Gender, Agriculture and Assets Project(GAAP) under the Cereal Systems Initiative in South Asia in Evaluating the Impacts of Agricultural Development Programming on Gender Inequalities, Asset Disparities and Rural Livelihoods Mid Term Workshop-Nov 3-6, 2011 BRAC Centre, Rajendrapur Thelma Paris, Valerian Pede, Joyce Luis and Abha Singh
CSISA• Cereal System Initiative for South Asia• Funded by Bill and Melinda Gates and USAID (IRRI, CIMMYT, ILRI, IFPRI, NARES) – India – Bangladesh – Nepal – Pakistan• CSISA expansion Bangladesh – Funded by USAID
CSISA’s goal• Increase food and income security through – accelerated development and deployment of new cereal varieties – sustainable crop and resource systems management practices and better access to information• This goal will be difficult to achieve if wide gender inequities to key assets persist as major constraints to adoption of technologies.
Promoted technologies• Resources Conserving Technologies (RCT) – Direct seeding – Zero tillage – Laser land leveler – Residue management – Quality fodder – Improved crop varieties
Key questions that we would like to address as part of this GAAP Initiative:• What assets (tangible and intangible) are important to men and women in order to sustain their livelihoods?• Who has access to and control (how assets were acquired, who makes decision on when, how to use/dispose) over these key assets/resources?• What are the current effects or anticipated effects of the technologies/interventions under CSISA project on men and women’s access to and control of these key assets?• How do women and men respond or adjust due to changes in the assets as a result of project interventions introduced by the CSISA project?
Selection of villages: Baseline survey HUB District 1 District 2 District 3Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 C NC C NC C NC C NC C NC C NC C NC C NC C NC 1 Hub 3 Districts 3 Blocks 9 CSISA villages (C) 9 non-CSISA villages (NC)
Proposed study sites Districts CSISA Non-CSISA Total/No of VillagesvillagesKushinagar 1 1 2Deoria 1 1 2E.Champaran 1 1 2
Study sitesMap of India Map of Uttar Pradesh Districts: Siddhartnagar Maharajganj Gorakhpur
Methods of collection of information on assets• Interviews using structured questionnaire – either husband and wife in the same household• Use of pictures of assets – separately for husband and wife in the same household
Natural, social, financial and humanassets Natural Social Financial Human
Use of pictures• The set of pictures was given to the husband/wife• The husband/wife was asked to choose from the pictures the assets that he/she owns and have access to• The assets chosen were placed in the first pile while the rest were placed in a second pile• The assets in the first pile were noted down in the form
Assets owned or have access to• The husband/wife was asked to choose the top 10 most important assets• The husband/wife was asked to rank the top 10 assets where 1 is the most important and 10 is the least important• The husband/wife was asked specific questions on the top 10 assets
Questions on ownershipaccessibility/attendance• Whose name is written in the land title, bankbook• Who spends or keeps the money• Who owns or takes care of the animals• Who uses or has access to irrigation water or machines• Who attends to meetings or trainings• Who buys in the convenience or agricultural shop• Who has a degree and works for a living• Who is a member of an association
Assets owned or have access to• The husband/wife was asked who make decisions in disposing assets that they own• The husband/wife was asked the reason why these assets are the top 3 most important assets
Gender difference in asset ownership• Type of family – absolute nuclear and joint families• Caste – Upper, backward and others• Type of farm ownership – marginal, small and large
Succession of land Other relatives as brother/nephewFather Son Grandson In case of more land
If husband Wife Son expired, a case in a Daughternuclear family (if there is no son)
Initial analysis• Computation of the mean average rank of the assets owned or have access to by the husband and wife• Frequency count of ownership, accessibility, attendance and decision making of assets disposal by husband/wife• Gender difference in mean rank and frequency counts were analyzed by caste, type of family and type of farm
Initial findings• Farm land is basically owned by male head of the family and title of land is under Male head/Father• In joint families, large animals are owned by male head• In nuclear families, husband and wife make decisions on how to dispose large animals• Ownership and animal care including decision making of small ruminants is generally done by women• Assets as Farm land, house, large animals and machinery decisions were generally taken by male heads of family in all castes specially in Upper castes however in nuclear families and other castes decision taken jointly
Initial findings (cont’d)• Important assets ranked by men and women respondents are Farm Land, House, Cash in hand, Savings and machinery• Household assets were used by whole family but disposal of assets generally decided by head male and female• Women are owner and user of gold and silver jewelries but decision related to disposal is generally taken by female /wife and jointly in case of nuclear family• Big machines as tractor, diesel pump, LSTs and motorcycles are owned and used by Male heads /members of household and decisions regarding disposal is taken by male heads
Women’s participation indecision making, EUP•Women are involved in decision making in crop and livestock productions•There are areas where women joins the husband or other household members in making decisions•However, there are also areas where women fully participates in making decisions
Women’s participation indecision making, EUPAreas where majority of the womenreported to have full participation are:•Employing labor in the farm•Managing livestock feeding•Managing milk•Deciding on use of dung as fuel
Women’s participation indecision making, EUPAreas where majority of the womenreported to have partial participation are:•Selecting crop varieties•Purchasing machinery•Adopt technology•Selling grains•Deciding what to feed livestock•Sale of livestock
Female heads in EUP• Most of the households interviewed are male headed households• Female heads meet the extension worker at least once a year• Female heads do not have access to training
Women’s participation in decision making (%) Activities Full PartialSelecting crop varieties 12 49Purchasing machinery 7 37Adopt technology 8 32Employing labors in farm 28 24Selling grains 6 30Selling of crop residue 8 19Using crop residues as feed 15 21Deciding what to feed livestock 30 33Managing livestock feeding 33 28Managing milking 35 15Decision on sale of milk 15 18Deciding on use of milk income 11 19Deciding on sale of livestock 11 29Deciding on use of dung as fuel 33 12Deciding on lease/share of land 7 11Deciding on sale of land 7 10
Successes• Use of assets pictures was effective – excitement of women to respond – encourage other women to participate – empower women to express themselves – enhance capacity of social scientists• Open doors to other gender issues related to promotion of technologies• Involvement of husband and wife
Timeline (2011)May - October (last Selecting the villages and establishing rapportweek) with village leaders, households, men and women; Preparation for logistical arrangements, local assistants for PRA etcQualitative work to explore concepts of gender access to assets in 6 villages inNovember Mahrajganj, Deoria and E. Champaran (CSISA and non-CSISA)Nov -Dec Presentation of results based on qualitative GAAP in workshop in Bangladesh Analysis and drafting of report based on qualitative work; Submission of 1st working paper using qualitative information Development of gender asset gap questionnaire and pre-testing;Nov - Dec Revision of 1st working paper for publication; Training of enumerators, finalization of the questionnaire; preparation of midline surveys
Time line (2012)2012 Jan –June -Conduct of midline surveys of 324 farming households in villages for which baseline information exists, including GAAP questions; --Editing of questionnaires will be done as soon as data have been collected for quick validation of results; training of date encoders; data entry;July – Sept -Analysis of quantitative data; - Generation of descriptive tablesOct – Dec Analysis of both qualitative and quantitative information
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