Web Sessions (2005 – 2010)Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training (Ministry of Justice) and Directorate General of Citizen Attention(Ministry in charge of Presidency) 1st Web Session. ‘Internet in the Ministry of Justice: why’. Alfons Cornella Organisations with a differential value are the ones that act as a system capable of receiving information, transforming it and offering it in the form of services, and with a management model that gives more with less. 2nd Web Session. ‘Discover the Government of Catalonias new website’. Marta Continente In the transition towards the knowledge society, the Administration has to make data communications infrastructures accessible, ensure that information is transparent and act as a catalyst of collective knowledge. 3rd Web Session. ‘Learning in the digital age’. Sergio Vasquez Communities of practice open up the possibility of participating in a network of people with a common practice, in a relationship of trust and based on the functions offered by ICT (knowledge sharing and interaction between people). 4th Web Session. ‘From the analogue to the digital society: Where are we? What needs to be done?’. Antoni Farrés Analysis of the situation in Catalonia and how we have to position ourselves in the context of the knowledge economy, which makes up the economic and social environment of the twenty-first century. 5th Web Session. ‘How do CC licences help the Administration make knowledge accessible to society?’. Ignasi Labastida Creative Commons (CC) licences are a useful tool for providing citizens with the knowledge created by the Administration by offering a flexible system for managing the copyright on all kind of works. 6th Web Session. ‘Internet tools that make people interact in the Administration’. Roc Fages Technology helps us manage conversations between people to exchange knowledge and good practices using interaction tools on the Internet such as blogs, wikis and other resources. 7th Web Session. ‘In what direction is training in organisations going?’. Javier Martínez Aldanondo Understanding how we really learn and how technology can help reconsider the journey from onsite learning to virtual learning. 8th Web Session. ‘Can the Administration seduce over the Internet?’. David Boronat There are public administrations that, by following the strategies of the private sector for gaining customer loyalty, use the Internet intensively to raise awareness, communicate and involve citizens. 9th Web Session. ‘What can the Administration do with the knowledge it produces?’. Mario Pérez-Montoro Recipes for setting up knowledge management projects through communities of practice and other resources, as in the case of the Ministry of Justice. 10th Web Session. ‘Social networks on the Internet: the added value of our contacts’. Albert Armengol Networking is the technique that teaches one to construct and maintain professional relationships that entail a benefit for both parties, strategically managing the network of contacts.
11th Web Session. ‘Why do we have to innovate in the Administration?’.Joan MajóThe Administration has to adopt the strategy of innovation to be up to the challenge ofmodern times, possessing the internal and external knowledge to be competitive and togenerate value in its services.12th Web Session. ‘Can we achieve an Administration 2.0? Collaborativetools and attitudes’. Carlos GuadiánThere are already examples and case studies that show how web 2.0 tools and resourcesoffer us possibilities for working collaboratively in the Administration.13th Web Session. ‘The transformation of online learning through socialnetworking and video’. Gregor GimmyThe Sclipo case study explains that social networking and video can change the way oflearning online and asks what could be done in the Administration.14th Web Session. ‘Collective intelligence and the web 2.0’. Ricardo Baeza-YatesThe current impact of social networks on the Internet, known as web 2.0, where content isgenerated by people and intelligence is collective.15th Web Session. ‘Do people have to have a digital identity? Howto construct it’. Juan FreireIt is essential to have a digital identity to make ourselves visible to the rest of society and itneeds to be constructed strategically.16th Web Session. ‘Darwin in the information society: adaptation (andbenefits) or extinction’. Ismael Peña-LópezTechnological and multimedia literacy are elements that aid integration in the newknowledge society model, but to avoid social exclusion we need digital awareness and tocreate value in society.17th Web Session. ‘Networking in the Administration: where do we start?’.Genís RocaSocial network projects in the Administration must have clear aims and methodology andhave to combine hierarchy and meritocracy in a dual leadership.18th Web Session. ‘New forms of institutional communication’. JordiSegarraThe communication of organisations must be based on the generation of information,debate and participation. Messages are no longer addressed to a group but to a person, astechnology allows our users to be individually segmented.19th Web Session. ‘Institutional leadership on the Net’. Antoni GutiérrezRubíIn the digital society, traditional communication is not sufficient to have a conversation withthe citizen. Change is not technological, it is cultural and entails a new culture ofcommunication and a different organisational model that fosters creative talent.20th Web Session. ‘Digital skills and learning’. Boris MirThe mass introduction of technology into classrooms does not ensure the learning of digitalskill but creates the conditions to make it possible. Digital skill is the strategic use of skills infive areas: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology.
Web session 21. Competitive Intelligence in Government Bodies RamonMasponsObtaining, analysing, interpreting and disseminating information of strategic valueconcerning society and our competitors. Competitive intelligence only makes sense in thepublic sector if the value of the agents taking part in the process is maximised.Web session 22. Community managers in government. What they should belike. José Antonio GallegoThe community manager has to carry out 5 tasks: listen; ensure that information circulatesinternally; explain the position of the company or government body; identify leaders insideand outside the organisation and motivate them; find new forms of communication betweenthe business and the community.Web session 23. From Pau to Pau. Internet for learning andentrepreneurship. Pau Argelaguet, Aleix Pujades, Jordi Collell and GenísRocaArgelaguet and Pujadas have used the internet to learn and share knowledge. EyeOS is abusiness model born on the internet. How the internet gives scope for formingrelationships, creating and participating.Web session 24. Open data in Catalonia. José Manuel AlonsoThe public sector generates vast amounts of information. Freeing this data means returningit to its rightful owners: the people. We need a strategy for governance, appropriatemethodology and the ability to promote open data projects.Web session 25. Entrepreneurship in government? Dídac LeeFive lessons to become a successful entrepreneur: “normal” and “habitual” should not beconfused with “right”; don’t make excuses!; people aren’t unproductive, they haven’t foundthe right motivation; whenever we leave the comfort zone, we make a qualitative leap; theonly limit is your mind!
1st web session at the CEJFE (Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training)Internet in the Ministry of Justice: why?Alfons Cornella i Solans, director of Zero Factory SL www.infonomia.com, knowledge economyspecialist and consultant for a large number of organisations.CEJFE assembly room, 14 April 2005. 190 participantsThe infostructure (contents + services) complements the infrastructure (machinery + tools)Although we have technological applications to manage information, technology is not in itself theelement that determines whether an organisation is competent and stands out in comparison with others.Differential value occurs when we understand the organisation as a system capable of receivinginformation, transforming it and offering it in the form of services. Well-managed information enables us togive more with less (efficiency and productivity) Alfons Cornella illustrated this with the slides from theMinistry of Justice website and the slide of the ‘With one click’ applications available on the home page ofthe Ministrys intranet.Googlization + relevanceGooglization (access to information by means of a search engine) leads us to the danger of infoxication.This is why it is advisable to balance thoroughness in the search for information by compensating it withthe criterion of relevance. Attaining this information, however, is not an automatic act: we need to applymethod, resources and effort. This criterion inspires the structuring of the intranet.Always innovateA new professional culture needs to be rooted within organisations: that of innovation. Even though therewill be people and units with greater ability to innovate, we need to ensure that every member of theorganisation does their work imbued with this innovative spirit The question is to propose how to improvewhat one does with the resource of technology and the added value of information.Managing what the people in the organisation know and experienceThe experience of everyone is a source of efficiency that should, in addition, be disseminated to the restof the organisation. The knowledge management model proposed by Alfons Cornella is:- Work. Reduce the distance between the employee and the information that they need. He gave the example of the form search engine on the intranet.- Learn. Connect the person who has the questions with the person who has the answers. He proposed adding information to the directory of people and identifying details on the intranet information about the knowledge in which they are experts.- Teach. Convey the best practices. He illustrated this with the future community of family mediators in the e-Catalunya project (fostered by the Directorate General of Citizen Attention).Conclusions1. Technology x information = information to innovate (an informational organisation is needed).2. A common and specific objective is needed.3. There needs to be animators who promote the use of information technologies to improve services.4. It needs to become part of the day-to-day (innovation and knowledge management).5. It needs to become part of the process (the organisation has to work this way; it should never be a voluntary act).Diffusion Service. Barcelona, April 2005
2nd web session at the CEJFEThe new Gencat and other citizen attention systemsMarta Continente i Gonzalo, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge of Presidency.Assembly room of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training, 24 November 2005, 4 pmIntroductionIn the transition towards the knowledge society, the Administration has to make data communicationsinfrastructures accessible, ensure that information is transparent and act as a catalyst of collectiveknowledge.New scenario in the Internet channel1. Going from “all services on all channels” to “every service has its ideal channel”.2. Taking into account the effect of search engines.3. Relevance of push tools (search engines, newsletters, alerts, RSS news syndication, podcasting, blogs, etc.) to make the web surfer more interested in visiting a website.Gencat.net 2005Transformation process:1. Diagnosis: website analysis, usability, surveys and consultancy.2. To move towards a new model: interactivity, transparency, web databases, cross-disciplinary structure by topic and service, multimedia, personalisation of information, relational website.3. Which has been channelled in a number of projects: statistics portal, integration of databases, taxonomies (classification from citizen point of view), search engine (Google limited to Gencat), content manager (Vignette), SAC–Informer Portal and new Gencat.SAC – Informer PortalIn 2005 there was a migration to a new application and we are working on the integration of the SACinformation with the online procedures of the AOC.Informer Portal: internal consultation for 012 operators and the citizen attention offices (additionalinformation that is not made public).We need a cultural change so that the Internet channel becomes part of the Ministrys processes (andeven the core of citizen attention policies).e-CatalunyaSocial dimension website of the Government of Catalonia complementary to the Gencat.net portal.Citizens will access the public information of the groups that have a portal, but the groups will also have aprivate area, where they will have a lot of space to store content, as well as open-source softwarecommunication tools (messaging, forum, virtual congresses, wiki, social network, etc.). Justice is takingpart as a pilot ministry – together with Health – with the family mediation group.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, December 2005
3rd web session at the CEJFELearning in the digital ageSergio Vasquez, expert in e-learning and knowledge management, lecturer at the European School ofManagement in Paris, and advisor to the communities of practice of the Ministry of Justice.CEJFE assembly room, 16 February. 170 participantsE-learning as a new form of learningE-learning should not be adding a computer to traditional onsite classes. The aim is for education andtraining to be more effective.Successes and failures in e-learningThe lecturer commented on different success stories (communities by zone of the la Caixa savings bank,etc.) and on failures (Cisco UNIX courses, la Caixas Virtaula, courses by a multinational audit firm). E-learning has to avoid technocentrism (referring everything to the technology) and infocentrism(memorisation of content). This is why he prefers to speak of work with help, i.e. when designing acourse, the user has to be taken into consideration: talk to them and observe them to find out what theyneed.Situated learning and communities of practiceLearning has to be a social phenomenon, situated in time and space, and its source has to be everydaywork situations. It should be foreseen that people will scarcely want to share their best ideas or practices,and neither will they want to use other peoples ideas in order not to be seen as being incompetent. Sothat knowledge management is shared, there has to be an environment, the communities of practice,where people are connected by a common and recurrent practice and which develop around what isimportant to their members The model of the master and the apprentice is the most suitable learning.Communities of practice in the Ministry of JusticeWith this aim, a number of communities of practice have been created in the Ministry of Justice in the fieldof prison services (teachers, educators, experts, social workers) and youth justice.Conclusions1. Sharing positive things and problems, feeling part of the same organisation and being able to communicate with other people are aspects that help motivate the members of a community.2. This is why we need to be clear on what we want to share, we need to set out the ground rules and we need to work on the areas that the members of the community feel are most important.3. The benefits of communities of practice affect both their members (learning and problem solving, knowledge sharing, etc.) and the organisation (cost reductions, time savings, incremental innovation, etc.).4. Communities of practice open up the possibility of networking with a common practice while allowing trust to be built up and links established with experts outside the community in such a way that the social capital of its members increases.5. Information technologies aid knowledge sharing and participation and interaction in the communities of practice.6. Innovation occurs when the ideas of the community of practice are implemented.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, February 2006
4th web session at the CEJFEFrom the analogue to the digital society: Where are we? What needs to be done?Antoni Farrés Sabater, Mayor of Sabadell from 1979 to 1999, member of the Circle of Knowledge,speaker on the “Els matins de Catalunya Ràdio” programme, specialist in the use and application of ICTin business initiatives and in society in general.CEJFE assembly room, 13 June 2006. 90 participantsThe industrial society- Twentieth-century Catalonia was the consequence of its speedy integration into the Industrial Revolution, alongside such important countries as the United Kingdom.- The industrial society saw the convergence of the steam engine, mechanical engineering and materials science.- The industrial economy shaped the economic and social setting of a large part of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.The knowledge society- Currently, another convergence is shaping a new economy: that of computer technologies, telecommunications technologies and contents technologies.- The knowledge economy is shaping the economic and social setting of the twenty-first century.- To this effect, the European Council in Lisbon (23 and 24 March 2000) highlighted the need for the radical transformation of the European economy.Current situationFarrés accompanied the explanation with data and graphs for Spanish and European programmes.- According to the World Economic Forum report, Spain is in 31st place (it has been dropping places). At the same time, neither is Catalonia well positioned compared with the rest of Spain.- This is the starting point of his proposal: how to drive Catalonia forwards.The challenges facing Catalonia in the setting of the knowledge society1. The education of its citizens, especially the very young.2. The adaptation of the production elements to the new network organisation models.3. The integration of Catalonia into world knowledge and innovation networks as a qualified value generation node.4. The establishment of policies aimed at preserving quality of life and wellbeing.Electronic administration- In this area, Spain and Catalonia are better positioned in Europe.- Priority has been given, however, to procedures that entail money being paid to the Administration (tax authorities, etc.).- Citizens, workers and companies would compulsorily have to deal with the Administration telematically (with citizen help points).Conclusions1. The philosophy of change towards the knowledge society needs to be explained to the public.2. A major strategic agreement is needed to promote Catalonias full incorporation into the knowledge society, which involves both the political parties and the public and private sectors.Paraphrasing Torres i Bages, he concluded that "Catalonia will be digital or it will not be".Diffusion Service. Barcelona, June 2006
5th web session at the CEJFEHow do Creative Commons licences help the Administration make knowledge accessible tosociety?Ignasi Labastida i Juan, doctor in physics from the University of Barcelona. He is responsible for theimpetus and implementation of Creative Commons licences in Catalonia and Spain.The event was presented by Joan Turró, secretary general of the Ministry of Justice, and the introductionwas by Marta Continente, secretary for Telecommunications and the Information Society of the Ministryin charge of Presidency.CEJFE assembly room, 19 October 2006. 120 participantsIntroductionOne of the challenges of the new economic era is having knowledge that allows innovation in productsand services. Creative Commons (CC) licences become a useful tool in achieving this aim by offering aflexible system for managing the copyright of all kind of works. The question is to authorise some uses ofthe work instead of prohibiting and restricting them from the start. This changes the classic concept of "allrights reserved" to "some rights reserved".What are Creative Commons licences?Creative Commons is a non profit-making American organisation founded in 2001 which began thelicence project in late 2002 offering them to anyone not wanting to reserve all the rights to the works butto assign some of them on certain conditions.The licences are free and the work does not have to be registered in any repository or registry. They arelegal texts that allow the author to assign some rights in their work for the uses that they considerappropriate. Copy or reproduction, distribution and public communication are always authorised when theauthor is recognised in the credits, but there may be limitations on commercial use or the possibility ofproducing derived works or they may be conditioned by the maintenance of the terms of the original worklicence. By combining these conditions, 6 current standard licences are generated.The iCommons project began in 2003 to adapt the North American licences to the jurisdictions of eachcountry. In that same year, Barcelona University became the Creative Commons affiliated institution inSpain. At present, the licences are adapted to Spanish intellectual property legislation and are available inthe various official languages.Different applications of Creative Commons licences in the Public AdministrationThe conclusions of the study by British consortium Common Information Environment on the applicationof CC licences in the public sector show that the diffusion of public resources with these licences isfeasible. In fact, there are examples such as the governments of Mexico and Brazil, institutions such asthe British Council and the BBC in the United Kingdom, research policies of the US National Institutes ofHealth, etc.In Catalonia, we also find projects such as Recercat (Catalan Research Repository), RACO (Open-Access Catalan Journals), Zona Clic (Ministry of Education). We should highlight the proposedapplication of CC licences to all Government of Catalonia publications adopted by the PublishingCommittee on 27 June 2006.Conclusions1. We do not need to follow the traditional model of all reserved.2. Only what is necessary needs to be reserved.3. We need to provide access to and reuse of information paid by all.4. Indication should always be given of what is permitted and it should be the least restrictive possible.5. A real study needs to be conducted into the possibilities of licences and their applicability.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, October 2006
6th web session at the CEJFEInternet tools that make people interact in the AdministrationRoc Fages, consultant journalist specialising in the Internet. He frequently writes comments on e-administration in the broadest sense in his cyber-diary www.goldmundus.com. The event was presentedby Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training.CEJFE assembly room, 30 January 2007. 175 participantsIntroductionTechnology helps people exchange knowledge and good practices using interaction tools on the Internetsuch as blogs, wikis and other resources, especially interactive tools of the so-called web 2.0.Interaction and blogsBlogs are online personal or group diaries where information is published in the form of articles or postson a range of subjects. They are displayed in a chronological structure which is usually updated regularlyand allow readers visiting the blog to add comments. There are a number of tools for creating blogs:Blogger, e-Catalunya... In addition, the syndication of content using RSS allows notifications to bereceived when the blogs of interest to us are updated with the use of local applications such asFeedreader or web access applications such as Bloglines (bloglines of Roc Fages).Blogs have become a participative tool in both the public and the private spheres. Consequently,ministers, mayors and politicians have created their own blogs to comment on measures adopted or toreflect on the day-to-day of a city and to gather the opinions of their readers (blog of the PublicAdministrations Minister Jordi Sevilla, blog of the Mayor of Mataró Joan Antoni Baron, blog ofAdministration workers such as that of Alberto Ortiz de Zárate and Iñaki Ortiz).Some companies use corporate blogs to put their workers in contact and to interact with users orcustomers (IBM, Microsoft).Interaction and web 2.0Web 2.0 incorporates tools that enable online collaborative work quickly, easily and in real time. The e-Catalunya platform is an example of how different professionals can work together with others in thesame field, discussing and benefiting from each others contributions. The platform offers its memberssuch tools as wikis, blogs and storage of all kind of files to interact and share knowledge. Leadershipplays a decisive role here.Civic activism can also be enhanced with interaction using mobile phones: the e-lens project, which isbased on a system of labels with chips that allow information to be received by mobile which can bemodified on the mobile (pilot trial in Manresa), and Zexe.net, which is an accessible channel in Barcelonawhere people with physical disabilities take photographs of places that are not accessible and post themon the web.By way of conclusion1. Interaction goes beyond the Internet. We now need to look at integrated interaction tools (blogs, wikis, RSS, etc.) and platforms (computer, TV, mobile, PDA).2. We need to explore and enhance the interactive tools to generate participation.3. Interaction tools that are useful and easy to use should be used.Blogs and wikis are ideal tools for the relationship between the Administration and the users. Internally –with its employees – because they favour reflection and cohesion as an organisation. Externally, theyenhance the institutions brand by favouring participation in the generation of ideas.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, January 2007
7th web session at the CEJFEIn what direction is training in organisations going?Javier Martínez Aldanondo, manager of the Knowledge Management Division at Catenaria is one of theleading experts in e-learning and knowledge management in the Spanish-speaking world. The event waspresented by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training.CEJFE assembly room, 21 March 2007. 120 participantsIntroductionWe generally do not remember the knowledge imparted in an onsite course; by contrast, we doremember experiences, storytelling and learning from mistakes. To learn, we need to remember: we donot need course or contents, but someone who knows how to teach and who knows how to do what theyare teaching. In training, there are 3 revolutions waiting in the wings:1st revolution: training linked to the organisations resultsTraining objectives should be part of the organisations strategic objectives. Training is given to changebehaviour, and for this we need to ascertain what it is that is not working, what the employees do andwhat the organisation would like them to do, what problems they have, who the experts are, what themain mistakes that they make are, etc. We also need indicators to assess training.2nd revolution: learning by doingPractice is necessary to learn: if what we teach cannot be practised, maybe it is not worth teaching it. Themistake is the most important element of learning as we learn from mistakes. The aim of this learning is tostore experience that we can reuse in the future.3rd revolution: learning with technologyE-learning cannot be based solely on flexibility: it must offer things that the onsite world cannot offer. It ispeople who have intelligence, technology is an instrument. The problem with e-learning is that onsitetraining has been transferred to the virtual world without any adaptation: we often read on screen what weused to read in a manual, yet the computer is an instrument that allows us to practice, get feedback,network, etc.ConclusionThere are basically two problems in training:1. We usually teach things that no one needs, we do not teach what is really necessary, and when we do, it is not at the time that people need it.2. We need to change the way that we teach as it is condemned to fail. There are three pillars on which learning processes stand: a. People learn by doing, practising things that interest them. If you dont practise, you dont learn. b. The mistake is the most important element in a learning process. c. Story telling is a vehicle of incalculable worth for conveying knowledge: we learn from others, with others and teaching others.Learning (and doing so more quickly than competitors) is the essential skill for surviving in the presentsystem, where change is a constant. Organisations can only last if they help workers adapt to thesechanges, i.e. learn. Change demands working collaboratively, it demands an intensive use oftechnologies, it demands innovation and, above all, it demands that wefocus on people.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, March 2007
8th web session at the CEJFECan the Administration seduce over the Internet?David Boronat, Internet specialist and founder partner of the Multiplica company, frequently writescomments on persuadability on the Internet at www.persuabilidad.com, a website that explains theimportance of persuading to convert users into customers. The event was presented by Joan Xirau,director of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training (CEJFE).CEJFE assembly room, 27 March 2007. 130 participantsIntroductionThe public administrations have to take into account the evolution of the private sector in the use ofstrategies to attract the attention of users and try to gain their loyalty as customers. In this sense, theyneed to use the Internet more intensely to raise awareness, communicate and involve citizensemotionally or show regional values and optimum management.The private sector on the InternetCompanies have users, with whom they have to establish a dialogue and whom they have to motivateemotionally. Challenges facing companies on the Internet:- Saying things another way, speaking the same language as their users and explaining things simply and visually.- Awarding every relevance to e-mail addresses and making intelligent use of e-mail. Multi-channel usage and getting to know the user without asking them for a lot of details (e.g. through cookies) is also important.- Creating special conditions for customers with whom they want to deal telematically.Administration on the InternetAdministration on the Internet:- It has to attract, it has to seduce and it has to foster certain regional values.- As with companies, it has to explain things simply and visually to citizens and users in more everyday language. And it also has to encourage the citizen to contact it telematically.- It has to sell its programmes and its services online (and so that the citizens use them), but it also has to be transparent (explain the action of government, its strategic priorities, its objectives and publish its results).- It has to foster push services and be able to take advantage of success stories (e.g. a high percentage of visitors to the Barcelona City Council website do so to consult the map and it is on this page where anything that needs highlighting can be disseminated).ConclusionThe persuadability of e-Administration is not a fallacy. There are currently many examples of persuasiveAdministration on the Internet:- Chilecompra (Government of Chile): online public purchasing and procurement system.- My eCitizen (Government of Singapore): privatisation of institutional information.- One Cent Now (Toronto): mobilisation of citizens in favour of the region (cyber-activism).The Administration, therefore, has to be able to use strategies and resources from the business world toapproach citizens and other customers with success and establish a relationship of trust that allows theirloyalty to be gained.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, March 2007
9th web session at the CEJFEWhat can the Administration do with the knowledge it produces?Mario Pérez-Montoro, is a doctor in philosophy and education sciences from the University of Barcelona(UB) and senior lecturer in the Faculty of Library and Information Science at the UB. The event waspresented by Joan Mauri, secretary general of the Ministry of Justice.CEJFE assembly room, 5 June 2007. 200 participantsIntroductionIn the knowledge economy, knowledge is the principal source of activity of organisations and the valueincorporated into goods and services that makes them competitively distinctive and that makes usersaccept them (requirements for there to be innovation). Organisations are structured around knowledgeand see learning as a means of improving and, consequently, adapting to processes of change.Managing knowledge in organisationsTypes of knowledge:- Tacit (personal and difficult to convey) and explicit (can be verbalised and conveyed).- Individual (tacit + explicit knowledge held by everyone) and corporate (belonging to organisations).- Internal (critical knowledge that enables an organisation to meet its objectives) and external (for dealing with other organisations and people).Knowledge management consists of designing a system that incorporates all the knowledge types of theorganisation and that transforms it into corporate knowledge to enable the organisation to meet itsobjectives.Corporate knowledge is affected, however, when staff leave and through obsolescence of knowledge.Classical learning and other forms such as e-learning, collaborative learning, experience, etc. help offsetthe knowledge lost by these drains.What price knowledge management and what we can get in exchangeObstacles: resistance to change and to sharing, lack of time and incentives, need for training intechnology and for group work, lack of common organisational culture, intolerance of mistakes, etc.Personal benefits: solving everyday work problems, improving decision-taking, gaining flexibility,accessing new ways of learning, acquiring professional recognition, etc.Collective benefits: increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation, reducing theknowledge deficit, avoiding doubling-up of knowledge, fostering investment in training, increasing thecommitment to the organisation, creating a knowledge ecology environment (only useful knowledge staysin the organisation).Recipes for starting up knowledge management: the Ministry of Justice model- Strategic phases of the project: 1. Identify potential communities. 2. Provide them with the logistics. 3. Assess the contribution to the organisation.- Community of practice: e-moderators (leaders) + 15 groups that work following the project methodology. 190 people working in it and some 900 linked to it (external groups, etc.).- Work structure: face-to-face meetings + collaborative work on the e-Catalunya platform.- Setting out problems, proposing standardised solutions and creating products (standard documents, action protocols, etc.).- Dissemination of the project: intranet [knowledge portal], website, e-moderators blog, digital journal.- Assessment: indicators of activities (number of activities per group and per tool), production (number of face-to-face session and number of products created) and impact (related to efficiency and experience).Conclusion"In questions of culture and knowledge, you only lose what you keep, you only gain what you give."Antonio MachadoDiffusion Service. Barcelona, June 2007
10th web session at the CEJFESocial networks on the Internet: the added value of our contactsAlbert Armengol is a graduate in medicine and surgery from the Autonomous University of Barcelona(UAB), he has an MBA from ESADE and is the founder of eConozco www.econozco.com, the first onlinecontacts network in the Spanish-speaking world. The event was presented by Joan Xirau, director of theCentre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training (CEJFE)CEJFE assembly room, 16 October 2007. 170 participantsIn the face-to-face sphere, networking is the development and dissemination of the good management ofthe network of personal and professional contacts.Social networks onlineTogether with forums, wikis, mail, instant messaging and blogs, social network software is a tool thathelps the collaborative construction of the knowledge of an organisation.It is interesting to observe the contrast in the graphic representation of contacts networks inorganisations: the organisational relationships, referring to the hierarchical organisation, and relationalones, which are in effect what we call the social network.What is networking?Networking consists of developing and sharing our network of contacts; it is, therefore, a highlyappropriate resource for promoting collaborative work projects. There are two types: personal andprofessional. Within networking we can differentiate between strong links (those contacts with whom weshare a similar circle of contacts to our own) and weak links (people that we have just met). Strong linksoffer a framework of trust while weak links offer diversity and are highly recommendable for strengtheningwith networking.What is online networking?Online networking (social networking software) consists of a network of professional contacts that can beextended with the contacts from our present contacts. This way, we end up weaving a large network ofrelationships.Through online networking we can find people that would otherwise have been very difficult to contact.Online networking, then, allows us to be in the right place at the right time.The online networking concept emerged in around 2002 on open websites. To become part of a socialnetworking website, you first have to enter a good professional profile or CV so that you are accessible toanyone wanting to contact you (passive visibility).Within online networking networks, there are social and professional networks. In a possible classificationof networks from a geographical point of view, we find ones ranging from the more local (such as e-Catalunya http://ecatalunya.gencat.net, with communities promoted by the Government of Catalonia orthe Catalan sphere) to others with an international scope, such as the German Xing (which has takenover eConozco and Neurona), which is the leader in Europe, and Linked-In (with the hegemony in theEnglish-speaking world).Conclusion. "Dig the well before you become thirsty" (Chinese proverb)Just as we can determine specific uses for the other Internet tools (forum = debate; blog = explicitation ofimplicit knowledge, conversation; wiki = joint creation of the resulting document), social networkingsoftware helps us efficiently manage and extend our network of contacts as a resource that aids thestructuring of collective intelligence.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, October 2007
11th web session at the CEJFEWhy do we have to innovate in the Administration?Joan Majó Cruzate. A doctor in industrial engineering and director of the Catalan BroadcastingCorporation, he has been linked to the business world and to institutions related with telecommunications,research and science both locally and internationally. The event was presented by Joan Mauri, secretarygeneral of the Ministry of Justice.CEJFE assembly room, 23 January 2008. 175 participantsWhat is innovationIn the business world, innovation is understood as the ability to turn knowledge into economic gain. In thenon-mercantile world, such as the Public Administration, innovation is the ability to turn knowledge intovalue to improve services. Innovation is always a tool with which to achieve objectives and not anobjective in itself.Rather than making a better product, innovation is thinking of a new one where people clearly see theuse.The ability to innovate is a general characteristic of an area or country. It is part of a specific culture, it isin people and from them it spreads. For innovation to exist and for its development and implementation,there are four essential elements> networks of education systems and of professionals, business modelsand public administration policies.Innovation in the processes of the economyThe aim of companies is to be competitive in order to get results. In business development, there arethree phases: competitiveness through costs, through quality and through innovation. Today, westerncompanies can only be competitive through innovation, as other countries are more competitiveeconomically and have the same technological capacity to make quality products.The European Union has monitored the capacity for innovation of the various states and regions. Basedon the definition of 17 indicators, such as the number of science and engineering graduates, thepercentage of the population between the ages of 25 and 64 with a tertiary education or on institutionalrefresher courses, the percentage of the GDP devoted to research and development, etc., ameasurement is taken of how European countries are evolving towards innovation. The figures show thatin recent years Catalonia has been dropping position in terms of innovation.How to innovate in the Public Administration?The Administration finds it hard to accept innovations and overcome inertia. Things are done well, but it isthe same things that are still being done. In the public sphere, rather than exchange knowledge, what weneed to exchange is experience and to be always aware of improving the public service that is offered.For example, to innovate, we need to offer services that adapt to the new consumption habits of citizens(Internet, mobile telephony, etc.).ConclusionInnovation is a change in the system of consumption that is always in response to peoples needs. A goodexample of an innovated and widely accepted product is the mobile phone and the range of associatedapplications that allow mobile access to all kinds of content and services.Innovation of the procedure entails an improvement in the quality of the service. We have to beimaginative and anticipate the real needs that people will have in the future to ready our activity in thisrespect.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, January 2008
12th web session at the CEJFECan we achieve an Administration 2.0? Collaborative tools and attitudesCarlos Guadián Orta www.k-government.com, specialist consultant in communication and content onthe Internet. The event was presented by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies .CEJFE assembly room, 16 April 2008. 200 participantsThe web 2.0 notion changes the mentality of the user and of the AdministrationInternet, and more specifically the web 2.0, provides channels of communication that impact on the waywe relate socially, on our learning and on the acquisition of knowledge.With the web 2.0, the Net is a huge conversation that allows the formation of communities of proximity (ofinterest) and fosters the merits of everyone. The user goes from being a mere receiver to being thecentre, as everything becomes two-way. This is how the global conversation is set up.In this new context, a collaborative attitude is essential, i.e. an interest in producing and sharingknowledge.How to integrate the web 2.0 model into the AdministrationThe Administration has to manage this change well, helping the attitude of directors and managers,training and technical solutions to adapt to it. In short, staff working for the Administration need to acquireconfidence in this new collaborative setting so that they can both contribute and acquire professionalknowledge.In this context, the Administration should not be controlling the public but collaborating with it so thatcitizens add value to the services.Collaborative tools and resources on the Internet: blogs, RSS, bookmarking and social newsfilters, social network, wikis, etc.There are a number of collaborative tools and resources on the Internet that favour change, such asblogs (Wordpress, Blogger), RSS (Bloglines, Google Reader, Thunderbird), bookmarking, such asDel.icio.us), social news filters (Digg, Menéame) and news or posts search engines (Wikio, Blogsearch),social networks (Linkedin, Facebook), wikis, etc.Web 2.0 experiences in the AdministrationThere are administrations, such as the Ministry of Justice, that have entered whole-heartedly in the web2.0. The Compartim (Lets Share) programme is a good example of this.This and other experiences (such as the e-Catalunya platform, etc.) conceive the service they provide asa platform on which a network of relations between its personnel and with the public is constructed.ConclusionThe web 2.0 aids the participation of everyone in a free medium. To get the most out of this newenvironment, it is essential that organisations and people (including administrations and their staff) adopta collaborative attitude that favours the production and sharing of knowledge. In the sphere of theAdministration, there are already valuable experiences. We need to carry on acquiring knowledge andconfidence in the use of tools that aid work in this new environment (blogs, RSS, bookmarking, searchengines, social news filters, wikis, etc.).Diffusion Service. Barcelona, April 2008
13th web session at the CEJFEThe transformation of online learning through social networking and videoGregor Gimmy www.sclipo.com, founder and chief executive officer (CEO) of the Sclipo company. Theevent was presented by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies .CEJFE assembly room, 11 June 2008. 194 participantsTraditional education poses shortcomings in infrastructure such as location, synchrony and lack ofinteraction. The web 2.0, and specifically social networking technologies and video and webcamtechnologies, offer new opportunities for improving learning as they enable us to learn from the bestwherever they are (delocation), know who and what is the best, reduce the cost of assessment, aidlearning of any content no matter how minority it is and save and find relevant audiovisual contents andinteractions.Web 2.0 and social networksWhereas the web 1.0 basically allowed us to receive information, shop and search, the web 2.0 alsoenables us to create content (texts, photos, audio, video) without having any knowledge of programming.It also aids the assessment and socialisation of the content so that there is interaction between users.The common characteristics of the web 2.0 are that users have their own public profile (public space),they can create and share content and they can interact publicly and privately. This interaction favoursthe promotion of users or of the content that they create.There are different types of web 2.0 depending on the aims of the users: propose and find content (digg,Technorati), promote themselves (Blogger, Youtube, Flickr, MySpace), nurture friendships (Facebook),learn and teach (Sclipo), professional networking (Xing).Social network + education = Sclipo: social educationThe combination of the social network with the aim of learning and teaching has made Sclipo apioneering company in social education.Sclipo is a social network on which anyone can post any number of videos (there are no restrictions) toaid learning of any content, including minority. Assessment of the content is very extensive as theparticipants assess directly and indirectly (views, forwarding to friends, votes, comments). For thisreason, knowing who is the best is easier on Sclipo as it is the users who choose the best contents, whichreduces assessment costs.SclipoLive is a pioneering service allowing synchronous teaching via a webcam and the recording ofcontents and chats (notes indexed in the class video), as well as saving the audiovisual contents and therelevant interactions to be able to find them afterwards easily. There will shortly be a new version wherethere will be a teacher for various students, with the possibility of adding texts to complement the video.ConclusionThe basic use of the Internet is learning. Online learning is a very great opportunity with a great deal ofpotential to improve education through social networking technologies combined with the audiovisualmedium. It also allows tailor-made solutions for companies and administrations to socialise goodpractices among workers.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, June 2008
14th web session at the CEJFECollective intelligence and the web 2.0Ricardo Baeza Yates www.dcc.uchile.cl/~rbaeza/spanish.html, director of Yahoo! Research Barcelonaand Santiago de Chile. The event was presented by Joan Xirau, director of the Centre for Legal Studies .CEJFE assembly room, 9 October 2008. 200 participantsThe web 2.0 notion. Impact on the present InternetIt is now calculated that there are between 1 and 2.5 million people online and it is predicted that this willrise to 5 million by 2015; Internet traffic has multiplied by 20 in 5 years and there are more than 181million web servers. The main characteristic of the web 2.0, constituted by social networks or socialmedia, is the fragmentation of the property of the content and the fragmentation of access.Characteristics of the web 2.0: content generated by people and group intelligenceThe principal ingredient of the web 2.0 is the community dynamics: new products blur the distinctionsbetween creators, synthesisers and consumers. Let us look, for example, at the case of Flickrwww.flickr.com: it is the users who generate the content, organise it, distribute it and develop newfunctions from it. The ecosystem of the web 2.0 is made up of blogs; social networks such as MySpacewww.myspace.com, Facebook http://ca-es.facebook.com, Friendster www.friendster.com; sharingfavourite links http://delicious.com; instant messaging, photo sharing (Flickr) or video sharingwww.youtube.com; participation in groups http://es.groups.yahoo.com and people replying to peoplehttp://es.answers.yahoo.com. South Korea is the most advanced country in terms of social networks.Web usage data miningIn 2004, journalist James Surowiecki published the book The Wisdom of Crowds. On the web 2.0,information extraction (data mining) based on the wisdom of crowds improves the users experience onthe basis of data gathered: it is crucial for improving the web search (ranking of search engines), thecontent and structure of the information (thanks to the anchor text)Digital communities systems, new emerging science, and the implicit wisdom of peopleDigital communities systems are a new way of participating, belonging and sharing: the present webreflects the economy and society in general, it is scientifically young and intellectually diverse. The implicitwisdom of people is seen in the folksonomy (collaborative classification by labels, tagging) andknowledge, and its consequence is the implicit social network, such as the Open Directory Projectwww.dmoz.org and Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org. In the governmental sphere, digital communities havealso been created in a number of countries. The most notable example in Catalonia is the Compartim(Lets Share) knowledge management programme and the collaborative preparation of the programmesannual conference through the social blog http://compartim.socializame.com.ConclusionOn the web 2.0 the content is generated and shared by the users themselves, and this has a great impactnot only on the Internet but also on society, the economy, the advertising world, education, etc. Acts ofconsumption are implicit acts of production that do not require an incremental effort. It is a question ofcapturing peoples experience, enabling the dynamic assignment of confidence to different people.Diffusion Service. Barcelona, October 2008
15th web session at the CEJFEDo people have to have a digital identity? How to construct itJuan Freire http://juanfreire.net, expert in innovation and strategies in networks and organisations. Theevent was presented by Jordi Graells, Contents and Innovation coordinator of the Directorate General ofCitizen Attention (Ministry in charge of Presidency).CEJFE assembly room, 18 February 2009. 194 participantsDigital identityNowadays, the intensive use of 2.0 tools, and especially of social networking services, make it necessaryto have a digital identity to make ourselves visible to the rest of society: we need to control which identityis shown on the Internet; therefore, it is preferable for us to manage it ourselves rather than not beingpresent and rather than other people managing it for us.Learning and construction of the digital identityThe construction of the digital identity is part of the learning process in the digital culture. We are headingtowards a context with a hybrid identity (physical and digital) but we do not have two identities, rather ouridentity is unique, even though it is difficult sometimes to discriminate the personal sphere from theprofessional sphere.Teenagers now only perceive a single identity. A study conducted in 2008 in the United States on the usemade by teenagers of digital media concluded that teenagers relate in two types of community: a) localnetworks of friends, as an extension of physical relationships, through calls, texting, instant messaging,and b) networks of interest, global in scope, where they relate with other people with similar interests, andit is in these networks where they develop creative abilities (writing blogs, posting videos, etc.) and gainvisibility and reputation.Teenagers participate in the network in three different ways: 1) to spend some time (hanging out); 2) tosearch for information with no specific aim (messing around), and 3) they appropriate the technology andmake an autonomous and specialist use of it (geeking out).There are two ways of understanding the Internet: as a huge rubbish space (games, inexact information,advertising, etc.) or as a space of learning and socialisation. Depending on our learning process, we willbe on one side or the other.In constructing the digital identity, the instruments that we use are not so important as what we use themfor. The concept of digital skills has evolved: it has gone from a technological focus (1990s – early 2000s)to a social and participative communicative focus (from 2003).Conclusion- There are no rules for constructing and controlling the digital identity; it is an individual learning process. The rules of the game have yet to be defined.- We need to be careful with the information that we post, which in itself may not mean anything, but data mining can be done and patterns established.- If we do not have a digital identity created it is easier to supplant it.- Digital identity also affects organisations; therefore, the Administration also has to construct its own identity and has to know what it wants to convey to the public. The Administration also has to train its workers so that they know how to construct their own identity and for this to reflect on the organisation, and this is especially necessary for institutions that have embarked on social networking and collaborative work projects.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, February 2009
16th web session at the CEJFEDarwin in the information society: adaptation (and benefits) or extinctionIsmael Peña-López http://ictlogy.net, lecturer at the Open University of Catalonia and expert ininformation and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) and digital learning. The eventwas presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge ofPresidency.CEJFE assembly room, 10 June 2009. 163 participantsTowards a knowledge societyThe economic paradigm of the industrial society is based on the management of scarce resources andtransaction costs, and the world revolves around and is defined by these two parameters. Internet accessand the extensive use of ICT is configuring an economy based increasingly more on knowledge, withhorizontal organic structures and in which information is abundant, is distributed at practically nil cost, ismulti-directional and is accessible to everyone. How should citizens and institutions face these changes?Adapt or become extinctTechnological literacy and digital skill will not take us away from the risk of social exclusion if we are notcapable of being structurally relevant to the system and creating value for society. And this is valid bothfor companies and citizens and for institutions. If we want to survive, we should not limit ourselves tobeing mere executors or users of ICT. We have to know how to auto-program ourselves and evolve toadapt to the continuous changes.Following the evolutionary theory of Darwin, we can say that those who do not adapt to the newenvironment are condemned to become extinct. Some companies or institutions will disappear overnight,others will slowly fade away, and others will take quite a few years to adapt to the skills and demands ofthe information society.In this process of adaptation, we will have to rethink once again how we teach, work and relate, and it ishere where institutions play a crucial role. Besides technological and multimedia literacy and a digitalpresence, governments need to foster appropriate policies that help citizens and companies see theusefulness of entering the information society (pull strategies) so that they share the need to becomeintegrated in this new social and structural model in order not to get left behind. If they see theusefulness, they readily accept changes.Conclusions- Todays society is based on knowledge, abundant and at low cost, as compared with the industrial society, based on the scarcity of resources and on transaction costs.- Technological and multimedia literacy are elements that aid integration in the new knowledge society model, but to avoid social exclusion we need digital awareness and to create value in society.- Our survival depends on adapting to the changes and being structurally relevant to the system.- Citizens and institutions have to interact closely to rethink and remodel all spheres of everyday life according to the new needs.- Institutional polices based on pull strategies are key to bringing about a change of attitude.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, June 2009
17th web session at the CEJFENetworking in the Administration: where do we start?Genís Roca www.genisroca.cat, specialist in strategy and the Internet. The event was presented byRoser Bach, director of the CEJFE, and Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention.CEJFE assembly room, 14 October 2009. 213 participantsIn a different format from the previous ones, the session was highly participative. Genís Roca acted asthe conductor of the session after the intense debate that occurred, before the web session, on theInternet: in the space enabled on Facebook, in various blogs and also on Twitter. There were over 100participants and more than 200 contributions. Genís Roca wrote the script for the session based on thesecontributions and, after analysing and classing them, proposed a reflection on what we understand byAdministration 2.0 and began a debate focused on five topics.The environmentCitizens do not ask for 2.0 projects, what they want is an efficient and streamlined Administration, eventhough there is also a part of society immersed in 2.0 that seeks to relate directly. Also, the Administrationshould not wait for society to ask for 2.0 projects, it has to anticipate them.The invironment(internal organisation of the Administration, according to Genís Roca)The use and implementation of 2.0 tools is not such a great priority as, for example, the digitalisation ofprocesses, which has to be completed by 2010 in accordance with Law 11/2007. The 2.0 projects alsogenerate a certain fear of criticism and of not being able to answer citizens requests properly.The projectsBefore setting up a 2.0 project, we need to have clear objectives, observe the environment and determinewhether there are similar projects as perhaps they simply have to be adapted or a different focus given tothem. Also, projects are in constant evolution and in a permanent beta version.The leadershipsThe 2.0 projects have to combine hierarchy and meritocracy, i.e. they have to have a dual leadership: ahierarchical leader who understands the project and provides the necessary resources and a projectleader who animates the network. Directors need to be made to see that networking offers an addedvalue, which is why adequate metrics need to be established.The legalityThe Administration already uses profitable 2.0 tools; it simply has to take care with the information it postson external platforms as there is content that should not be made public (such as personal data).ConclusionsTo conclude, Genís Roca chose three sentences that exemplified the ingredients needed to push through2.0 projects in the Administration:- If you want to do a 2.0 project, detect, ally and add.- Leadership, values and methodology are needed.- If you want to foster a 2.0 project in the Administration... you need patience.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2009
18th web session at the CEJFENew forms of institutional communicationJordi Segarra www.stpolitics.com, consultant in political and institutional communication. The event waspresented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge ofPresidency.CEJFE assembly room, 19 January 2010. 200 participantsTechnology is simply a toolTechnology is an instrument at the service of a strategy. Nowadays we have many tools with which tocommunicate, but before anything else, we need to research: we need to know what we want, how wewant it or how it can be done and, based on this, to do it. This is why it is essential to know the targetpublic and the environment.We need to know what the target is because politics is local, yet also personal. This is done on the basisof what is known as microtargeting: identifying the public we are aiming at through various tools, such asbuzz monitoring (tracks the conversations and social trends on forums, social networks, etc); specialistsocial networks; data mining; offline regional implementation (through local leaders, people capable ofinfluencing and who are naturally trusted).Cut and paste doesnt workWe do not have to copy successful communication strategies as it is more profitable to adapt what wehave learned from others to our context.Dialogue/conversation instead of monologueThe external and internal communication of organisations must be based on the generation ofinformation, debate and participation.All politics is personalMessages are no longer aimed at a group but at a person. Technology affords us the direct audiovisualcreation and dissemination of citizens. The multiplication of the media market allows greaterpersonalisation. Through technology, we can segment our public individually. Politics, however, is still not100% viral, as socially the traditional media still dominate.The future trends are geolocalisation, specialisation of social media and the transformation of thetraditional media.Without emotion there is no reactionIn politics, emotion always wins out over reason. What makes voters believe something or want change isnot new information but new emotions.From the public sphere to the public sporePolitics has to use the media to communicate with people. There should not just be a programme butemotions, social networks and connection with people.Conclusions- What is needed is a reason, a message with a story (storytelling), an emotion, a spark (momentum).- The right language and channel need to be used.- People need to be mobilised: we should not try to convince them, they have to be involved and motivated.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, January 2010
19th web session at the CEJFEInstitutional leadership on the NetAntoni Gutiérrez-Rubí www.gutierrez-rubi.es, political communication advisor and political consultant.The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry incharge of Presidency.CEJFE assembly room, 9 March 2010. 148 participantsContextTodays society is in a process of transformation: the changes are social and economic, but also cultural,relational and geopolitical. In this context, the Administration is seen with prejudices and stereotypes in anincreasingly more demanding society: the concepts (value-price, employment-work, skills-profession)change and new actors emerge: online citizens, digital activists, e-consumers... who expect quality ofservice, speedy answers, transparency and the possibility of participation. The Administration should notdo marketing but should converse with these new actors.Institutional leadership on the Net: ideas are powerIn this new context of the digital society, traditional communication is not enough to keep up a dialoguewith the citizen and satisfy their demands. The sole discourse is no longer possible, as the socialnetworks show. The power relationship has changed, it is no longer hierarchical: digital identity dependson reputation; this is why we need to be on the Net contributing ideas and information of value andcommitting to co-creation with the service providers and with the citizens.Power now is agility, speed, creativity and ideas with value. Power is no longer a position but presence,and presence configures the position.Resources- Virtual press offices.- New open web spaces, optimised for search engines and with personalisation of content.- Extensive digital repositories and open databases.- Use of 2.0 tools.- Monitoring of the presence of the institution on the Internet and of responses to citizens.Key ideas: 1.0 communication with 2.0 tools is condemned to failChange is not technological, it is cultural and entails a new culture of communication and a differentorganisational model that fosters creative talent: collaborative creation and collective intelligence.Conclusions: it is not a case of cosmetics, it is a case of change- The Administration has to respond transparently to the demands of an increasingly more critical and demanding society.- The aim of information is not to detect power but to share it to improve and change things.- Innovating is not doing something that you did not do before, but doing a new thing that you need to learn.- Innovation entails the pleasure of learning, but also of knowing and sharing. This will make us better professionals and better people and we will be happier.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, March 2010
20th web session at the CEJFEDigital skills and learningBoris Mir www.xtec.cat/~bmir, secondary school teacher and currently a member of the team behind theEDUCAT1x1 Project. The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of CitizenAttention.CEJFE assembly room, 11 May 2010. 124 participants1. School and learningIn Catalan classrooms there are 1,180,460 students; 62,805 teachers in state schools, and 4,373schools, between state, direct-grant and private. School has the non-exclusive function of learning, but italso has the non-exclusive function of safekeeping and socialisation, and it appears that these functionswill not diminish, but quite the contrary. School is not just a service, it is an institution, which is why usersatisfaction is always subordinate to the degree of respect for educational and ethical principles that arethe basis of the school institution.2. Cross-disciplinary skills in the new education systemBoth the State Education Act (2006) and Catalan Decrees 142 and 143/2007 include cross-disciplinaryand specific skills to the new curricula, one of which is information treatment and digital skill. This skills-based learning represents the integrated and strategic use of different skills in real, contextualised, non-school situations and entails changes in teaching practices that cannot be decreed. In all, it leads us tobelieve that we are undergoing a transition between different models that will call for more far-reachingchanges.3. Digital skill: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technologyThere are diverse visions and trends that speak of digital skill, but many have a common basis, abackground music that converges in key dimensions that would comprise learning, information,communication, digital culture and technology.Digital skill has to combine knowledge, abilities and skills, in conjunction with values and attitudes, inorder to achieve objectives effectively and efficiently in digital contexts and with digital tools. Digital skilltakes on meaning if it is tackled from the framework of knowledge, and as it forms part of knowledge, itcan be learnt and taught.A digitally skilled person has to be able to generate knowledge, with digital tools and in digitalenvironments, but they also have to know how to treat and assess information, they have to know how tocommunicate, relate and collaborate, they have to act responsibly, civic-mindedly and securely and,naturally, they also have to know how to use the tools, not so much any specific software but the commonbaseboard that is behind the tools.4. Innovation and management of educational changeThe 2009 Catalan Education Act proposed changes to the organisation and management of the humanand economic resources of schools and envisaged a progressive increase in education expenditure.Innovations in education have to be scalable in order for them to have an overall impact. Simplyimproving education infrastructures is not enough, what is needed is decisive change management thatinvolves teachers and helps them move closer to the new digital context. Maybe we have to be modest inthe changes to ensure the involvement of everyone.Conclusions- Digital skill is the strategic use of skills in five areas: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology.- The mass introduction of technology into classrooms does not ensure that digital skill is learned but creates the conditions to make it possible.- Schools cannot change themselves, they need the help of the whole of society.
- Changes come about by doing them. We cannot wait until we have the perfect conditions to start, we will create the conditions as we steadily change and improve.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, May 2010
21st Web session at the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised TrainingCompetitive Intelligence in Government BodiesRamon Maspons, teacher, researcher and specialist in competitive intelligence. The session wasintroduced by Marta Continente, Director General of Citizen Attention.Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 19 October 2010. 186 people attended.From post-industrial society to the knowledge societyIn the knowledge society there is a great accumulation of information and we are finding it increasinglydifficult to capture, process and analyse it. Intelligence activities help us to identify our information needs(if it exists and where it can be found). In our country, however, there is no information culture and thenecessary resources are not allocated for information to be captured and processed, which is done inother countries around us.By competitive intelligence we understand obtaining, analysing, interpreting and disseminatinginformation of strategic value concerning society and our competitors.Competitive intelligence can increase an organisation’s profits in the short term by improving the quality ofdecisions and can increase them in the long term by providing management with patterns for strategicdecision making which can increase customer satisfaction.Traditionally organisations have focused their efforts on spreading information about the companyoutwards. However, today, in a complex environment brought about by constant technological change,market globalisation and demassification (the personalisation of products), organisations need to be moreopen. Suppliers, customers and the whole corporate environment are sources of innovation.Any organisation has to be able to answer some basic questions about the focus of its intelligence: whatinformation is needed, where it can be found, how it should be communicated, who it is intended for andwhat resources are allocated to the process. It is also necessary to identify changes which might takeplace in the environment and give us more room for manoeuvre.Intelligence activities in government bodiesThe public sector needs to apply competitive intelligence effectively. The main difference from the privatesector is the absence of profit as a motive. The incentives are concerned more with managing a budget(input) than with measuring results.We are moving towards open organisations, in which suppliers and customers are a source of innovationand information. There are open organisations that look for solutions directly in their environment: theycreate virtual communities to obtain answers. Our strategies must be more effective and cost-efficient.Public organisations also have customers, but their relationship with them is different, as they may havestakeholders in their value chains and competitors (competition for funding, staff, users, influence,prestige, etc.).Conclusions- Information needs must be aligned with the organisation’s strategy.- Public organisations are receptors of information entering through different channels and must be able to develop tools to analyse it, allowing them to provide services as efficiently as possible.- Competitive intelligence only makes sense in the public sector if the value of the agents taking part in the process is maximised.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2010
22nd Web session at the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised TrainingCommunity managers in government? What they should be like.José Antonio Gallego is the founder and CEO of Aerco. The session was introduced by IgnasiGenovès, Director General of Citizen Assistance and Dissemination, and Roser Bach, Director of theCentre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training.Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 1 February 2011. 180 people attended (+52via streaming).The recession brings about a social transformationThroughout history there have been recessions which have led to social transformations. At these timessociety realises that it cannot rely on existing social and economic drivers because they are notsufficiently agile. Today there are 2.0 tools, social networks, which can facilitate the transformation inresponse to people’s input; it is no longer a matter of changing from one elite group to another. The toolsavailable include Ushahidi, Flood aid, etc. and, in government bodies, BlueServo, which has placedcontrol of the border between the US and Mexico in the hands of the community.Governments can promote the use of social technologies, as occurs in most Anglo-Saxon countries, orhinder their use by doing nothing or taking action at the wrong time.The keys to success for social media projects in government- Training participants and a clear regulatory framework: public servants have to know how they work, how they can participate and how they can add value (e.g. Guide to Usage and Style in Government of Catalonia Social Networks). It is very important to be tolerant regarding well-intentioned mistakes.- Internal participation: clear inter-departamental communication is needed, calling for involvement and tools accessible to everyone- Creating value: offering quality information and not just issuing press releases- Meritocracy, reputation: there is more respect for those who become actively involved- Active listening and internal change: it is important to listen to what users say and make changes accordingly.- Defined strategy: what do we want? how can we measure it? Any project by an organisation must achieve at least one of these objectives: reducing costs, increasing existing levels of income, or creating new sources of income.The importance of metricsThe benefits of social media need to be measured: the metrics can be based on activity (the number ofvisitors, of pages visited, etc.), sales and marketing, customer support, product development (e.g. thenumber of ideas for new products) or human resources (e.g. time per employee).Role of the community managerThe community is the objective of community managers. They know they are doing the job properly whenthey become an awkward character, questioning the habitual way of doing things and obtaining greaterrecognition from colleagues than that attached to the position. They are consulted about different issues,are not bound by hierarchies or departments, and succeed in putting some of their ideas into practice.According to Jeremiah Owyang, the community manager’s professional cycle passes through differentstages: awakening, ascension, storm of cultural conflict, and career decision point (provide customersupport or make the project grow and allow it to be scalable).The community manager has to carry out 5 tasks:- Listen, the fundamental task.- Make information circulate internally.- Explain the position of the company or the government body.- Identify leaders inside and outside the organisation and motivate them.- Find new channels of communication between the business and the community.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, February 2011
Web session 23.From Pau to Pau: Internet for learning and entrepreneurship.Genís Roca presents and interviews Pau Argelaguet and Aleix Pujadas, third year secondary schoolpupils and authors of a blog, and Jordi Collell, Head of Communications for EyeOS.Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 8 March 2011. 175 people attended.Internet for personal growthThe founders of EyeOS launched their project when they were 16 or 17 years old (initially, as a webdesktop). Secondary school pupils Pau, Aleix and Enric are aged 13 to 14 and what they want to do isoffer users programs that help them to solve problems and share their knowledge.The internet for professional developmentPau Argelaguet and Aleix Pujadas do not propose to start a business with their blog. However, they areinterested in including advertising banners to cover the cost of running their server and improving content.They have 150 daily users and the blog is updated every day, with their own knowledge and the results ofresearch. All the programs they offer are free, the images are their own and the material is publishedunder a Creative Commons licence.EyeOS, for its part, demonstrates that it is feasible to do business with open source programs. Thecompany’s annual turnover is approximately 1 million euros and the business involves 17,000 people in64 countries. It is divided into 64 departments along cultural, linguistic and geographical lines.Both the students and Jordi Collell agree that English is the working language on the internet. EyeOSworks mainly in English to ensure the global coverage it enjoys.The internet for work and projects. The case of EyeOSEyeOS has grown exponentially since it first published code on the internet in 2005: anyone can access itand modify it, solely on condition that they then make it available to everyone else again.Jordi Collell offers a number of recommendations for moving from a group to a global project: don’t losesight of reality (don’t expect to acquire a multi-million business overnight), grow in stages (at all times youneed to know who you are, where you are and what you know), make sure you have people with the rightacademic training (it’s not just a matter of programming, although this skill is fundamental; there are manyother important qualities).The most important project for EyeOS at present is the move towards cloud computing.The injection of venture capital may lead to a change in the company’s DNA.The internet as a means of relating to and participating in governmentThe internet is a space which generates feelings of identity and belonging.Government bodies need to bear in mind that, if they ask for and hope to take advantage of publicparticipation, they need to make both digital and analogue channels available. Students often complainabout teachers’ lack of expertise in the area of ICT. Genis Roca argues that we cannot expect a body ofover 60,000 individuals to become fully proficient in a few years and that the use of ICT depends less onpeople’s age than their needs.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, March 2011
Web session 24.Open data in Catalonia.José Manuel Alonso, program manager of the World Wide Web Foundation, Co-director of theeGovernment Group in the W3C Consortium and a member of CTIC. The session was introduced byIgnasi Genovès, Director General of Citizen Assistance and Dissemination.Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 25 May 2011. 210 people attended.Changes in the relations between government, the public and business.Before the arrival of open data the information provided for the public by government bodies on theirwebsites was inadequate, the administration often being accused of having tunnel vision. In theBirmingham experiment the public created the website they would have liked their council to have.Everything began to change when the US Library of Congress and Flickr launched an open data pilotproject, publishing photographs of the library’s resources on its portal. This led to an unexpected level ofresponse from the public, which enabled them to improve their service.The importance of information in the public sectorThe public sector generates vast amounts of information. Freeing this data means returning it to itsrightful owners: the people. Moreover, the best way to reuse the information always occurs to someonefrom outside. The reuse of data by the public and by companies is totally justified, as it is a source ofinnovation that can generate economic and social wealth.Examples of initiatives and applications with open data from all parts of the worldThere are many and they vary widely. They are to be found mainly in Europe and North America. Theyinclude: applications for mobile phones in Paris and Barcelona, giving information about undergroundrailway services; in Madrid an information service about levels of atmospheric pollution, which presentsthe data graphically; in the San Francisco Bay area a public transport route application, and also in theUS an interactive application which shows public spending on technology. The two most advancedcountries in open data are the US and the UK, which were pioneers in the field.How to develop and implement a successful open data strategy seeking technological excellenceWe need a strategy for governance (internal and external), for methodology (to identify relevant data,publish it and use it) and for promoting projects. Tim Berners-Lee established 5 levels of technologicalexcellence for open data. The lowest level (1) consists simply of putting material on the web; the highestlevel (5) contains structured data, non-proprietary formats, URLs which identify data, and links betweendata and other data elsewhere (mashups). the first level is much cheaper to achieve but the highest givesa much better medium- and long-term return on investment (ROI) by optimising the reuse of data.Open data in Catalonia. Background, the current situation and outlook for the futureIn Catalonia the culture of open data which can be reused goes back some way. In June 2007, theMinistry of Justice published the first book with a Creative Commons licence. The Gencat open dataportal contains many examples of open data. The reuse of data by the private sector has led to thesuccessful development of a number of applications, such as a mobile phone application for publicfacilities and another for weather information using Android. Gencats strategic objectives are businesschange, encouraging the reuse of data and a new technological model for publication. In terms of theBerners-Lee scale, Gencat is now at level 4 and is working well towards level 5.To achieve this it will benecessary to make good practice standard and ensure that everyone is working in the same direction.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, May 2011
25th Web session at the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised TrainingEntrepreneurship in government?Didac Lee is an entrepreneur, CEO of the Inspirit technology group and a member of the Board ofDirectors of Barcelona Football Club. The session was introduced by Ignasi Genovès, Director Generalof Citizen Assistance and Dissemination, and Xavier Hernández, Director of the Centre for Legal Studiesand Specialised Training.Hall of the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training, 19 October 2011. 193 people attended(+74 via streaming).Entrepreneurial undertakings for innovation in all kinds of organisationA mistaken reading of Chinese characters has led to a widespread belief that the word "crisis" inMandarin is composed of the words “danger” and “opportunity”. However, the idea is perfectly valid: at atime when patterns are changing (affecting all kinds of organisation, both private and public), therecession has to be an opportunity to see that innovation (understood as a process of cultural, operationaland strategic change) is the most important tool we have at our disposal to turn the situation round. Suchchanges inevitably involve dangers but an entrepreneur is a person who assumes the risks but pushesahead with an idea. Indeed, a crisis constitutes the entrepreneur’s natural habitat.To be a successful entrepreneurThere are five basic rules:1. “Normal” and “habitual” should not be confused with “right”: find out all about the environment in which you want to work and the people with whom you will be working.2. Don’t make excuses! Excuses are the greatest enemy of progress. When things don’t work out, don’t look for someone to blame. Look for solutions.3. People aren’t unproductive, they haven’t found the right motivation. Knowing how to motivate people is a key skill for an entrepreneur and motivation need not be exclusively financial. Sometimes enthusiasm makes up for shortcomings.4. Whenever we leave the comfort zone we make a qualitative leap. We have to dare to go further and make the leap.5. The only limit is your mind! Remember that the limits to what we are capable of are those we set ourselves.The basic conditions for innovation to take place are finding good ideas, finding people who are able tohandle these ideas and respecting them as they are: geniuses have the ability to make exceptional thingshappen. Working in small teams facilitates the process.Entrepreneurship in governmentEntrepreneurship and innovation are difficult in government and in business because they involvemanaging change. Moreover, government bodies have certain special features which sometimes makeinnovation slower and more complicated. For example, it is common to find people who are settled in thecomfort zone and for the hierarchical structure to hinder innovation because of inertia dating back manyyears. People often leave the comfort zone when the situation is very negative and, although leaving thecomfort zone is unsettling and may even be painful, it always leads to a qualitative leap.Sometimes it is better to apologise than to ask permission and it is very important to know how to presentideas to your superiors in terms of value, performance and the return for the organisation and for thepublic.It must be remembered that the government works for the public and it is under an obligation to use itsresources to offer better services.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2011