Landesa gaap


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Landesa gaap

  1. 1. Microplot Homestad Programs Odisha & West Bengal
  2. 2. We Work with Governments to Design and Facilitate Processes that Support Their: Allocation or Housing Home Capacity HomesteadRegularization Assistance Garden Building Development of Land 2
  3. 3. We Work with the Government…• Improving existing land programs• Supporting mechanisms for convergence• Promoting a “pilot  scale up” approach 3
  4. 4. Land InterventionsOdisha Program regularizes land: • for families currently squatting on government land (Vasundhara); • for families on land that was collectively owned (GKP);West Bengal Program allocates land: • for poor families according to selection criteria that prioritizes scheduled tribes and castes, female-headed households, families who have been landless for 2 generations, etc. • land allocated is either purchased or vested. 4
  5. 5. Additional support – Odisha: • Trained local youth as Community Resource Persons; • Odisha Tribal Empowerment Livelihood Project; • Housing Program; • Women’s Land Facilitation Center.Additional support - West Bengal: • Housing Program; • Extension services, seed provision; • Cluster-level development: roads, terrain leveling, water provision, etc. 5
  6. 6. Program results can differ:West Bengal: • Families receive land, • Plots are of adequate size and in adequate location, • Families participate in selection of land (degree of participation varies) • Families move to a “cluster” and can receive services as a group, • Because they move, families may lose their ties to some of their old networks;“Treatment” = receiving land + receiving document + taking possession (plus homestead development) 6
  7. 7. Program results can differ (2):Odisha: • Families are already squatting on that land, but can gain security, • Land might be small, • Land might not be of good quality or in good location,“Treatment” = receiving land document (plus homestead development) 7
  8. 8. Interesting Gender-Related Lessons to Date:West Bengal: Land documents only had one line for the beneficiary  women’s names were often left out We proposed a new format (adding one line to the document), the government adopted this format and will re-issue documents. 8
  9. 9. Interesting Gender-Related Lessons to Date (2):Odisha:• Land documents in the name of women/widow are not enough for their children to obtain the caste and residence certificates needed for admission at schools and higher education institutions.• Widows cannot transfer land documents in their names to their sons while they are alive if their sons live somewhere else.• Women who are abandoned by their husbands and go back to their natal house cannot get a residence certificate because they do not have land in their name. As a result, they have limited access to institutional credit, their children cannot get caste/residential certificate and cannot enroll in school. 9
  10. 10. Interesting Gender-Related Lessons to Date (3):Odisha:• It is difficult for young widows to inherit land because the land is typically documented in their father-in-law’s names not in their husbands’ name.• Single women are not considered heads of household and therefore cannot participate in this land regularization program on their own. 10
  11. 11. How will we assess the projects’ impact?Quantitative assessment: • Sample designed considering who is more likely to receive the treatment and who is more likely to be part of the control group; • Baseline data had already been collected (pre-GAAP); • Endline data for our project was supposed to be collected in 2013 but we are hoping to extend the project for one more year (to 2014) • As part of GAAP, we will do a survey on 2012; • Questionnaire will be adjusted to obtain more gender-disaggregated information.Qualitative research: • Focus Groups and Life Histories 11
  12. 12. Questions we hope to answer within GAAP• What difference do these interventions make for women?  sex-disaggregated impact on asset ownership and a few other outcomes.• What difference does it make when the intervention reaches women (with land documents)?  comparing families whose land documents include women’s names to those who do not. 12
  13. 13. GAAP related challenges• Period to be covered by GAAP might be too short time to observe measurable impact.• How to ensure we end up with a sample that has a good balance of treatment and control families? 13
  14. 14. GAAP related challengesSample composition - West Bengal:• Rolling sample with new treatment families added as they became beneficiaries. Due to slow pace of the roll out, we have a relatively small number of beneficiary families in the sample.• Because the land documents had only one line, most of the land was titled under the man. Documents are going to be reissued to include women. We cannot guarantee sample composition. Next survey needs to ask when the woman’s name was included.• Will need to complement survey findings with thorough qualitative work. 14
  15. 15. GAAP related challengesSample composition - Odisha:• At baseline we do not know who will receive land documents.• Sample designed based on two assumptions: • families are more likely to get documents in districts where RDI is working than in those with no RDI presence. • families who are on leaseable land are more likely to get documents than those on non-leasable land.• We cannot predict what proportion of the land documents will include women’s names.• Will need to complement survey findings with thorough qualitative work. 15
  16. 16. Current Sample Composition WEST BENGAL District Land Beneficiaries Control Group Coochbehar 319 250 Jalpaiguri 170 200 Bankura 314 120 Total 803 570Notes:• Jalpaiguri is a recent addition (Nov 2010) and did not have many allocations.• Time to do baseline survey is short (after plot is allocated but before they move).• Baseline survey was done between June 2010 and July 2011. 16
  17. 17. Current Sample Composition WEST BENGAL Land Documents IncludeDistrict Man & Woman Man Only Unclear/DK Woman OnlyCoochbehar 40% 15% 33% 12%(N=319)Jalpaiguri 5% 19% 75% 1%(N=170)Bankura 20% 10% 28% 41%(N=314) 17
  18. 18. Current Sample Composition ODISHA District In RDI Villages In other Villages Ganjam 179 182 Gajapati 176 178 Jagatsinghpur 196 178 Khurda 251 Total 551 789Notes:• Families from villages or tehsils in which RDI is not working are less likely to receive documents so we expect that many of them will be control families.• Some of the families in RDI villages will receive documents and will become our treatment families. 18
  19. 19. Thank You. Questions? 19
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