1. Web Sessions (2005 – 2014)
Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training (Ministry of Justice) and Directorate General of Citizen Attention
(Ministry in charge of Presidency)
1st Web Session. ‘Internet in the Ministry of Justice: why’. Alfons Cornella
Organisations with a differential value are the ones that act as a system capable of
receiving information, transforming it and offering it in the form of services, and with a
management model that gives more with less.
2nd Web Session. ‘Discover the Government of Catalonia's new website’.
In the transition towards the knowledge society, the Administration has to make data
communications infrastructures accessible, ensure that information is transparent and act
as a catalyst of collective knowledge.
3rd Web Session. ‘Learning in the digital age’. Sergio Vasquez
Communities of practice open up the possibility of participating in a network of people with
a common practice, in a relationship of trust and based on the functions offered by ICT
(knowledge sharing and interaction between people).
4th Web Session. ‘From the analogue to the digital society: Where are we?
What needs to be done?’. Antoni Farrés
Analysis of the situation in Catalonia and how we have to position ourselves in the context
of the knowledge economy, which makes up the economic and social environment of the
5th Web Session. ‘How do CC licences help the Administration make
knowledge accessible to society?’. Ignasi Labastida
Creative Commons (CC) licences are a useful tool for providing citizens with the knowledge
created by the Administration by offering a flexible system for managing the copyright on all
kind of works.
6th Web Session. ‘Internet tools that make people interact in the
Administration’. Roc Fages
Technology helps us manage conversations between people to exchange knowledge and
good practices using interaction tools on the Internet such as blogs, wikis and
7th Web Session. ‘In what direction is training in organisations going?’.
Javier Martínez Aldanondo
Understanding how we really learn and how technology can help reconsider the journey
from onsite learning to virtual learning.
8th Web Session. ‘Can the Administration seduce over the Internet?’. David
There are public administrations that, by following the strategies of the private sector for
gaining customer loyalty, use the Internet intensively to raise awareness, communicate and
9th Web Session. ‘What can the Administration do with the knowledge it
produces?’. Mario Pérez-Montoro
Recipes for setting up knowledge management projects through communities of practice
and other resources, as in the case of the Ministry of Justice.
10th Web Session. ‘Social networks on the Internet: the added value of our
contacts’. Albert Armengol
Networking is the technique that teaches one to construct and maintain professional
relationships that entail a benefit for both parties, strategically managing the network of
2. 11th Web Session. ‘Why do we have to innovate in the Administration?’.
The Administration has to adopt the strategy of innovation to be up to the challenge of
modern times, possessing the internal and external knowledge to be competitive and to
generate value in its services.
12th Web Session. ‘Can we achieve an Administration 2.0? Collaborative
tools and attitudes’. Carlos Guadián
There are already examples and case studies that show how web 2.0 tools and resources
offer us possibilities for working collaboratively in the Administration.
13th Web Session. ‘The transformation of online learning through social
networking and video’. Gregor Gimmy
The Sclipo case study explains that social networking and video can change the way of
learning online and asks what could be done in the Administration.
14th Web Session. ‘Collective intelligence and the web 2.0’. Ricardo Baeza-
The current impact of social networks on the Internet, known as web 2.0, where content is
generated by people and intelligence is collective.
15th Web Session. ‘Do people have to have a digital identity? How
to construct it’. Juan Freire
It is essential to have a digital identity to make ourselves visible to the rest of society and it
needs to be constructed strategically.
16th Web Session. ‘Darwin in the information society: adaptation (and
benefits) or extinction’. Ismael Peña-López
Technological and multimedia literacy are elements that aid integration in the new
knowledge society model, but to avoid social exclusion we need digital awareness and to
create value in society.
17th Web Session. ‘Networking in the Administration: where do we start?’.
Social network projects in the Administration must have clear aims and methodology and
have to combine hierarchy and meritocracy in a dual leadership.
18th Web Session. ‘New forms of institutional communication’. Jordi
The communication of organisations must be based on the generation of information,
debate and participation. Messages are no longer addressed to a group but to a person, as
technology allows our users to be individually segmented.
19th Web Session. ‘Institutional leadership on the Net’. Antoni Gutiérrez
In the digital society, traditional communication is not sufficient to have a conversation with
the citizen. Change is not technological, it is cultural and entails a new culture of
communication and a different organisational model that fosters creative talent.
20th Web Session. ‘Digital skills and learning’. Boris Mir
The mass introduction of technology into classrooms does not ensure the learning of digital
skill but creates the conditions to make it possible. Digital skill is the strategic use of skills in
five areas: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology.
3. 21st Web Session. Competitive Intelligence in Government Bodies Ramon
Obtaining, analysing, interpreting and disseminating information of strategic value
concerning society and our competitors. Competitive intelligence only makes sense in the
public sector if the value of the agents taking part in the process is maximised.
22nd Web Session. Community managers in government. What they should
be like. José Antonio Gallego
The community manager has to carry out 5 tasks: listen; ensure that information circulates
internally; explain the position of the company or government body; identify leaders inside
and outside the organisation and motivate them; find new forms of communication between
the business and the community.
23rd Web Session. From Pau to Pau. Internet for learning and
entrepreneurship. Pau Argelaguet, Aleix Pujades, Jordi Collell and Genís
Argelaguet and Pujadas have used the internet to learn and share knowledge. EyeOS is a
business model born on the internet. How the internet gives scope for forming
relationships, creating and participating.
24th Web Session. Open data in Catalonia. José Manuel Alonso
The public sector generates vast amounts of information. Freeing this data means returning
it to its rightful owners: the people. We need a strategy for governance, appropriate
methodology and the ability to promote open data projects.
25th Web Session. Entrepreneurship in government? Dídac Lee
Five lessons to become a successful entrepreneur: “normal” and “habitual” should not be
confused with “right”; don’t make excuses!; people aren’t unproductive, they haven’t found
the right motivation; whenever we leave the comfort zone, we make a qualitative leap; the
only limit is your mind!
26th Web Session. ‘'Politics in the era of social networks'. Daniel Innerarity
Democracy is based on tension, which is inevitable, between institutions of power and the
general public. At a public level, there are constructive and destructive impulses. This calls
for the organizational and regulating presence of institutions.
27th Web Session. “How to communicate via digital support?’. Tíscar Lara
In order to create loyalty among users and to carry out a good public service, it is essential
to become a hub, to become content curators, to carry out the tasks of a commissionaire,
to remix information from different channels and to present the result to citizens.
28th Web Session. “The legal challenges facing network Administration’.
The Administration must promote the reuse of public sector information and open data so
that society can benefit from it, by creating products and services that add value to society
and create wealth (economic and knowledge).
29th Web Session. “Georeference in the Administration’. Jordi Lópz Ramot
The main goal of Geographical information is to make our daily lives easier. Some years
ago, the creation of Geographical information was a task exclusive to the public sector, but
now mobile devices have democratized this with the so-called volunteered geographic
information generated by users.
30th Web Session. ‘Transparency and access to information’. Victoria
A good transparency law must force institutions to disclose what data they have access to.
It must take into account the interoperability between administrations, it must offer reusable
formats, it must establish an independent control body and it must limit as much as
possible classified information and the use of negative administrative silence.
4. 31st web session. ‘Improving Administration services by means of
collaboration’. Jesús Martínez
Collaborative working involves changing the narrative and focussing on solutions instead
of focussing on problems, breaking away from hierarchal structures and organizing
oneself through knowledge networks, where passion and creativity are at the service of
the needs to be solved.
32nd web session. ‘Technological strategy for an open government’.
Multi-channelling is the new paradigm of virtual communications with citizens (web,
mobile, multimedia, social networks) and open data is the key to an information centric
model. In order to reach this objective and also to reduce costs, the strategy involves
three basic points: simplifying, cloud computing and free software
33rd web session. ‘Open governments, more efficient governments’.
Alberto Ortiz de Zárate
The open government must encourage the design of services with and for citizens
(citizen-centric services), it must be transparent and be accountable for its management
by encouraging joint responsibility between citizens and government, and it must promote
innovation by enabling a speedy implementation of proposals
34th web session. ‘Open innovation at the Administration’. Jordi Graells
The current knowledge-based economy is characterized by a maker conception and by
the use of collaborative strategies. The Administration must be inspired by this philosophy
and customize its services more in order to make them more useful and effective with the
collaboration of its professionals and external players
35th web session. ‘Viquipèdia and Generalitat, broadening knowledge’.
We must invest all our efforts into what users want (an infrastructure does not generate
users by itself, it does not create a community): it is more sustainable to collaborate with
already existing communities. We must reuse the work that has already been done and
understand that what is free and open benefits everyone.
5. 1st Web Session at the CEJFE (Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training)
Internet in the Ministry of Justice: why?
Alfons Cornella i Solans, director of Zero Factory SL www.infonomia.com, knowledge economy
specialist and consultant for a large number of organisations.
CEJFE assembly room, 14 April 2005. 190 participants
The infostructure (contents + services) complements the infrastructure (machinery + tools)
Although we have technological applications to manage information, technology is not in itself the
element that determines whether an organisation is competent and stands out in comparison with others.
Differential value occurs when we understand the organisation as a system capable of receiving
information, transforming it and offering it in the form of services. Well-managed information enables us to
give more with less (efficiency and productivity) Alfons Cornella illustrated this with the slides from the
Ministry of Justice website and the slide of the ‘With one click’ applications available on the home page of
the Ministry's intranet.
Googlization + relevance
Googlization (access to information by means of a search engine) leads us to the danger of infoxication.
This is why it is advisable to balance thoroughness in the search for information by compensating it with
the criterion of relevance. Attaining this information, however, is not an automatic act: we need to apply
method, resources and effort. This criterion inspires the structuring of the intranet.
A new professional culture needs to be rooted within organisations: that of innovation. Even though there
will be people and units with greater ability to innovate, we need to ensure that every member of the
organisation does their work imbued with this innovative spirit The question is to propose how to improve
what one does with the resource of technology and the added value of information.
Managing what the people in the organisation know and experience
The experience of everyone is a source of efficiency that should, in addition, be disseminated to the rest
of the organisation. The knowledge management model proposed by Alfons Cornella is:
- Work. Reduce the distance between the employee and the information that they need. He gave the
example of the form search engine on the intranet.
- Learn. Connect the person who has the questions with the person who has the answers. He proposed
adding information to the directory of people and identifying details on the intranet information about the
knowledge in which they are experts.
- Teach. Convey the best practices. He illustrated this with the future community of family mediators in
the e-Catalunya project (fostered by the Directorate General of Citizen Attention).
1. Technology x information = information to innovate (an informational organisation is needed).
2. A common and specific objective is needed.
3. There needs to be animators who promote the use of information technologies to improve services.
4. It needs to become part of the day-to-day (innovation and knowledge management).
5. It needs to become part of the process (the organisation has to work this way; it should never be a
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, April 2005
6. 2nd Web Session at the CEJFE
The new Gencat and other citizen attention systems
Marta Continente i Gonzalo, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge of Presidency.
Assembly room of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training, 24 November 2005, 4 pm
In the transition towards the knowledge society, the Administration has to make data communications
infrastructures accessible, ensure that information is transparent and act as a catalyst of collective
New scenario in the Internet channel
1. Going from “all services on all channels” to “every service has its ideal channel”.
2. Taking into account the effect of search engines.
3. Relevance of push tools (search engines, newsletters, alerts, RSS news syndication, podcasting,
blogs, etc.) to make the web surfer more interested in visiting a website.
1. Diagnosis: website analysis, usability, surveys and consultancy.
2. To move towards a new model: interactivity, transparency, web databases, cross-disciplinary
structure by topic and service, multimedia, personalisation of information, relational website.
3. Which has been channelled in a number of projects: statistics portal, integration of databases,
taxonomies (classification from citizen point of view), search engine (Google limited to Gencat),
content manager (Vignette), SAC–Informer Portal and new Gencat.
SAC – Informer Portal
In 2005 there was a migration to a new application and we are working on the integration of the SAC
information with the online procedures of the AOC.
Informer Portal: internal consultation for 012 operators and the citizen attention offices (additional
information that is not made public).
We need a cultural change so that the Internet channel becomes part of the Ministry's processes (and
even the core of citizen attention policies).
Social dimension website of the Government of Catalonia complementary to the Gencat.net portal.
Citizens will access the public information of the groups that have a portal, but the groups will also have a
private area, where they will have a lot of space to store content, as well as open-source software
communication tools (messaging, forum, virtual congresses, wiki, social network, etc.). Justice is taking
part as a pilot ministry – together with Health – with the family mediation group.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, December 2005
7. 3rd Web Session at the CEJFE
Learning in the digital age
Sergio Vasquez, expert in e-learning and knowledge management, lecturer at the European School of
Management in Paris, and advisor to the communities of practice of the Ministry of Justice.
CEJFE assembly room, 16 February. 170 participants
E-learning as a new form of learning
E-learning should not be adding a computer to traditional onsite classes. The aim is for education and
training to be more effective.
Successes and failures in e-learning
The lecturer commented on different success stories (communities by zone of the la Caixa savings bank,
etc.) and on failures (Cisco UNIX courses, la Caixa's Virtaula, courses by a multinational audit firm). E-
learning has to avoid technocentrism (referring everything to the technology) and infocentrism
(memorisation of content). This is why he prefers to speak of work with help, i.e. when designing a
course, the user has to be taken into consideration: talk to them and observe them to find out what they
Situated learning and communities of practice
Learning has to be a social phenomenon, situated in time and space, and its source has to be everyday
work situations. It should be foreseen that people will scarcely want to share their best ideas or practices,
and neither will they want to use other people's ideas in order not to be seen as being incompetent. So
that knowledge management is shared, there has to be an environment, the communities of practice,
where people are connected by a common and recurrent practice and which develop around what is
important to their members The model of the master and the apprentice is the most suitable learning.
Communities of practice in the Ministry of Justice
With this aim, a number of communities of practice have been created in the Ministry of Justice in the field
of prison services (teachers, educators, experts, social workers) and youth justice.
1. Sharing positive things and problems, feeling part of the same organisation and being able to
communicate with other people are aspects that help motivate the members of a community.
2. This is why we need to be clear on what we want to share, we need to set out the ground rules and we
need to work on the areas that the members of the community feel are most important.
3. The benefits of communities of practice affect both their members (learning and problem solving,
knowledge sharing, etc.) and the organisation (cost reductions, time savings, incremental innovation,
4. Communities of practice open up the possibility of networking with a common practice while allowing
trust to be built up and links established with experts outside the community in such a way that the
social capital of its members increases.
5. Information technologies aid knowledge sharing and participation and interaction in the communities of
6. Innovation occurs when the ideas of the community of practice are implemented.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, February 2006
8. 4th Web Session at the CEJFE
From the analogue to the digital society: Where are we? What needs to be done?
Antoni Farrés Sabater, Mayor of Sabadell from 1979 to 1999, member of the Circle of Knowledge,
speaker on the “Els matins de Catalunya Ràdio” programme, specialist in the use and application of ICT
in business initiatives and in society in general.
CEJFE assembly room, 13 June 2006. 90 participants
The industrial society
- Twentieth-century Catalonia was the consequence of its speedy integration into the Industrial
Revolution, alongside such important countries as the United Kingdom.
- The industrial society saw the convergence of the steam engine, mechanical engineering and materials
- The industrial economy shaped the economic and social setting of a large part of the nineteenth and
The knowledge society
- Currently, another convergence is shaping a new economy: that of computer technologies,
telecommunications technologies and contents technologies.
- The knowledge economy is shaping the economic and social setting of the twenty-first century.
- To this effect, the European Council in Lisbon (23 and 24 March 2000) highlighted the need for the
radical transformation of the European economy.
Farrés accompanied the explanation with data and graphs for Spanish and European programmes.
- According to the World Economic Forum report, Spain is in 31st place (it has been dropping places). At
the same time, neither is Catalonia well positioned compared with the rest of Spain.
- This is the starting point of his proposal: how to drive Catalonia forwards.
The challenges facing Catalonia in the setting of the knowledge society
1. The education of its citizens, especially the very young.
2. The adaptation of the production elements to the new network organisation models.
3. The integration of Catalonia into world knowledge and innovation networks as a qualified value
4. The establishment of policies aimed at preserving quality of life and wellbeing.
- In this area, Spain and Catalonia are better positioned in Europe.
- Priority has been given, however, to procedures that entail money being paid to the Administration (tax
- Citizens, workers and companies would compulsorily have to deal with the Administration telematically
(with citizen help points).
1. The philosophy of change towards the knowledge society needs to be explained to the public.
2. A major strategic agreement is needed to promote Catalonia's full incorporation into the knowledge
society, which involves both the political parties and the public and private sectors.
Paraphrasing Torres i Bages, he concluded that "Catalonia will be digital or it will not be".
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, June 2006
9. 5th Web Session at the CEJFE
How do Creative Commons licences help the Administration make knowledge accessible to
Ignasi Labastida i Juan, doctor in physics from the University of Barcelona. He is responsible for the
impetus and implementation of Creative Commons licences in Catalonia and Spain.
The event was presented by Joan Turró, secretary general of the Ministry of Justice, and the introduction
was by Marta Continente, secretary for Telecommunications and the Information Society of the Ministry
in charge of Presidency.
CEJFE assembly room, 19 October 2006. 120 participants
One of the challenges of the new economic era is having knowledge that allows innovation in products
and services. Creative Commons (CC) licences become a useful tool in achieving this aim by offering a
flexible system for managing the copyright of all kind of works. The question is to authorise some uses of
the work instead of prohibiting and restricting them from the start. This changes the classic concept of "all
rights reserved" to "some rights reserved".
What are Creative Commons licences?
Creative Commons is a non profit-making American organisation founded in 2001 which began the
licence project in late 2002 offering them to anyone not wanting to reserve all the rights to the works but
to assign some of them on certain conditions.
The licences are free and the work does not have to be registered in any repository or registry. They are
legal texts that allow the author to assign some rights in their work for the uses that they consider
appropriate. Copy or reproduction, distribution and public communication are always authorised when the
author is recognised in the credits, but there may be limitations on commercial use or the possibility of
producing derived works or they may be conditioned by the maintenance of the terms of the original work
licence. By combining these conditions, 6 current standard licences are generated.
The iCommons project began in 2003 to adapt the North American licences to the jurisdictions of each
country. In that same year, Barcelona University became the Creative Commons affiliated institution in
Spain. At present, the licences are adapted to Spanish intellectual property legislation and are available in
the various official languages.
Different applications of Creative Commons licences in the Public Administration
The conclusions of the study by British consortium Common Information Environment on the application
of CC licences in the public sector show that the diffusion of public resources with these licences is
feasible. In fact, there are examples such as the governments of Mexico and Brazil, institutions such as
the British Council and the BBC in the United Kingdom, research policies of the US National Institutes of
In Catalonia, we also find projects such as Recercat (Catalan Research Repository), RACO (Open-
Access Catalan Journals), Zona Clic (Ministry of Education). We should highlight the proposed
application of CC licences to all Government of Catalonia publications adopted by the Publishing
Committee on 27 June 2006.
1. We do not need to follow the traditional model of all reserved.
2. Only what is necessary needs to be reserved.
3. We need to provide access to and reuse of information paid by all.
4. Indication should always be given of what is permitted and it should be the least restrictive possible.
5. A real study needs to be conducted into the possibilities of licences and their applicability.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, October 2006
10. 6th Web Session at the CEJFE
Internet tools that make people interact in the Administration
Roc Fages, consultant journalist specialising in the Internet. He frequently writes comments on e-
administration in the broadest sense in his cyber-diary www.goldmundus.com. The event was presented
by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training.
CEJFE assembly room, 30 January 2007. 175 participants
Technology helps people exchange knowledge and good practices using interaction tools on the Internet
such as blogs, wikis and other resources, especially interactive tools of the so-called web 2.0.
Interaction and blogs
Blogs are online personal or group diaries where information is published in the form of articles or posts
on a range of subjects. They are displayed in a chronological structure which is usually updated regularly
and allow readers visiting the blog to add comments. There are a number of tools for creating blogs:
Blogger, e-Catalunya... In addition, the syndication of content using RSS allows notifications to be
received when the blogs of interest to us are updated with the use of local applications such as
Feedreader or web access applications such as Bloglines (bloglines of Roc Fages).
Blogs have become a participative tool in both the public and the private spheres. Consequently,
ministers, mayors and politicians have created their own blogs to comment on measures adopted or to
reflect on the day-to-day of a city and to gather the opinions of their readers (blog of the Public
Administrations Minister Jordi Sevilla, blog of the Mayor of Mataró Joan Antoni Baron, blog of
Administration workers such as that of Alberto Ortiz de Zárate and Iñaki Ortiz).
Some companies use corporate blogs to put their workers in contact and to interact with users or
customers (IBM, Microsoft).
Interaction and web 2.0
Web 2.0 incorporates tools that enable online collaborative work quickly, easily and in real time. The e-
Catalunya platform is an example of how different professionals can work together with others in the
same field, discussing and benefiting from each other's contributions. The platform offers its members
such tools as wikis, blogs and storage of all kind of files to interact and share knowledge. Leadership
plays a decisive role here.
Civic activism can also be enhanced with interaction using mobile phones: the e-lens project, which is
based on a system of labels with chips that allow information to be received by mobile which can be
modified on the mobile (pilot trial in Manresa), and Zexe.net, which is an accessible channel in Barcelona
where people with physical disabilities take photographs of places that are not accessible and post them
on the web.
By way of conclusion
1. Interaction goes beyond the Internet. We now need to look at integrated interaction tools (blogs, wikis,
RSS, etc.) and platforms (computer, TV, mobile, PDA).
2. We need to explore and enhance the interactive tools to generate participation.
3. Interaction tools that are useful and easy to use should be used.
Blogs and wikis are ideal tools for the relationship between the Administration and the users. Internally –
with its employees – because they favour reflection and cohesion as an organisation. Externally, they
enhance the institution's brand by favouring participation in the generation of ideas.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, January 2007
11. 7th Web Session at the CEJFE
In what direction is training in organisations going?
Javier Martínez Aldanondo, manager of the Knowledge Management Division at Catenaria is one of the
leading experts in e-learning and knowledge management in the Spanish-speaking world. The event was
presented by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training.
CEJFE assembly room, 21 March 2007. 120 participants
We generally do not remember the knowledge imparted in an onsite course; by contrast, we do
remember experiences, storytelling and learning from mistakes. To learn, we need to remember: we do
not need course or contents, but someone who knows how to teach and who knows how to do what they
are teaching. In training, there are 3 revolutions waiting in the wings:
1st revolution: training linked to the organisation's results
Training objectives should be part of the organisation's strategic objectives. Training is given to change
behaviour, and for this we need to ascertain what it is that is not working, what the employees do and
what the organisation would like them to do, what problems they have, who the experts are, what the
main mistakes that they make are, etc. We also need indicators to assess training.
2nd revolution: learning by doing
Practice is necessary to learn: if what we teach cannot be practised, maybe it is not worth teaching it. The
mistake is the most important element of learning as we learn from mistakes. The aim of this learning is to
store experience that we can reuse in the future.
3rd revolution: learning with technology
E-learning cannot be based solely on flexibility: it must offer things that the onsite world cannot offer. It is
people who have intelligence, technology is an instrument. The problem with e-learning is that onsite
training has been transferred to the virtual world without any adaptation: we often read on screen what we
used to read in a manual, yet the computer is an instrument that allows us to practice, get feedback,
There are basically two problems in training:
1.We usually teach things that no one needs, we do not teach what is really necessary, and when we do,
it is not at the time that people need it.
2.We need to change the way that we teach as it is condemned to fail. There are three pillars on which
learning processes stand:
a.People learn by doing, practising things that interest them. If you don't practise, you don't learn.
b.The mistake is the most important element in a learning process.
c.Story telling is a vehicle of incalculable worth for conveying knowledge: we learn from others, with
others and teaching others.
Learning (and doing so more quickly than competitors) is the essential skill for surviving in the present
system, where change is a constant. Organisations can only last if they help workers adapt to these
changes, i.e. learn. Change demands working collaboratively, it demands an intensive use of
technologies, it demands innovation and, above all, it demands that we
focus on people.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, March 2007
12. 8th Web Session at the CEJFE
Can the Administration seduce over the Internet?
David Boronat, Internet specialist and founder partner of the Multiplica company, frequently writes
comments on persuadability on the Internet at www.persuabilidad.com, a website that explains the
importance of persuading to convert users into customers. The event was presented by Joan Xirau,
director of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training (CEJFE).
CEJFE assembly room, 27 March 2007. 130 participants
The public administrations have to take into account the evolution of the private sector in the use of
strategies to attract the attention of users and try to gain their loyalty as customers. In this sense, they
need to use the Internet more intensely to raise awareness, communicate and involve citizens
emotionally or show regional values and optimum management.
The private sector on the Internet
Companies have users, with whom they have to establish a dialogue and whom they have to motivate
emotionally. Challenges facing companies on the Internet:
- Saying things another way, speaking the same language as their users and explaining things simply
- Awarding every relevance to e-mail addresses and making intelligent use of e-mail. Multi-channel
usage and getting to know the user without asking them for a lot of details (e.g. through cookies) is also
- Creating special conditions for customers with whom they want to deal telematically.
Administration on the Internet
Administration on the Internet:
- It has to attract, it has to seduce and it has to foster certain regional values.
- As with companies, it has to explain things simply and visually to citizens and users in more everyday
language. And it also has to encourage the citizen to contact it telematically.
- It has to sell its programmes and its services online (and so that the citizens use them), but it also has
to be transparent (explain the action of government, its strategic priorities, its objectives and publish its
- It has to foster push services and be able to take advantage of success stories (e.g. a high percentage
of visitors to the Barcelona City Council website do so to consult the map and it is on this page where
anything that needs highlighting can be disseminated).
The persuadability of e-Administration is not a fallacy. There are currently many examples of persuasive
Administration on the Internet:
- Chilecompra (Government of Chile): online public purchasing and procurement system.
- My eCitizen (Government of Singapore): privatisation of institutional information.
- One Cent Now (Toronto): mobilisation of citizens in favour of the region (cyber-activism).
The Administration, therefore, has to be able to use strategies and resources from the business world to
approach citizens and other customers with success and establish a relationship of trust that allows their
loyalty to be gained.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, March 2007
13. 9th Web Session at the CEJFE
What can the Administration do with the knowledge it produces?
Mario Pérez-Montoro, is a doctor in philosophy and education sciences from the University of Barcelona
(UB) and senior lecturer in the Faculty of Library and Information Science at the UB. The event was
presented by Joan Mauri, secretary general of the Ministry of Justice.
CEJFE assembly room, 5 June 2007. 200 participants
In the knowledge economy, knowledge is the principal source of activity of organisations and the value
incorporated into goods and services that makes them competitively distinctive and that makes users
accept them (requirements for there to be innovation). Organisations are structured around knowledge
and see learning as a means of improving and, consequently, adapting to processes of change.
Managing knowledge in organisations
Types of knowledge:
- Tacit (personal and difficult to convey) and explicit (can be verbalised and conveyed).
- Individual (tacit + explicit knowledge held by everyone) and corporate (belonging to organisations).
- Internal (critical knowledge that enables an organisation to meet its objectives) and external (for dealing
with other organisations and people).
Knowledge management consists of designing a system that incorporates all the knowledge types of the
organisation and that transforms it into corporate knowledge to enable the organisation to meet its
Corporate knowledge is affected, however, when staff leave and through obsolescence of knowledge.
Classical learning and other forms such as e-learning, collaborative learning, experience, etc. help offset
the knowledge lost by these drains.
What price knowledge management and what we can get in exchange
Obstacles: resistance to change and to sharing, lack of time and incentives, need for training in
technology and for group work, lack of common organisational culture, intolerance of mistakes, etc.
Personal benefits: solving everyday work problems, improving decision-taking, gaining flexibility,
accessing new ways of learning, acquiring professional recognition, etc.
Collective benefits: increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation, reducing the
knowledge deficit, avoiding doubling-up of knowledge, fostering investment in training, increasing the
commitment to the organisation, creating a knowledge ecology environment (only useful knowledge stays
in the organisation).
Recipes for starting up knowledge management: the Ministry of Justice model
- Strategic phases of the project: 1. Identify potential communities. 2. Provide them with the logistics. 3.
Assess the contribution to the organisation.
- Community of practice: e-moderators (leaders) + 15 groups that work following the project
methodology. 190 people working in it and some 900 linked to it (external groups, etc.).
- Work structure: face-to-face meetings + collaborative work on the e-Catalunya platform.
- Setting out problems, proposing standardised solutions and creating products (standard documents,
action protocols, etc.).
- Dissemination of the project: intranet [knowledge portal], website, e-moderators blog, digital journal.
- Assessment: indicators of activities (number of activities per group and per tool), production (number of
face-to-face session and number of products created) and impact (related to efficiency and experience).
"In questions of culture and knowledge, you only lose what you keep, you only gain what you give."
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, June 2007
14. 10th Web Session at the CEJFE
Social networks on the Internet: the added value of our contacts
Albert Armengol is a graduate in medicine and surgery from the Autonomous University of Barcelona
(UAB), he has an MBA from ESADE and is the founder of eConozco www.econozco.com, the first online
contacts network in the Spanish-speaking world. The event was presented by Joan Xirau, director of the
Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training (CEJFE)
CEJFE assembly room, 16 October 2007. 170 participants
In the face-to-face sphere, networking is the development and dissemination of the good management of
the network of personal and professional contacts.
Social networks online
Together with forums, wikis, mail, instant messaging and blogs, social network software is a tool that
helps the collaborative construction of the knowledge of an organisation.
It is interesting to observe the contrast in the graphic representation of contacts networks in
organisations: the organisational relationships, referring to the hierarchical organisation, and relational
ones, which are in effect what we call the social network.
What is networking?
Networking consists of developing and sharing our network of contacts; it is, therefore, a highly
appropriate resource for promoting collaborative work projects. There are two types: personal and
professional. Within networking we can differentiate between strong links (those contacts with whom we
share a similar circle of contacts to our own) and weak links (people that we have just met). Strong links
offer a framework of trust while weak links offer diversity and are highly recommendable for strengthening
What is online networking?
Online networking (social networking software) consists of a network of professional contacts that can be
extended with the contacts from our present contacts. This way, we end up weaving a large network of
Through online networking we can find people that would otherwise have been very difficult to contact.
Online networking, then, allows us to be in the right place at the right time.
The online networking concept emerged in around 2002 on open websites. To become part of a social
networking website, you first have to enter a good professional profile or CV so that you are accessible to
anyone wanting to contact you (passive visibility).
Within online networking networks, there are social and professional networks. In a possible classification
of networks from a geographical point of view, we find ones ranging from the more local (such as e-
Catalunya http://ecatalunya.gencat.net, with communities promoted by the Government of Catalonia or
the Catalan sphere) to others with an international scope, such as the German Xing (which has taken
over eConozco and Neurona), which is the leader in Europe, and Linked-In (with the hegemony in the
Conclusion. "Dig the well before you become thirsty" (Chinese proverb)
Just as we can determine specific uses for the other Internet tools (forum = debate; blog = explicitation of
implicit knowledge, conversation; wiki = joint creation of the resulting document), social networking
software helps us efficiently manage and extend our network of contacts as a resource that aids the
structuring of collective intelligence.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, October 2007
15. 11th Web Session at the CEJFE
Why do we have to innovate in the Administration?
Joan Majó Cruzate. A doctor in industrial engineering and director of the Catalan Broadcasting
Corporation, he has been linked to the business world and to institutions related with telecommunications,
research and science both locally and internationally. The event was presented by Joan Mauri, secretary
general of the Ministry of Justice.
CEJFE assembly room, 23 January 2008. 175 participants
What is innovation
In the business world, innovation is understood as the ability to turn knowledge into economic gain. In the
non-mercantile world, such as the Public Administration, innovation is the ability to turn knowledge into
value to improve services. Innovation is always a tool with which to achieve objectives and not an
objective in itself.
Rather than making a better product, innovation is thinking of a new one where people clearly see the
The ability to innovate is a general characteristic of an area or country. It is part of a specific culture, it is
in people and from them it spreads. For innovation to exist and for its development and implementation,
there are four essential elements> networks of education systems and of professionals, business models
and public administration policies.
Innovation in the processes of the economy
The aim of companies is to be competitive in order to get results. In business development, there are
three phases: competitiveness through costs, through quality and through innovation. Today, western
companies can only be competitive through innovation, as other countries are more competitive
economically and have the same technological capacity to make quality products.
The European Union has monitored the capacity for innovation of the various states and regions. Based
on the definition of 17 indicators, such as the number of science and engineering graduates, the
percentage of the population between the ages of 25 and 64 with a tertiary education or on institutional
refresher courses, the percentage of the GDP devoted to research and development, etc., a
measurement is taken of how European countries are evolving towards innovation. The figures show that
in recent years Catalonia has been dropping position in terms of innovation.
How to innovate in the Public Administration?
The Administration finds it hard to accept innovations and overcome inertia. Things are done well, but it is
the same things that are still being done. In the public sphere, rather than exchange knowledge, what we
need to exchange is experience and to be always aware of improving the public service that is offered.
For example, to innovate, we need to offer services that adapt to the new consumption habits of citizens
(Internet, mobile telephony, etc.).
Innovation is a change in the system of consumption that is always in response to people's needs. A good
example of an innovated and widely accepted product is the mobile phone and the range of associated
applications that allow mobile access to all kinds of content and services.
Innovation of the procedure entails an improvement in the quality of the service. We have to be
imaginative and anticipate the real needs that people will have in the future to ready our activity in this
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, January 2008
16. 12th Web Session at the CEJFE
Can we achieve an Administration 2.0? Collaborative tools and attitudes
Carlos Guadián Orta www.k-government.com, specialist consultant in communication and content on
the Internet. The event was presented by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies .
CEJFE assembly room, 16 April 2008. 200 participants
The web 2.0 notion changes the mentality of the user and of the Administration
Internet, and more specifically the web 2.0, provides channels of communication that impact on the way
we relate socially, on our learning and on the acquisition of knowledge.
With the web 2.0, the Net is a huge conversation that allows the formation of communities of proximity (of
interest) and fosters the merits of everyone. The user goes from being a mere receiver to being the
centre, as everything becomes two-way. This is how the global conversation is set up.
In this new context, a collaborative attitude is essential, i.e. an interest in producing and sharing
How to integrate the web 2.0 model into the Administration
The Administration has to manage this change well, helping the attitude of directors and managers,
training and technical solutions to adapt to it. In short, staff working for the Administration need to acquire
confidence in this new collaborative setting so that they can both contribute and acquire professional
In this context, the Administration should not be controlling the public but collaborating with it so that
citizens add value to the services.
Collaborative tools and resources on the Internet: blogs, RSS, bookmarking and social news
filters, social network, wikis, etc.
There are a number of collaborative tools and resources on the Internet that favour change, such as
blogs (Wordpress, Blogger), RSS (Bloglines, Google Reader, Thunderbird), bookmarking, such as
Del.icio.us), social news filters (Digg, Menéame) and news or posts search engines (Wikio, Blogsearch),
social networks (Linkedin, Facebook), wikis, etc.
Web 2.0 experiences in the Administration
There are administrations, such as the Ministry of Justice, that have entered whole-heartedly in the web
2.0. The Compartim (Let's Share) programme is a good example of this.
This and other experiences (such as the e-Catalunya platform, etc.) conceive the service they provide as
a platform on which a network of relations between its personnel and with the public is constructed.
The web 2.0 aids the participation of everyone in a free medium. To get the most out of this new
environment, it is essential that organisations and people (including administrations and their staff) adopt
a collaborative attitude that favours the production and sharing of knowledge. In the sphere of the
Administration, there are already valuable experiences. We need to carry on acquiring knowledge and
confidence in the use of tools that aid work in this new environment (blogs, RSS, bookmarking, search
engines, social news filters, wikis, etc.).
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, April 2008
17. 13th Web Session at the CEJFE
The transformation of online learning through social networking and video
Gregor Gimmy www.sclipo.com, founder and chief executive officer (CEO) of the Sclipo company. The
event was presented by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies .
CEJFE assembly room, 11 June 2008. 194 participants
Traditional education poses shortcomings in infrastructure such as location, synchrony and lack of
interaction. The web 2.0, and specifically social networking technologies and video and webcam
technologies, offer new opportunities for improving learning as they enable us to learn from the best
wherever they are (delocation), know who and what is the best, reduce the cost of assessment, aid
learning of any content no matter how minority it is and save and find relevant audiovisual contents and
Web 2.0 and social networks
Whereas the web 1.0 basically allowed us to receive information, shop and search, the web 2.0 also
enables us to create content (texts, photos, audio, video) without having any knowledge of programming.
It also aids the assessment and socialisation of the content so that there is interaction between users.
The common characteristics of the web 2.0 are that users have their own public profile (public space),
they can create and share content and they can interact publicly and privately. This interaction favours
the promotion of users or of the content that they create.
There are different types of web 2.0 depending on the aims of the users: propose and find content (digg,
Technorati), promote themselves (Blogger, Youtube, Flickr, MySpace), nurture friendships (Facebook),
learn and teach (Sclipo), professional networking (Xing).
Social network + education = Sclipo: social education
The combination of the social network with the aim of learning and teaching has made Sclipo a
pioneering company in social education.
Sclipo is a social network on which anyone can post any number of videos (there are no restrictions) to
aid learning of any content, including minority. Assessment of the content is very extensive as the
participants assess directly and indirectly (views, forwarding to friends, votes, comments). For this
reason, knowing who is the best is easier on Sclipo as it is the users who choose the best contents, which
reduces assessment costs.
SclipoLive is a pioneering service allowing synchronous teaching via a webcam and the recording of
contents and chats (notes indexed in the class video), as well as saving the audiovisual contents and the
relevant interactions to be able to find them afterwards easily. There will shortly be a new version where
there will be a teacher for various students, with the possibility of adding texts to complement the video.
The basic use of the Internet is learning. Online learning is a very great opportunity with a great deal of
potential to improve education through social networking technologies combined with the audiovisual
medium. It also allows tailor-made solutions for companies and administrations to socialise good
practices among workers.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, June 2008
18. 14th Web Session at the CEJFE
Collective intelligence and the web 2.0
Ricardo Baeza Yates www.dcc.uchile.cl/~rbaeza/spanish.html, director of Yahoo! Research Barcelona
and Santiago de Chile. The event was presented by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies .
CEJFE assembly room, 9 October 2008. 200 participants
The web 2.0 notion. Impact on the present Internet
It is now calculated that there are between 1 and 2.5 million people online and it is predicted that this will
rise to 5 million by 2015; Internet traffic has multiplied by 20 in 5 years and there are more than 181
million web servers. The main characteristic of the web 2.0, constituted by social networks or social
media, is the fragmentation of the property of the content and the fragmentation of access.
Characteristics of the web 2.0: content generated by people and group intelligence
The principal ingredient of the web 2.0 is the community dynamics: new products blur the distinctions
between creators, synthesisers and consumers. Let us look, for example, at the case of Flickr
www.flickr.com: it is the users who generate the content, organise it, distribute it and develop new
functions from it. The ecosystem of the web 2.0 is made up of blogs; social networks such as MySpace
www.myspace.com, Facebook http://ca-es.facebook.com, Friendster www.friendster.com; sharing
favourite links http://delicious.com; instant messaging, photo sharing (Flickr) or video sharing
www.youtube.com; participation in groups http://es.groups.yahoo.com and people replying to people
http://es.answers.yahoo.com. South Korea is the most advanced country in terms of social networks.
Web usage data mining
In 2004, journalist James Surowiecki published the book The Wisdom of Crowds. On the web 2.0,
information extraction (data mining) based on the wisdom of crowds improves the user's experience on
the basis of data gathered: it is crucial for improving the web search (ranking of search engines), the
content and structure of the information (thanks to the anchor text)
Digital communities systems, new emerging science, and the implicit wisdom of people
Digital communities systems are a new way of participating, belonging and sharing: the present web
reflects the economy and society in general, it is scientifically young and intellectually diverse. The implicit
wisdom of people is seen in the folksonomy (collaborative classification by labels, tagging) and
knowledge, and its consequence is the implicit social network, such as the Open Directory Project
www.dmoz.org and Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org. In the governmental sphere, digital communities have
also been created in a number of countries. The most notable example in Catalonia is the Compartim
(Let's Share) knowledge management programme and the collaborative preparation of the programme's
annual conference through the social blog http://compartim.socializame.com.
On the web 2.0 the content is generated and shared by the users themselves, and this has a great impact
not only on the Internet but also on society, the economy, the advertising world, education, etc. Acts of
consumption are implicit acts of production that do not require an incremental effort. It is a question of
capturing people's experience, enabling the dynamic assignment of confidence to different people.
Diffusion Service. Barcelona, October 2008
19. 15th Web Session at the CEJFE
Do people have to have a digital identity? How to construct it
Juan Freire http://juanfreire.net, expert in innovation and strategies in networks and organisations. The
event was presented by Jordi Graells, Contents and Innovation coordinator of the Directorate General of
Citizen Attention (Ministry in charge of Presidency).
CEJFE assembly room, 18 February 2009. 194 participants
Nowadays, the intensive use of 2.0 tools, and especially of social networking services, make it necessary
to have a digital identity to make ourselves visible to the rest of society: we need to control which identity
is shown on the Internet; therefore, it is preferable for us to manage it ourselves rather than not being
present and rather than other people managing it for us.
Learning and construction of the digital identity
The construction of the digital identity is part of the learning process in the digital culture. We are heading
towards a context with a hybrid identity (physical and digital) but we do not have two identities, rather our
identity is unique, even though it is difficult sometimes to discriminate the personal sphere from the
Teenagers now only perceive a single identity. A study conducted in 2008 in the United States on the use
made by teenagers of digital media concluded that teenagers relate in two types of community: a) local
networks of friends, as an extension of physical relationships, through calls, texting, instant messaging,
and b) networks of interest, global in scope, where they relate with other people with similar interests, and
it is in these networks where they develop creative abilities (writing blogs, posting videos, etc.) and gain
visibility and reputation.
Teenagers participate in the network in three different ways: 1) to spend some time (hanging out); 2) to
search for information with no specific aim (messing around), and 3) they appropriate the technology and
make an autonomous and specialist use of it (geeking out).
There are two ways of understanding the Internet: as a huge rubbish space (games, inexact information,
advertising, etc.) or as a space of learning and socialisation. Depending on our learning process, we will
be on one side or the other.
In constructing the digital identity, the instruments that we use are not so important as what we use them
for. The concept of digital skills has evolved: it has gone from a technological focus (1990s – early 2000s)
to a social and participative communicative focus (from 2003).
- There are no rules for constructing and controlling the digital identity; it is an individual learning process.
The rules of the game have yet to be defined.
- We need to be careful with the information that we post, which in itself may not mean anything, but data
mining can be done and patterns established.
- If we do not have a digital identity created it is easier to supplant it.
- Digital identity also affects organisations; therefore, the Administration also has to construct its own
identity and has to know what it wants to convey to the public. The Administration also has to train its
workers so that they know how to construct their own identity and for this to reflect on the organisation,
and this is especially necessary for institutions that have embarked on social networking and
collaborative work projects.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, February 2009
20. 16th Web Session at the CEJFE
Darwin in the information society: adaptation (and benefits) or extinction
Ismael Peña-López http://ictlogy.net, lecturer at the Open University of Catalonia and expert in
information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) and digital learning. The event
was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge of
CEJFE assembly room, 10 June 2009. 163 participants
Towards a knowledge society
The economic paradigm of the industrial society is based on the management of scarce resources and
transaction costs, and the world revolves around and is defined by these two parameters. Internet access
and the extensive use of ICT is configuring an economy based increasingly more on knowledge, with
horizontal organic structures and in which information is abundant, is distributed at practically nil cost, is
multi-directional and is accessible to everyone. How should citizens and institutions face these changes?
Adapt or become extinct
Technological literacy and digital skill will not take us away from the risk of social exclusion if we are not
capable of being structurally relevant to the system and creating value for society. And this is valid both
for companies and citizens and for institutions. If we want to survive, we should not limit ourselves to
being mere executors or users of ICT. We have to know how to auto-program ourselves and evolve to
adapt to the continuous changes.
Following the evolutionary theory of Darwin, we can say that those who do not adapt to the new
environment are condemned to become extinct. Some companies or institutions will disappear overnight,
others will slowly fade away, and others will take quite a few years to adapt to the skills and demands of
the information society.
In this process of adaptation, we will have to rethink once again how we teach, work and relate, and it is
here where institutions play a crucial role. Besides technological and multimedia literacy and a digital
presence, governments need to foster appropriate policies that help citizens and companies see the
usefulness of entering the information society (pull strategies) so that they share the need to become
integrated in this new social and structural model in order not to get left behind. If they see the
usefulness, they readily accept changes.
- Today's society is based on knowledge, abundant and at low cost, as compared with the industrial
society, based on the scarcity of resources and on transaction costs.
- Technological and multimedia literacy are elements that aid integration in the new knowledge society
model, but to avoid social exclusion we need digital awareness and to create value in society.
- Our survival depends on adapting to the changes and being structurally relevant to the system.
- Citizens and institutions have to interact closely to rethink and remodel all spheres of everyday life
according to the new needs.
- Institutional polices based on pull strategies are key to bringing about a change of attitude.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, June 2009
21. 17th Web Session at the CEJFE
Networking in the Administration: where do we start?
Genís Roca www.genisroca.cat, specialist in strategy and the Internet. The event was presented by
Roser Bach, director of the CEJFE, and Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention.
CEJFE assembly room, 14 October 2009. 213 participants
In a different format from the previous ones, the session was highly participative. Genís Roca acted as
the conductor of the session after the intense debate that occurred, before the web session, on the
Internet: in the space enabled on Facebook, in various blogs and also on Twitter. There were over 100
participants and more than 200 contributions. Genís Roca wrote the script for the session based on these
contributions and, after analysing and classing them, proposed a reflection on what we understand by
Administration 2.0 and began a debate focused on five topics.
Citizens do not ask for 2.0 projects, what they want is an efficient and streamlined Administration, even
though there is also a part of society immersed in 2.0 that seeks to relate directly. Also, the Administration
should not wait for society to ask for 2.0 projects, it has to anticipate them.
(internal organisation of the Administration, according to Genís Roca)
The use and implementation of 2.0 tools is not such a great priority as, for example, the digitalisation of
processes, which has to be completed by 2010 in accordance with Law 11/2007. The 2.0 projects also
generate a certain fear of criticism and of not being able to answer citizens' requests properly.
Before setting up a 2.0 project, we need to have clear objectives, observe the environment and determine
whether there are similar projects as perhaps they simply have to be adapted or a different focus given to
them. Also, projects are in constant evolution and in a permanent beta version.
The 2.0 projects have to combine hierarchy and meritocracy, i.e. they have to have a dual leadership: a
hierarchical leader who understands the project and provides the necessary resources and a project
leader who animates the network. Directors need to be made to see that networking offers an added
value, which is why adequate metrics need to be established.
The Administration already uses profitable 2.0 tools; it simply has to take care with the information it posts
on external platforms as there is content that should not be made public (such as personal data).
To conclude, Genís Roca chose three sentences that exemplified the ingredients needed to push through
2.0 projects in the Administration:
- If you want to do a 2.0 project, detect, ally and add.
- Leadership, values and methodology are needed.
- If you want to foster a 2.0 project in the Administration... you need patience.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2009
22. 18th Web Session at the CEJFE
New forms of institutional communication
Jordi Segarra www.stpolitics.com, consultant in political and institutional communication. The event was
presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge of
CEJFE assembly room, 19 January 2010. 200 participants
Technology is simply a tool
Technology is an instrument at the service of a strategy. Nowadays we have many tools with which to
communicate, but before anything else, we need to research: we need to know what we want, how we
want it or how it can be done and, based on this, to do it. This is why it is essential to know the target
public and the environment.
We need to know what the target is because politics is local, yet also personal. This is done on the basis
of what is known as microtargeting: identifying the public we are aiming at through various tools, such as
buzz monitoring (tracks the conversations and social trends on forums, social networks, etc); specialist
social networks; data mining; offline regional implementation (through local leaders, people capable of
influencing and who are naturally trusted).
Cut and paste doesn't work
We do not have to copy successful communication strategies as it is more profitable to adapt what we
have learned from others to our context.
Dialogue/conversation instead of monologue
The external and internal communication of organisations must be based on the generation of
information, debate and participation.
All politics is personal
Messages are no longer aimed at a group but at a person. Technology affords us the direct audiovisual
creation and dissemination of citizens. The multiplication of the media market allows greater
personalisation. Through technology, we can segment our public individually. Politics, however, is still not
100% viral, as socially the traditional media still dominate.
The future trends are geolocalisation, specialisation of social media and the transformation of the
Without emotion there is no reaction
In politics, emotion always wins out over reason. What makes voters believe something or want change is
not new information but new emotions.
From the public sphere to the public spore
Politics has to use the media to communicate with people. There should not just be a programme but
emotions, social networks and connection with people.
- What is needed is a reason, a message with a story (storytelling), an emotion, a spark (momentum).
- The right language and channel need to be used.
- People need to be mobilised: we should not try to convince them, they have to be involved and
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, January 2010
23. 19th Web Session at the CEJFE
Institutional leadership on the Net
Antoni Gutiérrez-Rubí www.gutierrez-rubi.es, political communication advisor and political consultant.
The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in
charge of Presidency.
CEJFE assembly room, 9 March 2010. 148 participants
Today's society is in a process of transformation: the changes are social and economic, but also cultural,
relational and geopolitical. In this context, the Administration is seen with prejudices and stereotypes in an
increasingly more demanding society: the concepts (value-price, employment-work, skills-profession)
change and new actors emerge: online citizens, digital activists, e-consumers... who expect quality of
service, speedy answers, transparency and the possibility of participation. The Administration should not
do marketing but should converse with these new actors.
Institutional leadership on the Net: ideas are power
In this new context of the digital society, traditional communication is not enough to keep up a dialogue
with the citizen and satisfy their demands. The sole discourse is no longer possible, as the social
networks show. The power relationship has changed, it is no longer hierarchical: digital identity depends
on reputation; this is why we need to be on the Net contributing ideas and information of value and
committing to co-creation with the service providers and with the citizens.
Power now is agility, speed, creativity and ideas with value. Power is no longer a position but presence,
and presence configures the position.
- Virtual press offices.
- New open web spaces, optimised for search engines and with personalisation of content.
- Extensive digital repositories and open databases.
- Use of 2.0 tools.
- Monitoring of the presence of the institution on the Internet and of responses to citizens.
Key ideas: 1.0 communication with 2.0 tools is condemned to fail
Change is not technological, it is cultural and entails a new culture of communication and a different
organisational model that fosters creative talent: collaborative creation and collective intelligence.
Conclusions: it is not a case of cosmetics, it is a case of change
- The Administration has to respond transparently to the demands of an increasingly more critical and
- The aim of information is not to detect power but to share it to improve and change things.
- Innovating is not doing something that you did not do before, but doing a new thing that you need to
- Innovation entails the pleasure of learning, but also of knowing and sharing. This will make us better
professionals and better people and we will be happier.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, March 2010
Web Session at the CEJFE
Digital skills and learning
Boris Mir www.xtec.cat/~bmir, secondary school teacher and currently a member of the team behind the
EDUCAT1x1 Project. The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen
CEJFE assembly room, 11 May 2010. 124 participants
1. School and learning
In Catalan classrooms there are 1,180,460 students; 62,805 teachers in state schools, and 4,373
schools, between state, direct-grant and private. School has the non-exclusive function of learning, but it
also has the non-exclusive function of safekeeping and socialisation, and it appears that these functions
will not diminish, but quite the contrary. School is not just a service, it is an institution, which is why user
satisfaction is always subordinate to the degree of respect for educational and ethical principles that are
the basis of the school institution.
2. Cross-disciplinary skills in the new education system
Both the State Education Act (2006) and Catalan Decrees 142 and 143/2007 include cross-disciplinary
and specific skills to the new curricula, one of which is information treatment and digital skill. This skills-
based learning represents the integrated and strategic use of different skills in real, contextualised, non-
school situations and entails changes in teaching practices that cannot be decreed. In all, it leads us to
believe that we are undergoing a transition between different models that will call for more far-reaching
3. Digital skill: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology
There are diverse visions and trends that speak of digital skill, but many have a common basis, a
background music that converges in key dimensions that would comprise learning, information,
communication, digital culture and technology.
Digital skill has to combine knowledge, abilities and skills, in conjunction with values and attitudes, in
order to achieve objectives effectively and efficiently in digital contexts and with digital tools. Digital skill
takes on meaning if it is tackled from the framework of knowledge, and as it forms part of knowledge, it
can be learnt and taught.
A digitally skilled person has to be able to generate knowledge, with digital tools and in digital
environments, but they also have to know how to treat and assess information, they have to know how to
communicate, relate and collaborate, they have to act responsibly, civic-mindedly and securely and,
naturally, they also have to know how to use the tools, not so much any specific software but the common
baseboard that is behind the tools.
4. Innovation and management of educational change
The 2009 Catalan Education Act proposed changes to the organisation and management of the human
and economic resources of schools and envisaged a progressive increase in education expenditure.
Innovations in education have to be scalable in order for them to have an overall impact. Simply
improving education infrastructures is not enough, what is needed is decisive change management that
involves teachers and helps them move closer to the new digital context. Maybe we have to be modest in
the changes to ensure the involvement of everyone.
- Digital skill is the strategic use of skills in five areas: learning, information, communication, digital culture
- The mass introduction of technology into classrooms does not ensure that digital skill is learned but
creates the conditions to make it possible.
- Schools cannot change themselves, they need the help of the whole of society.
25. - Changes come about by doing them. We cannot wait until we have the perfect conditions to start, we
will create the conditions as we steadily change and improve.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, May 2010
Web session at the CEJFE
Competitive Intelligence in Government Bodies
Ramon Maspons, teacher, researcher and specialist in competitive intelligence. The session was
introduced by Marta Continente, Director General of Citizen Attention.
Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 19 October 2010. 186 people attended.
From post-industrial society to the knowledge society
In the knowledge society there is a great accumulation of information and we are finding it increasingly
difficult to capture, process and analyse it. Intelligence activities help us to identify our information needs
(if it exists and where it can be found). In our country, however, there is no information culture and the
necessary resources are not allocated for information to be captured and processed, which is done in
other countries around us.
By competitive intelligence we understand obtaining, analysing, interpreting and disseminating
information of strategic value concerning society and our competitors.
Competitive intelligence can increase an organisation’s profits in the short term by improving the quality of
decisions and can increase them in the long term by providing management with patterns for strategic
decision making which can increase customer satisfaction.
Traditionally organisations have focused their efforts on spreading information about the company
outwards. However, today, in a complex environment brought about by constant technological change,
market globalisation and demassification (the personalisation of products), organisations need to be more
open. Suppliers, customers and the whole corporate environment are sources of innovation.
Any organisation has to be able to answer some basic questions about the focus of its intelligence: what
information is needed, where it can be found, how it should be communicated, who it is intended for and
what resources are allocated to the process. It is also necessary to identify changes which might take
place in the environment and give us more room for manoeuvre.
Intelligence activities in government bodies
The public sector needs to apply competitive intelligence effectively. The main difference from the private
sector is the absence of profit as a motive. The incentives are concerned more with managing a budget
(input) than with measuring results.
We are moving towards open organisations, in which suppliers and customers are a source of innovation
and information. There are open organisations that look for solutions directly in their environment: they
create virtual communities to obtain answers. Our strategies must be more effective and cost-efficient.
Public organisations also have customers, but their relationship with them is different, as they may have
stakeholders in their value chains and competitors (competition for funding, staff, users, influence,
- Information needs must be aligned with the organisation’s strategy.
- Public organisations are receptors of information entering through different channels and must be able
to develop tools to analyse it, allowing them to provide services as efficiently as possible.
- Competitive intelligence only makes sense in the public sector if the value of the agents taking part in
the process is maximised.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2010
Web Session at the CEJFE
Community managers in government? What they should be like.
José Antonio Gallego is the founder and CEO of Aerco. The session was introduced by Ignasi
Genovès, Director General of Citizen Assistance and Dissemination, and Roser Bach, Director of the
Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training.
Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 1 February 2011. 180 people attended (+52
The recession brings about a social transformation
Throughout history there have been recessions which have led to social transformations. At these times
society realises that it cannot rely on existing social and economic drivers because they are not
sufficiently agile. Today there are 2.0 tools, social networks, which can facilitate the transformation in
response to people’s input; it is no longer a matter of changing from one elite group to another. The tools
available include Ushahidi, Flood aid, etc. and, in government bodies, BlueServo, which has placed
control of the border between the US and Mexico in the hands of the community.
Governments can promote the use of social technologies, as occurs in most Anglo-Saxon countries, or
hinder their use by doing nothing or taking action at the wrong time.
The keys to success for social media projects in government
- Training participants and a clear regulatory framework: public servants have to know how they work,
how they can participate and how they can add value (e.g. Guide to Usage and Style in Government of
Catalonia Social Networks). It is very important to be tolerant regarding well-intentioned mistakes.
- Internal participation: clear inter-departamental communication is needed, calling for involvement and
tools accessible to everyone
- Creating value: offering quality information and not just issuing press releases
- Meritocracy, reputation: there is more respect for those who become actively involved
- Active listening and internal change: it is important to listen to what users say and make changes
- Defined strategy: what do we want? how can we measure it? Any project by an organisation must
achieve at least one of these objectives: reducing costs, increasing existing levels of income, or creating
new sources of income.
The importance of metrics
The benefits of social media need to be measured: the metrics can be based on activity (the number of
visitors, of pages visited, etc.), sales and marketing, customer support, product development (e.g. the
number of ideas for new products) or human resources (e.g. time per employee).
Role of the community manager
The community is the objective of community managers. They know they are doing the job properly when
they become an awkward character, questioning the habitual way of doing things and obtaining greater
recognition from colleagues than that attached to the position. They are consulted about different issues,
are not bound by hierarchies or departments, and succeed in putting some of their ideas into practice.
According to Jeremiah Owyang, the community manager’s professional cycle passes through different
stages: awakening, ascension, storm of cultural conflict, and career decision point (provide customer
support or make the project grow and allow it to be scalable).
The community manager has to carry out 5 tasks:
- Listen, the fundamental task.
- Make information circulate internally.
- Explain the position of the company or the government body.
- Identify leaders inside and outside the organisation and motivate them.
- Find new channels of communication between the business and the community.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, February 2011
Web Session at the CEJFE
From Pau to Pau: Internet for learning and entrepreneurship.
Genís Roca presents and interviews Pau Argelaguet and Aleix Pujadas, third year secondary school
pupils and authors of a blog, and Jordi Collell, Head of Communications for EyeOS.
Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 8 March 2011. 175 people attended.
Internet for personal growth
The founders of EyeOS launched their project when they were 16 or 17 years old (initially, as a web
desktop). Secondary school pupils Pau, Aleix and Enric are aged 13 to 14 and what they want to do is
offer users programs that help them to solve problems and share their knowledge.
The internet for professional development
Pau Argelaguet and Aleix Pujadas do not propose to start a business with their blog. However, they are
interested in including advertising banners to cover the cost of running their server and improving content.
They have 150 daily users and the blog is updated every day, with their own knowledge and the results of
research. All the programs they offer are free, the images are their own and the material is published
under a Creative Commons licence.
EyeOS, for its part, demonstrates that it is feasible to do business with open source programs. The
company’s annual turnover is approximately 1 million euros and the business involves 17,000 people in
64 countries. It is divided into 64 departments along cultural, linguistic and geographical lines.
Both the students and Jordi Collell agree that English is the working language on the internet. EyeOS
works mainly in English to ensure the global coverage it enjoys.
The internet for work and projects. The case of EyeOS
EyeOS has grown exponentially since it first published code on the internet in 2005: anyone can access it
and modify it, solely on condition that they then make it available to everyone else again.
Jordi Collell offers a number of recommendations for moving from a group to a global project: don’t lose
sight of reality (don’t expect to acquire a multi-million business overnight), grow in stages (at all times you
need to know who you are, where you are and what you know), make sure you have people with the right
academic training (it’s not just a matter of programming, although this skill is fundamental; there are many
other important qualities).
The most important project for EyeOS at present is the move towards cloud computing.
The injection of venture capital may lead to a change in the company’s DNA.
The internet as a means of relating to and participating in government
The internet is a space which generates feelings of identity and belonging.
Government bodies need to bear in mind that, if they ask for and hope to take advantage of public
participation, they need to make both digital and analogue channels available. Students often complain
about teachers’ lack of expertise in the area of ICT. Genis Roca argues that we cannot expect a body of
over 60,000 individuals to become fully proficient in a few years and that the use of ICT depends less on
people’s age than their needs.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, March 2011
Web Session at the CEJFE
Open data in Catalonia.
José Manuel Alonso, program manager of the World Wide Web Foundation, Co-director of the
eGovernment Group in the W3C Consortium and a member of CTIC. The session was introduced by
Ignasi Genovès, Director General of Citizen Assistance and Dissemination.
Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 25 May 2011. 210 people attended.
Changes in the relations between government, the public and business.
Before the arrival of open data the information provided for the public by government bodies on their
websites was inadequate, the administration often being accused of having tunnel vision. In the
Birmingham experiment the public created the website they would have liked their council to have.
Everything began to change when the US Library of Congress and Flickr launched an open data pilot
project, publishing photographs of the library’s resources on its portal. This led to an unexpected level of
response from the public, which enabled them to improve their service.
The importance of information in the public sector
The public sector generates vast amounts of information. Freeing this data means returning it to its
rightful owners: the people. Moreover, the best way to reuse the information always occurs to someone
from outside. The reuse of data by the public and by companies is totally justified, as it is a source of
innovation that can generate economic and social wealth.
Examples of initiatives and applications with open data from all parts of the world
There are many and they vary widely. They are to be found mainly in Europe and North America. They
include: applications for mobile phones in Paris and Barcelona, giving information about underground
railway services; in Madrid an information service about levels of atmospheric pollution, which presents
the data graphically; in the San Francisco Bay area a public transport route application, and also in the
US an interactive application which shows public spending on technology. The two most advanced
countries in open data are the US and the UK, which were pioneers in the field.
How to develop and implement a successful open data strategy seeking technological excellence
We need a strategy for governance (internal and external), for methodology (to identify relevant data,
publish it and use it) and for promoting projects. Tim Berners-Lee established 5 levels of technological
excellence for open data. The lowest level (1) consists simply of putting material on the web; the highest
level (5) contains structured data, non-proprietary formats, URLs which identify data, and links between
data and other data elsewhere (mashups). the first level is much cheaper to achieve but the highest gives
a much better medium- and long-term return on investment (ROI) by optimising the reuse of data.
Open data in Catalonia. Background, the current situation and outlook for the future
In Catalonia the culture of open data which can be reused goes back some way. In June 2007, the
Ministry of Justice published the first book with a Creative Commons licence. The Gencat open data
portal contains many examples of open data. The reuse of data by the private sector has led to the
successful development of a number of applications, such as a mobile phone application for public
facilities and another for weather information using Android. Gencat's strategic objectives are business
change, encouraging the reuse of data and a new technological model for publication. In terms of the
Berners-Lee scale, Gencat is now at level 4 and is working well towards level 5.To achieve this it will be
necessary to make good practice standard and ensure that everyone is working in the same direction.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, May 2011
Web Session at the CEJFE
Entrepreneurship in government?
Didac Lee is an entrepreneur, CEO of the Inspirit technology group and a member of the Board of
Directors of Barcelona Football Club. The session was introduced by Ignasi Genovès, Director General
of Citizen Assistance and Dissemination, and Xavier Hernández, Director of the Centre for Legal Studies
and Specialised Training.
Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 19 October 2011. 193 people attended
(+74 via streaming).
Entrepreneurial undertakings for innovation in all kinds of organisation
A mistaken reading of Chinese characters has led to a widespread belief that the word "crisis" in
Mandarin is composed of the words “danger” and “opportunity”. However, the idea is perfectly valid: at a
time when patterns are changing (affecting all kinds of organisation, both private and public), the
recession has to be an opportunity to see that innovation (understood as a process of cultural, operational
and strategic change) is the most important tool we have at our disposal to turn the situation round. Such
changes inevitably involve dangers but an entrepreneur is a person who assumes the risks but pushes
ahead with an idea. Indeed, a crisis constitutes the entrepreneur’s natural habitat.
To be a successful entrepreneur
There are five basic rules:
1. “Normal” and “habitual” should not be confused with “right”: find out all about the environment in which
you want to work and the people with whom you will be working.
2. Don’t make excuses! Excuses are the greatest enemy of progress. When things don’t work out, don’t
look for someone to blame. Look for solutions.
3. People aren’t unproductive, they haven’t found the right motivation. Knowing how to motivate people is
a key skill for an entrepreneur and motivation need not be exclusively financial. Sometimes
enthusiasm makes up for shortcomings.
4. Whenever we leave the comfort zone we make a qualitative leap. We have to dare to go further and
make the leap.
5. The only limit is your mind! Remember that the limits to what we are capable of are those we set
The basic conditions for innovation to take place are finding good ideas, finding people who are able to
handle these ideas and respecting them as they are: geniuses have the ability to make exceptional things
happen. Working in small teams facilitates the process.
Entrepreneurship in government
Entrepreneurship and innovation are difficult in government and in business because they involve
managing change. Moreover, government bodies have certain special features which sometimes make
innovation slower and more complicated. For example, it is common to find people who are settled in the
comfort zone and for the hierarchical structure to hinder innovation because of inertia dating back many
years. People often leave the comfort zone when the situation is very negative and, although leaving the
comfort zone is unsettling and may even be painful, it always leads to a qualitative leap.
Sometimes it is better to apologise than to ask permission and it is very important to know how to present
ideas to your superiors in terms of value, performance and the return for the organisation and for the
It must be remembered that the government works for the public and it is under an obligation to use its
resources to offer better services.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2011
Web Session at the CEJFE
Politics in the era of social networks
Daniel Innerarity, Professor of Political and Social Philosophy, researcher at the Ikerbasque foundation
and Director of Institut de Governança Democràtica. The event was presented by Ignasi Genovès,
General Director of Citizen Services and Publicity, and Jesús Martínez, on behalf of the Director of the
Auditorium of the CEJFE, 25th
January 2012. 134 attendees + 27 attendees by streaming.
To begin his talk, Innerarity acknowledges that, with intelligent use based on values, Internet and social
networks can work together to bring about improvements for society, institutions and people. The idea of
his talk is to raise awareness among audiences on the limits, the clichés and the dangers associated to
A democratic tension
We are convinced that power is potentially dangerous, hence the need to establish a series of guidelines
to control it. However, the current problem is precisely that power is weak: against financial markets, the
population (it is too dependent on surveys). Also we find ourselves with the generalized – and incorrect –
assumption that politicians do not know how to solve problems, whilst citizens- through empowerment
and collective knowledge from social networks- do have the right answers to the various challenges
facing us. Democracy is based on the inevitable tension existing between institutions of power and the
general public. At a public level, there are constructive and destructive impulses. This calls for the
organizational and regulating presence of institutions.
The utopia of disintermediation
The incalculable fascination with social networks produces the demonization of any intermediary figure.
And politicians are intermediaries by nature. Utopia is based on the conviction that everything is just one
click away, which brings about the democratization of competencies in all spheres. In fact, this ideal of
disintermediation is a fundamental concept of neoliberalism, which at an economic level means that
markets self-regulate. However, we have all been witness to the fact that this is not the case. Nor does
the population self-regulate. It is essential to construct less rigid intermediary figures, but intermediation is
Ballot boxes and dreams
“Our dreams do not fit in their ballot boxes”, was one of the slogans of the Occupy Movement. The
problem is that often the dream of one person is the nightmare of another. Politics is always
disappointing, because the key is to have a good and more moderate second opinion; if this second
opinion is too close to the first, we are facing fanaticism. In politics, it is essential to compromise and to be
clear about what we are prepared to lose against the adversary. The function of politics is to discipline
dreams. The danger of the Internet is that it permits the creation of totally homogeneous areas, which
encourages radicalization and the creation of pressure groups, which harass all political parties.
The paradoxes of democratic self-determination
To think that the governed are the same as the governors is false, because they can never coincide
absolutely. Throughout history, all technological innovation has been accompanied by a social utopia.
Cyber-utopianism (the naïve belief of the emancipating power of online information) is shared also by the
political spectrum of the right-wing (belief in the defeat of communism) and the left wing (belief in the
achieving of the values of 1968).
Unravelling an illusion
Technology can mobilize, but it cannot create structures: one thing is to communicate, and another is to
control and take difficult decisions. Internet does not eliminate relationships of power, it transforms them:
social and economic hierarchies are over-represented. It is also utopia to think that there is no
censorship: search engines address and condition web traffic. It is evident that politics cannot be the
same as it was before, but effective change has not yet materialized.
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, January 2012
Web Session at the CEJFE
How to communicate by digital support
Tíscar Lara, Vice-Dean of Digital Culture at the Escola d’Organització Industrial (EOI) and specialist in
Digital Communication and the educational use of ICTs. The event was presented by Ignasi Genovès,
General Director of Citizen Services and Publicity, and Josep Xavier Hernández, Director of the CEJFE
Auditorium of the CEJFE, 14th
March 2012. 205 attendees + 25 attendees by streaming.
Paradigm shift: network communication or the end of mass audiences
Fifteen or 20 years ago, the model of mass communication was vertical and very clearly defined: it went
from broadcasters (mass media) to receivers (consumer citizens), and in the middle was the channel, the
message, the code. With the arrival of the social network (2.0) a paradigm shift took place, because the
production of communication, of the message, was made accessible to citizens by means of blogs, wikis
and social networks. People were empowered. Furthermore, the introduction of smart phone devices (we
could call it pocket technology) turned everyone into a communication node (the best example of this is
Twitter). The message becomes more hybrid, there is an overabundance of information and the existence
of fewer intermediaries may give way to information overload: broadcasters as well as receivers must
learn to filter, to discriminate on their own account. The traditional media has had to adapt to these new
flows, and the patterns in media discourse have been diluted given their coexistence with many other
headlines: in turn, they have incorporated the most viewed headlines, the most valued, the most re-sent.
Often this does not coincide with the most relevant information of the media. The communication model,
therefore, has become horizontal, and broadcasters, receivers, channels, messages and codes intermix
Criteria for communicating successfully in a world of social networks
It is hard to make oneself heard amongst so much noise. It is essential, therefore, to work on the
construction of an identity, a brand image, and to know how to get the message across: to be like
motorcycle riders jackets, covered in brand stickers. In places such as Namechk we can check if our
name or avatar is available. The next step is to generate trust, with honesty, transparency, recognition,
authorship and sharing. In order to be relevant, we have to be generous. The strategy of pre-production
of information is key: it is not a question of transferring the entire private sphere to the public sphere, but
to know how to show the person behind the screen. We have to know what we want to show, and to emit
the right invitation signals. We have to coexist in the web ecosystem, to have our own voice and to
measure our impact, but without becoming obsessed by metrics or search engine optimizations (SEO).
Administration and digital communication
How can the Administration benefit from this new communications ecosystem? What is the best way to
optimize its presence on social networks, on mobile devices and on multimedia resources? It must begin
by establishing communication strategies. In the first place, it must understand that a relationship of trust
and complicity with users must be established, as any distancing from the public results in a loss in
credibility. If we concentrate only on publishing headlines, we are detracting from the communications
channel, the network, which is much more versatile and interactive. The function of the Administration is
to help us to learn the keys to communication (its use, web dynamics, the construction of a digital
identity). To ensure loyalty of users and to be a good public service, it is essential to become a hub, to
become content curators, to carry out the function of curator, to remix information from different channels
and to offer the result to citizens.
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, March 2012
Web Session at the CEJFE
Legal challenges for the Administration on the web
By Raquel Xalabarder, Professor of Intellectual Property at the UOC. The event was presented by Ignasi
Genovès, General Director of Citizen Services and Publicity, and Josep Xavier Hernández, Director of
Auditorium of the CEJFE, 23rd
May 2012. 212 attendees + 18 attendees by streaming.
The Administration must do its best to promote the reuse of public sector information (RPSI) and open
data, while respecting the intellectual and industrial property laws (IPL) and personal data protection
(PDP), for the benefit of society.
The legal framework
In matters of RIPS, it is important to take into account the Directive 2003/98/CE of the European
Parliament and the European Council of 17th
November 2003, and Spanish legislation: Law 37/2007, of
November, on the reuse of public sector information. The Royal Decree 1495/2011, of 24th
that establishes this, is not applied in the Administration of the Generalitat.
The reuse of public sector information (RPSI)
The regulations on RPSI do not oblige administrations to put at the disposal of the public the information it
has generated while exercising public service for reuse, but it does clearly state that it is essential to
provide it. The different agents in the social fabric – without discriminating between any – must be able to
make use of this information to create databases and to create diverse products and services that provide
added value to society and create wealth (economic and knowledge). The convenience or not of charging
for this information lies in the hands of each administration, which must take into account basically the
cost (marginal) that this involves and also whether the agent will reuse this information for commercial or
non-profit purposes. The current regulation leaves this question of charging open.
The RPSI must comply with the regulations of IPL. Only that considered a work is subject to protection.
Very often, the RPSI does not affect IPL; when this is simple information, data or works that are already in
the public domain because the legally established protection term has expired. Only when this RPSI
contains materials that are protected works is it necessary to comply with the IPL regulations. The
Administration may authorize its reuse when it is the owner of the IP rights of the works subject to RPSI (it
must be taken into account that the exploitation rights of all works created within the framework of a
working or public servant relationship belong – unless the opposite has been agreed- to the company or
organization where the author provides services). Moral rights cannot be the object of cession but are
subject to the customs of attribution in effect in each sector. With regards works by third parties, these
may only be subject to RPSI when the corresponding authorization has been obtained from the owners.
If it is necessary to license works protected by RPSI, it is recommendable to do so by means of general
terms and conditions, such as a legal notice which the website of the Generalitat contains; or with
standard intellectual property licenses, such as Creative Commons (the CC BY is the most suitable as it
is the least restrictive of all licences), or also by means of prior authorization for specific cases such as
non-digitalized documents or those subject to personal data protection.
The Administration must offer information preferably in electronic format, not processed and in such a
way that it can be processed and exploited easily by third parties. The degree of processing of the
CENDOJ databases is a good example of the difficulty in determining where the exercise of public service
ends and where the added value that it may provide for market agents begins. In the case of social
networks where the Administration intervenes, these are another platform where the regulations must be
applied, of RPSI as well as IP and PDP. Thus, in the latest edition of the Style and usage guide of the
Government of Catalonia’s social networks an explanation is given on how to manage the authorship of
the contents of the Administration and the contributions from citizens and other players.
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, May 2012
Web Session at the CEJFE
The georeference of the Administration
Jordi López Ramot, creator of the routes portal Wikiloc and graduate in Computer Engineering from the
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. The event was presented by Elisabet Samarra, Deputy Director of
Citizen Services, and Josep Xavier Hernández, Director of the CEJFE.
Auditorium of the CEJFE, 17th
October 2012. 172 attendees + 6 attendees by streaming.
What is geographic information (GI)? How is it created? What is the role of the Administration?
Geolocation or georeference is one of the most important Internet tools today. The public Administration
is aware of this fact; the European directive INSPIRE requires the georeferencing and the official release
of a series of data.
The main aim of GI is to make our daily lives easier. It consists of maps, points of interest, routes,
bathymetry, news, copyright, meteorology, files, etc. In fact, 75 % of the data of the Administration is GI,
or subject to being so. Catalonia is a world leader in the reuse of public data and in the creation of
It is increasingly more difficult to distinguish the origin of GI. Some years ago, it was the exclusive
function of the public sector (especially the military: the GPS, for example, was created and implemented
by the USA army), given the difficulty and the cost of creating this precise information. The private sector
bought this information from the public sector or requested it to be ceded. Later, the ICT revolution made
the significant participation of the private sector a reality (Google Maps, for example), and mobile devices
have democratized its creation with the so-called volunteered geographic information (VGI), generated by
The routes portal Wikiloc
Wikiloc is a platform created in Catalonia for exploring, creating and sharing world routes. It uses maps
from the existing collection (Google –Maps and Earth–, different public maps) such as the VGI. It has a
presence in 190 countries, it receives 1.2 million users monthly, it has 900,000 routes (50,000 new routes
are added each month) and 2.8 million photos and videos. It has received prestigious awards, such as
the Geotourism Challenge Power of Place (2009) and the Living Labs Global Showcase (2010). The role
of the Administration is important for users of the portal with regards the guarantee of revision and
updating of the status of the itineraries. For this reason, Wikiloc collaborates with public entities to create
customized Wikilocs for these institutions.
The most outstanding experience is that of the social capital generated by the sharing of information:
users do so happily because they obtain a significant benefit (the return of valuable information from other
users) with very little effort. Mobile devices have been vital in its success (it has applications for iPhone
and for Android).
Its business model (apart from advertising by means of banners, which is not very profitable for a service
of these characteristics) is based on the sale of specific services with added value (premium) and also in
the mobile applications freemium (a very common system in this segment where, by means of
micropayments, the user obtains an improved service compared to the free offer).
For the democratization of GI, it is essential that administrations open their databases. The challenge is
for Administrations and companies to convert this raw data into profitable services for citizens. The
crossing this geographical data obtains results of great added value.
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2012
Web Session at the CEJFE
Transparency and access to information
By Victoria Anderica, Legal Researcher and campaign coordinator for Access Info Europe (AIE). The
event was presented by Enric Colet, General Secretary of Justice, Ignasi Genovès, General Director of
Citizen Services and Publicity, and Josep Xavier Hernández, Director of the CEJFE.
Auditorium of the CEJFE, 23rd
January 2013. 194 attendees.
The concept of transparency and the right of access to information
The right to access to information is the fundamental right of citizens to request information from public
institutions and the obligation of these bodies to respond within a reasonable time, as well as to
proactively publish relevant information in their possession. The limits to access must be determined by
laws, weighing up the public interest and any possible damage (for example with regards personal
privacy or for security questions). It is a fundamental right, despite the fact that legislations do not include
this, but the UN and several international tribunals do so, because it permits the protection of other rights,
such as the freedom of the press.
Open governance, based on transparency and the right to access to information, is characterized
furthermore by the participation, the collaboration, the accountability and the use of ICTs.
International transparency standards
This world ranking of transparency and access to information has been elaborated by the Centre for Law
and Democracy and the AIE, and produces surprising results. Laws are one thing, but their effective
implementation is another.
International norms that define standards in matters of access to information can be found on the website
Global RTI Rating. There are also international aid transparency standards, which can be viewed on the
website International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI).
Content of transparency laws: successful initiatives
In the 21st
century, all public information is precisely this: public. It is now not necessary to prove a
legitimate interest – as it was in the past – in order to access it. Therefore, a good transparency law must
oblige public institutions to disclose exactly what data they possess, it must take into account the
interoperability among different administrations, it must establish that information must be obtained in
reusable formats (a PDF is not suitable), it must establish an independent control body and it must limit
classified information and the use of negative administrative silence.
Both in the United Kingdom as well as in the USA, there are examples of successful legislative initiatives
that determine that even the content of official e-mails is public information. In Catalonia, the project Open
Data of the Generalitat is now a reality and is producing good results.
Legal framework and current situation
In Catalonia, during the previous legislature, a parliamentary commission created a law on transparency
and access to public information. In Spain, the Good governance and transparency bill is receiving strong
criticism (even from the State Council). The European Union has a pan-European open data portal.
Civil society is often ahead of the Administration. For this reason, mutual interrelation is important in order
to optimize the potential of information and knowledge. Private services and applications have already
emerged, which work with open public data in Catalonia and in other places. e.x. FixMyStreet.
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, January 2013
36. 31st web session
Improving Administration services by means of collaboration’
By Jesús Martínez, Director of Management Training and New Programmes at the Centre d’Estudis
Jurídics i Formació Especialitzada and Director of the Compartim programme. Presented by Ignasi
Genovès, Director General of Citizen Services and Publicity, and Josep Xavier Hernández, Director of
Assembly Hall of the CEJFE, 17 April 2013. 178 attendees.
Collaborative working involves changing the narrative and focussing on solutions instead of focussing on
problems. This change must be formalized, and to do so, communities of practice (CoP) are the ideal
instrument because they are in the middle of the traditional structure (problems are dealt with top-down)
and the alternative innovating structure (from bottom-up), given that CoPs create a new neural network
structure that connects at the same time with the hierarchal structures of the organization. These four
success stories are an example of the power of collaboration:
- The value of collaboration. The Criminal Technical Advisory Team of the Ministry of Justice has created,
together with external experts in psychology, a new guide for the assessment of testimonies in cases of
domestic violence, after detecting failings in the traditional protocols.
- The value of knowledge. The increase in the population of foreign inmates in Catalan prisons in recent
years has required collaborative working to draw up a practical and informative document on
immigration matters, written by CoP legal experts.
- Fortune favours the bold. A group of magistrates have tackled the transversal aspects (not taken into
account by law, such as stress, pressure, etc.) that play a part in the decision-making of the Board of
- Collective intelligence. The benefits of this can be seen in the Public Health Agency knowledge
management plan (advised initially by the Ministry of Justice), which, by means of collaborative working,
drew up some brief practical guides for the public.
What do these stories have in common? Firstly, they are all driven by a clear aim and a real need.
Secondly, they have very active and motivated participants. Thirdly, their action plan is in the form of a
knowledge flow. Fourthly, they combine situational activities with online activities. Fifthly, they have an
expert facilitator, the e-chairperson, who promotes and guides the project and who receives institutional
If we take a second look, we will see that to create and share knowledge, personal involvement plays an
important role: this means more work and the aid of technologies (institutional and private) in order to be
connected. Further knowledge is obtained thanks to the unforeseen supply of knowledge provided by
participants, who go from being employees to being professionals (from bureaucrats to leaders, as
described by Francisco Longo), and where passion and creativity are more valuable than simple
obedience or diligence. The organization becomes less vertical and more horizontal, which generates
new learning and we move from the stock of knowledge to knowledge flows, where everyone learns from
The third look is a challenge for management, which consists in leading a more relational management
model and one which is in permanent transition, where bureaucratic level, new public management and
governance coexist, and where more importance is given to work management than to people
management. The organization and collaborative space must be structured - from less to more informal
and flexible- by means of ad hoc committees, CoPs and networks, because not all tasks are suitable for
collaborative working. It must be taken into account that in all organizations 15 % of people are in favour
of change, 15 % are opposed and the remaining, (70 %), can be convinced to join the innovation process.
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, April 2013
37. 32nd web session
Technological strategy for an open government
By Miquel Torregrosa, Director of the Unitat de Govern Obert i Difusió Multicanal del Centre de
Telecomunicacions i Tecnologies de la Informació de la Generalitat de Catalunya (CTTI). Presented by
Ignasi Genovès, Director General of Citizen Services and Publicity, and Josep Xavier Hernández,
Director of the CEJFE.
Assembly Hall of the CEJFE, 22 May 2013. 172 attendees.
Multi-channel and open data
The aim of the gencat web is to be a multi-channel and open communications system. Multi-channel is
the new paradigm of virtual communications with citizens (web, mobile, multimedia, social networks) and
open data is the key for an information centric model. In order to reach this objective and also reduce
costs, the strategy involves three basic points: simplifying, cloud computing and free software.
The strategy of the CTTI with regards open data consists in open files - files published on Internet in
diverse formats that contain unprocessed information on the data to disseminate - and the open web
services - software access services to open data in such a way that any website, mobile application, etc.,
can carry out dynamic consultations on the data through a single platform. The open web services must
be reliable, agile, scalable and economically affordable. The key technology for open web services is that
of macrodata (big data): NoSQL databases, which apply the equation: V (volume) + V (variety) + V
(velocity) = V (veracity). For the moment, gencat puts more emphasis on variety and velocity.
An important aspect of open data are the systems for the presentation of this data. They may be internal
(the Generalitat is working on a search engine and a general explorer of open data) or external (presence
on public platforms, such as Google Maps and Wikiloc, and data viewer tools). There are many of these
tools, falling into basically two categories: those that present data by means of infographics (for example,
Picktochart, visual.ly, etc.) and those that do so by means of graphics (e.g. Many Eyes, by IBM).
Mobility: Anytime, anywhere, any device
Forecasts indicate that Internet will soon be used more through mobile devices than through computers.
In order to ensure optimum access and visualization, gencat is promoting Responsive web design, which
is a web design approach that crafts sites to provide optimal viewing experiences across a wide range of
devices, thus making it unnecessary to design native mobile applications for each platform. A good
example of this is the web of the newspaper The Boston Globe.
Participation and collaboration tools
These tools are key for involving citizens in more open and democratic governance. The free software
platforms We the people (USA) and Irekia (Basque Country) are good examples. Catalonia does not yet
have an equivalent platform, but the portal Idees obertes has been launched on the cloud (with the
collaboration of ‘iParticipa, by Indra), there is a very active presence on social networks and e-Catalunya,
the collaborative working corporate platform, has been working very successfully for several years. There
are also external tools for citizen participation, such as LaCasaPública.
And, to conclude, eight very useful tips by Ferran Adrià that serve as inspiration to achieve the
transformation towards a more creative, open, agile, transparent and collaborative Administration:
question what has been established, set impossible challenges, change everything, thinking is a job,
creativity is contagious, share knowledge, reinvent yourself... and don’t lose your sense of humour.
Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona, May 2013
38. 33rd web session
Open governments, more efficient governments
By Alberto Ortiz de Zárate, specialist in open government policies and open data. Presented by Ignasi
Genovès, Director General of Citizen Services and Publicity, and Josep Xavier Hernández, Director of
Assembly Hall of the CEJFE, 16 October 2013. 177 attendees.
When open government achieves its basic aims - transparency, participation and collaboration- it involves
all social players: citizens, companies, the third sector. It is necessary for governments to promote co-
responsibility between citizens and collaboration during the process of public management, and also to
deploy highly transparent policies. With regards the latter, the radical way in which transparency is
applied in some countries, e.g. Peru, helps us to put into perspective our practice and our expectations.
The dominant paradigm of administrative reform in the first decade of the 21st century was that of e-
Administration, which was not entirely a success. On the other hand, e-management works well in
companies (online banking is a paradigmatic example), and in the area of Public Administration, the
Catalan Revenue Service has been very successful.
Why has e-Administration failed? Because it has used technology to do the same as always and
digitalizing an obsolete administration does not make a modern administration: it is not a question of e-
invent, but re-invent. Well-designed and well-assessed policies are needed and, above all, if they do not
work, they must be removed. This is why it is important to know the conversion rate (targets reached
divided by the number of visits to the website) in order to quantify the usability and the success of a
specific service. A good e-Administration is a non-Administration, where citizens carry out few
procedures, and where the Administration manages everything internally.
An effort must be made to offer open services that take into account citizens’ needs, and citizens also
have the right not to participate and not to be bothered. The truth is that when everything is functioning
correctly, participation decreases.
Now, the second right of citizens is the right to participate. But the word participation has been devalued
to the point that it is better to change it for other more specific words, such as public deliberation, co-
creation, co-responsibility or social audit, each applied in different stages of the cycle of public policies -
see the LUDO model. The open government must foster the design of services with and for citizens
(citizen-centric services), it must be transparent and be accountable for its management by encouraging
co-responsibility between citizens and government and it must promote innovation by encouraging the
speedy implementation of ideas.
On the other hand, an intra-entrepreneurial Administration must be promoted: public servants must feel a
pride in being a public server, with a permanent commitment for innovation. Thus, the project Compromís
de l’innovador públic must be highlighted. The role of Directors must be to transmit institutional values
and organizational charts should be as less hierarchal as possible, where everyone- from the high
spheres of politics to the administration- has a role in each segment of the process (strategy,
coordination, management, innovation and operation). The solution lies inside the organization: action
before planning, freedom before organization, confidence before control and network before hierarchy.
Catalonia is a leader in the implementation of open government policies, innovation and collaborative
working. A good example of this is the Compartim programme on knowledge management and the Xarxa
d’Innovació Pública (XIP).
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2013
39. 34th web session
Open innovation in the Administration
By Jordi Graells i Costa, Coordinator of Content and Innovation at the Directorate General of Citizen
Services and Publicity of the Presidency Department. Presented by Ignasi Genovès, Director General of
Citizen Services and Publicity, and Josep Xavier Hernández, Director of the CEJFE.
Assembly Hall of the CEJFE, 22 January 2014. 196 attendees.
Internet enables easy access to a large amount of knowledge. The leaders are those who offer it first, as
the network is meritocratic. This knowledge can even be official, such as that given by UOC, Udacity,
Coursera, edx, Khan Academy, TED, Tubersidad, OER and iTunes U.
Behind this bank of knowledge, there is a fundamental economic change that is known as long tail, and
also wikinomia. We have moved from mainly factory to a more distributed production where knowledge is
the differential factor. The new model is characterized by, on the one hand, a maker conception
(designers of process and systems in perspective such as the GovJam) and on the other hand, by the
use of collaborative strategies. With regards the latter, there are some initiatives that work quite well:
Innocentive, Verkami, Trip4real, Meetup and Imagine Express. The Administration must be inspired by
this philosophy and try to customize its services more in order to make them better, more useful and more
effective. Customization will surely imply an increase in services and costs. This increase will be relieved
partly by the saving in the use of social networks (social and aggregate responses), the exploitation of the
potential of the mobile world and the development of applications by third parties with the data that is
opened by the Administration.
Innovation is one of the most important elements of this new economic model. It is a question of adding
something monetizable to private initiatives and/or something that simply provides value to public
initiatives. In the previous stage of description of contents of the session, an exercise was carried out
based on the model of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem with five actions on the components of
products or services: subtraction, multiplication, division, task unification and attribute dependency
change. The result was spectacular: services worthy of being implemented due to the great value they
provide. They are innovating and disruptive services because they break with the previous: they add
technology but with a view to changing the process of the service and improving it using the two formulas
described in the session to innovate services. Both formulas aim to define a value proposition for the
innovated service. The book Generación de modelos de negocio can help Administration professionals to
establish this value proposition.
Contributions from the 34th web session
1. Administration professionals are an essential part of innovation processes, as well as external players
(companies, organizations, citizens...). This is how the concept of open innovation coined by Henry
Chesbrough is described. The session has been based at all times on the participation of people.
2. Knowledge is all around us. It is not necessary to create a department of innovation.
3. The idea is to identify opportunities rather than to be the first to have an idea and to allocate the
necessary resources to it.
4. It is import to define aims for innovation (what do we want to achieve) and build a marketing strategy.
5. Interaction on collaborative networks generates information, which is transformed into knowledge to
identify business opportunities. Innovation networks must relate to the policies of open data, social
networks and mobile services, within a general framework of open governance.
6. There is a need to establish a collaborative workstation for public professionals.
7. A value proposition for the model of open governance has been established, which is not a passing
fad, in order to build organizations and a country that motivates people to express their creativity and
passion at all times.
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, January 2014
40. 35th web session
Viquipèdia and Generalitat, opening knowledge
By Àlex Hinojo, Director of Cultural Projects at Amical Wikimedia. Presented by Ignasi Genovès, Director
General of Citizen Services and Publicity, and Josep Xavier Hernández, Director of the CEJFE.
Assembly Hall of the CEJFE, 20 March 2014. 162 attendees
Viquipèdia is a free content encyclopaedia (CC) and open by default, which searches for a neutral point
of view in the information it provides. It has rules of etiquette, but the rules may be changed when editing
content (given that this must be referenced to previously published sources, such as books or articles,
and that the photos must not violate the copyright law). It must be objective; if any content is deemed
inappropriate, it must be amended. There are 75,000 publishers throughout the world (1,800 in the
Catalan Viquipèdia), and anyone can collaborate: in Wikistream all editions can be seen in real time.
Infrastructures and networks. Improving the paths where people walk
All efforts must be invested in the users (an infrastructure does not generate users by itself, it does not
make a community): it is more sustainable to collaborate with already existing communities. It is better to
produce moderate growth because this is always more manageable. Don’t be afraid of asymmetry: it is
positive and enriching.
Go wiki! What is the role of the Administration with regards to open communities?
Internet is a network that, when represented graphically, looks very much like a brain: the places where
there is more activity (neurons) are those that generate more interest and are more popular for users.
Both Viquipèdia and the Generalitat of Catalonia are highly complex organizations. Users are not
interested in how they function or their internal organization. The great challenge is their relevance: we
have to rethink our role in a global environment. This means to stop doing things we do now that do not
provide value, and start doing new ones. We might make mistakes, and we must be quick to correct
them. We have to promote a real collaboration between Administration and citizens.
Study cases: Projects carried out by Amical Wikimedia + Generalitat of Catalonia
Amical Wikimedia collaborates with several departments of the Generalitat. This is mainly possible thanks
to the fact that the content of the Generalitat websites is open, as is specified in the legal notice. Another
factor is the conversion of people and institutions into collaborators (e.g. university students, museums,
citizens who provide photos and data). The Ministry of Culture has been greatly collaborative, but there
have also been important projects carried out with the Ministry of Economy and Knowledge, Education,
Governance and Institutional Relations, Territory and Sustainability, Health and the Interior.
Wiki asymmetry: Think big, start small, but move fast
Asymmetrical organization means saying goodbye to hierarchy and saying hello to meritocracy. Work is
done permanently in beta phase: everything is provisional, it is modified and improved over time. The
need for money is a symptom of failure in the wiki world: this means that not enough volunteers have
been roped in. Projects must be small, self-sustainable and scalable. It is necessary to collaborate with
everyone, and everyone must work: this is how leadership is achieved. Total transparency helps to
improve internal communications.
Generalitat of Catalonia. Barcelona, March 2014