Principles of animation


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  • Do you wonder why some animation stands out? What makes them so great? In fact, there are 12 simple rules to follow to help you create a good animation. Applying these rules can make stunning animation, but fully understanding them can allow you to create a truly great animation. The rules for great animation were introduced by the two famous Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas, in their book "The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation". This was the first book published that established clear rules on animation, and it's kind of a "Bible" for all modern animators. (animation studio)
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  • Straight Ahead Animation:Loss of size, volume, and proportions Maintains spontaneity and freshnessFast, wild action scenes are done this wayPose to Pose Animation:Size, volumes, and proportions are controlled better this way, as is the action.
  • Principles of animation

    1. 1. Principles of Animation<br />April 25, 2011<br />
    2. 2. Introduction<br />This week we will demonstrate our understanding of the principles of animation by designing a scene that illustrates the 12 principles.<br />Today our goals are to:<br />Become familiar with the 12 Principles of Animation<br />Examine some of the principles at work in a modern animation<br />Begin planning your own scene<br />
    3. 3. Principles of Animation<br />Squash and Stretch<br />Anticipation<br />Staging<br />Straight Ahead v. Pose to Pose<br />Follow Through and Overlapping Action<br />Slow In and Slow Out<br />Arcs<br />Secondary Action<br />Timing<br />Exaggeration<br />Solid Drawing<br />Appeal<br />
    4. 4. Gives the illusion of weight to an object as it moves<br />An object’s volume must not be changed when squashed or stretched.<br />Another Example<br />Stretch<br />and<br />Squash<br />CC-BY-SA Lapman 2008<br />CC-BY-SA Lapman 2008<br />
    5. 5. Anticipation<br />Prepares the audience for the action and makes the action appear more realistic<br />CC –BY-SA Dikeman 2004<br />
    6. 6. Staging<br /><ul><li>A scene should reveal the attitude, mood, reaction or idea of the character or story.
    7. 7. Camera angles help frame this for the audience.</li></li></ul><li>Straight Ahead v. Pose to Pose<br />Begins with the first drawing and works drawing toward the end of a scene. <br />Planned out and charted<br />Key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene<br />Straight Ahead Animation<br />Pose to Pose Animation<br />
    8. 8. Follow Through and Overlapping Action<br />When the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to the main mass of the character, such as arms, long hair, clothing, or a long tail.<br />Animated Example<br />CC-BY-SA SunCreator 2010<br />
    9. 9. Slow In and Slow Out<br />More drawings near start and end pose. <br />Softens the action<br />CC-BY-SA Lapman 2008<br />
    10. 10. Arcs<br />All actions, with few exceptions follow an arc or slightly circular path. <br />© Road2Animate 2010<br />
    11. 11. Secondary Action<br />Action adds to the main action and adds dimension to the character <br />
    12. 12. Timing<br />Timing refers to the number of drawings or frames for a given action<br />On a purely physical level, correct timing makes objects appear to abide to the laws of physics<br />Timing is critical for establishing a character's mood, emotion, and reaction.<br />
    13. 13. Exaggeration<br />Exaggeration is an effect especially useful for animation, as perfect imitation of reality can look static and dull in cartoons.<br />
    14. 14. Solid Drawing<br />The basic principles of drawing apply to animation as it does to academic drawing.<br />
    15. 15. Appeal<br />Appeal includes an easy to read design, clear drawing, and personality development to capture the audience’s interest<br />
    16. 16. Summary<br />The 12 Principles of Animation were developed by the animators at Disney studios.<br />They serve as guidelines to make animation (drawn or computer generated) more realistic and appealing to an audience.<br />Let’s take a look at how these principles have been applied in an animation you are probably familiar with.<br />SAMPLE<br />
    17. 17. References<br />"12 Basic Principles of Animation." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 23 Apr. 2011. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. <>.<br />"Frank & Ollie'sWebsite: Principles of Physical Animation." Frank & Ollie'sOfficial Site. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. <>.<br />Lightfoot, Nataha. "Animation Toolworks' Library - 12 Principles." Animation Toolworks - Home of the LunchBox DV, LunchBox Sync and Video LunchBox. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. <>.<br />Stefano, Ralph A. "The Principles of Animation." Evl | Electronic Visualization Laboratory. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. <><br />
    18. 18. Images<br />Arc. Digital image. Road2Animate. 30 Apr. 2010. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. <>.<br />Dikeman, Rick. Pitcher's Motion. Digital image. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 15 Sept. 2004. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. <>.<br />Lampman. Squash and Stretch. Digital image. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 27 June 2008. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. <>.<br />Nystrom, J-E. Animhorse. Digital image. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 6 Mar. 2010. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. <>.<br />All images courtesy Microsoft Office ClipArt, unless otherwise noted.<br />