural capital  Physical capital  Financial capital  Human capital  Social capital  Political capital Tangible and Intangible assets Page 4
  • 5. Why look at control of assets?  Why controls assets within the household matters  Households do not pool resources nor share the same preferences  Who receives resources determines impact of policy  Evidence from many countries that increasing resources controlled by women improves child health and nutrition, agricultural productivity, income growth
  • 6. Women continue to have fewer assets than men
  • 7. Percentage change in husbands’ and wives’ exclusively owned assets, Bangladesh, 1996-2006 400 350 % change 300 250 200 150 100 50 Husbands 0 Wives -50 -100 Type of asset Page 7
  • 8. Why does a gender gap in assets persist?  We know a lot about: • how to target women with development interventions • how to improve participation • what to do to increase the chances that they will benefit from ag devt projects, including working with men to change attitudes and behaviors that limit women’s economic opportunities.  But these methods are still not widely used in development projects  Have not been addressing gender gap in assets
  • 9. The big picture: Putting it together
  • 10. Capacity building  Build capacity of project teams/evaluation partners to undertake integrated economic and social gender impact assessments, to collect and analyze sex-disaggregated data, and use the results to design, implement and evaluate strategies to enhance project impacts on women  Key partners in capacity building: • Project teams/implementers • Evaluation partners
  • 11. Capacity building activities--1  Develop a conceptual framework for analyzing gender and assets in agricultural R&D programs, specifying the different assets targeted and impact pathways  Inception workshop in November 2010: training and planning workshop for potential projects (one evaluation person and one implementer)  Develop a capacity building strategy for selected projects and for the overall initiative based on the KAP survey
  • 12. Capacity building activities--2  Train a regional team of experts, evaluators, and/or project team members in • use of rapid gender and asset assessments tools and analytical approaches • setting up M&E processes to measure effectiveness of strategies for increasing women’s assets in the context of ongoing projects  Midterm workshop (year 2): progress, research results, midterm adjustments to projects  Final workshop (end of project): present evaluation results, effectiveness of different strategies , share lessons from evaluation results and integrated strategies
  • 13. Research--1  Understand the impact of agricultural development activities on women’s and men’s access to and control over key assets  Empirical evidence based on quantitative and qualitative approaches  Key question: Have agricultural development interventions increased ownership of and access to key assets (land, livestock, and access to water, soil, and improved varieties) and reduced the extent of inequality in asset ownership between men and women?
  • 14. Research--2  Individual case studies, with regional representation and balance across key assets  Synthesis across case studies  Analysis to be conducted jointly by the PIs and the evaluation staff of the individual projects  Note: realistically, for a project to be included, baseline data must exist. This initiative is only a 3-year project—for now!
  • 15. Research activities--1  Form an External Advisory Committee  Review and select projects for participation in the initiative based on the initial workshop and elaboration by the projects of their gender, asset and evaluation needs and priorities  Work with the evaluation partners in the selected projects, design additional gender- sensitive approaches or components to include in the evaluation plan for each participating project
  • 16. Research activities--2  Support project evaluation partners to gather additional data as needed, either immediately, or over time as part of the impact assessment.  Conduct gender analysis together with evaluation partners, to include: • initial characterization of baseline data • documentation of mid-course adjustments and their impacts • impact analysis by project • synthesis of findings across projects
  • 17. Identifying “good practices”  Identify effective pathways for reaching women and reducing gender asset disparities, based on ongoing implementation and cross-project learning  Some projects may want to implement mid-term adjustments, as a result of findings. Changes will be documented so we can learn from them  Develop alternative strategies for addressing gender disparities in assets in agricultural development projects, depending on context (SSA vs SA)
  • 18. Dissemination and outreach  Document and widely disseminate methods, results, and lessons learned about how to build women’s assets and improve livelihoods through agricultural development projects  Thinking “outside the box”: use web-based dissemination options, such as http://genderassets.wordpress.com  Develop training materials and for supporting partners in data collection, analysis and implementation  Prepare scientific papers, project reports, and policy briefs
  • 19. Key points--1  Evaluate 8-10 agricultural development projects • identify the projects’ impacts on women’s assets • clarify which strategies have been successful in reducing gender gaps in asset access and ownership  Participatory process between implementors and evaluation partners  Use existing baseline surveys and new targeted studies (qualitative and quantitative) to document men’s and women’s assets and the change in those levels over the life of the project Pag e 19
  • 20. Key points--2  Provide training and technical assistance to program staff in methods to identify and address gender disparities in assets.  Contribute to a development toolkit to reduce gender asset disparities and help to place gender considerations at the center of agricultural development. Pag e 20
  • 21. Mind the gap!