Introduction to Social Computing - Book Chapter
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Social computing is a rapidly growing and constantly evolving technology that is aimed at increasing communication, encouraging collaboration, and enhancing productivity among people and resources. ...

Social computing is a rapidly growing and constantly evolving technology that is aimed at increasing communication, encouraging collaboration, and enhancing productivity among people and resources. Social computing applications or Web 2.0 are built on a range of advanced and supporting technologies that enhance collective action and interaction which currently dominates the Web (Parameswaran & Whinston 2007).
Social computing applications are categorized into social media, social bookmarking, and social networks categories as identified by the continuing Web 2.0 trend (Schwartz et al. 2009; Amer-Yahia, 2009). Each of these categories has been embodied by various social software and web sites. Some of the best-known and equally famous social web sites that dominate the web are Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Wikipedia, Delicious, and LinkedIn.

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Introduction to Social Computing - Book Chapter Document Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Computing during that decade that still persists in majorSocial Computing portion of the world. There requires a heavySocial computing is a rapidly growing and transfer of larger amounts of data in mostconstantly evolving technology that is aimed social computing applications that tend to beat increasing communication, encouraging interactive with multi media and also managecollaboration, and enhancing productivity messaging. AOL step forward and providedamong people and resources. Social such interactive services to the mass publiccomputing applications or Web 2.0 are built for the first time in mid-1990s.on a range of advanced and supporting Later on during late 1990s, the problem wastechnologies that enhance collective action sorted out, and computer industry embracedand interaction which currently dominates a huge increase in internet bandwidth andthe Web (Parameswaran & computing capacity of computers. ThisWhinston 2007). achievement also impacted on softwareSocial computing applications are categorized industry, and interactive web sites and instantinto social media, social bookmarking, and messaging tools started to show up.social networks categories as identified by the Companies started to invest in e-commercecontinuing Web 2.0 trend (Schwartz et al. sites and online shopping shops. This resulted2009; Amer-Yahia, 2009). Each of these new and unique social applications such ascategories has been embodied by various Wikis, news forums, and blogs to appearsocial software and web sites. Some of the online and people started to share theirbest-known and equally famous social web viewpoints, discussion, and experiences.sites that dominate the web are Facebook, The beginning of 21st century witnessed aYouTube, Twitter, Wikipedia, Delicious, and huge change and brought social computing toLinkedIn. the forefront of the citizens of digital age. More and more people started using socialHistory of Social Computing software that has grown into what we knowThe ideas and principles of social computing today.have been around in web communities forlong time. Discussion forums and emails were Social Softwarethe primary means of discussion and Social software is the combination of so manycommunication as early as in 1980s. tools and services that transformed static webOriginally, email was thought as providing into read/write web and that enabled peoplepeople ways of communication; but later on, to connect and collaborate more easily.it provided a significant business value. Today,some people consider social computing It can be defined as aapplications as a tool for goofing off or havingfun (Schwartz et al. 2009). 1. means of collaborating, and building purpose-aware communities online,The rise of the personal computing eraencouraged people and enterprises to get 2. software that supports and derives addedpersonal computers as to increase their value from human social behaviour,communication with remote offices and 3. tool that can be syndicated, shared,customers. The cost of forwarding bits blended, and can be reused again andthrough Internet became major problem again. 6
  • 2. Chapter 1 Introduction to Social ComputingCharacteristics of Social Software this for their personal satisfaction, gaining current knowledge, or learning from scholarly1. Some of the characteristics listed below arguments. are those that distinguish social software from traditional software. Building social computing applications requires understanding the insight of social2. Easily navigable: easy content creation behavioural theories and social software and sharing design considerations that will be3. Peer to peer networking and incorporated in those applications, such as, communication how participation of people is enabled, what type and age group of people is targeted, how4. Online collaboration you allow people to control web site, understanding psychology of participants that5. Adding metadata such as tags, comments whether people just access the website for to online content and blog entries viewing or information gaining purpose or6. Conversations: distributed and in real they really want to participate in collaborative time activities, creating balance between constraints and creativity, is it an open access7. Bottom up community development site or built for a specific region, etc.8. Capitalizing on the wisdom of crowds It is also good to know prior to building social9. Easy handling of malicious users computing applications what principles and features define a social system. Some10. Transparent transactions common social computing applications are discussed below:11. Easy creation of personal learning spaces12. Portability Tagging Keywords or short key phrases that define13. Read/write web what your digital object is all about are simply14. Overcoming Barriers of Distance and Time termed as Tags in social computing community. Tagging is adding tags on yourSocial Computing Applications photos, bookmarks, files, and other content (Strohmaier et al., 2009). These are the waysThe main objective of creating social of freely describing resources. Tagging helpcomputing applications is to cater the social computer users easily discover and browseneeds of digital natives. There are many social content over the internet.computing applications that are built on thisconcept such as Wikis, Blogs, News forums, There can be an infinite number of viewpointsPrediction Markets, Recommender, through which a digital object can be seenReputation management system, etc. This is and interpreted (Jiang et al., 2010). So, thebecause the nature of issues that an Internet more the number of relevant labels on ansite or public-facing corporate sites solve is object, the more the object would bedifferent than the issues faced by employees searchable on the web. Sometimes, we don’tof an enterprise using internally available find a suitable name for our content andresources. It means that people participating system automatically generates its name suchin blog post and participation in discussion do as AE000098.jpg. Here, tagging allows us to 6
  • 3. Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Computingmanage our content in a manner that lets the training data. Hybrid collaborative filteringmachine find it [3]. Tagging allows users to combines model-based and memory-based CFchoose the labels that match their own needs algorithms.and tastes, which greatly reduces thecognitive efforts [2]. According to recent user Prediction Marketsstudies, users do annotate their photos in Prediction markets are based on the principleorder to promote the public attention degree of wisdom of the crowd that more accurate[2]. Tagging is supported in almost any new prediction will emerge from the bettingWeb application involving user participation, activity of the collective. The other terms usede.g. Flickr, YouTube, Amazon, etc. in place of these markets are information markets or event futures (Servan-Schreiber etCollaborative Filtering al. 2004).Collaborative filtering is the method of gettingpersonalized recommendations by computing These markets reward accurate predictions through wins and punish inaccurateuser- or item-based similarity profiles (Chenet al. 2010). It analyzes data to develop predictions through losses (Wolfers & Zitzewitz, 2004).profiles of people who are related with similartastes and spending habits (Sarwar et al., The type of contracts in prediction markets2001). are basically divided into three categories, such as: Winner-take-all contract, Index• It is based on ‘word-of-mouth’ idea. Contract, and Spread Betting.• It gives reliable recommendations. Reputation Management Systems• It needs a lot of stored data for reliable Reputation management systems or trust- recommendations for the active user. based reputation mechanisms establish a• The bigger the size of population, the healthy and efficient collaboration among more useful and effective anonymous online users who have not prior recommendations will be produced by the knowledge about each other. They construct system (Smart Mobs) large-scale word-of-mouth networks (Dellarocas, 2005; Tennie et al., 2010).• Small data – shows false connections or poor predictions of active user tastes The primary objective of trust and reputation management is to enable transparent and• Suffers from cold start problem – efficient transactions between users where database needs to be populated first. cooperation is compromised by post contractual opportunism or informationBasically there are two types of collaborative asymmetries (Kreps, & Wilson, 1982).filtering techniques, such as Memory-basedcollaborating filtering and Model-based Social Computing Concepts &collaborating filtering methods. Memory- Design Principlesbased collaborating filtering systems rely onuser or item profiles and sometimes use user Social computing concepts are built aroundrating data for computing similarity, while four major areas that may overlap with eachModel-based collaborating filtering find other. Such as: social media, socialsimilar patterns or hidden factors based on 6
  • 4. Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Computingbookmarking, social networks, and social not constrain them from using creativecommunication. features.The important design principles which make The principle of sociabilitysuccess of social systems more likely are: This principle is required to ensure and embed social presence and collaborationThe principle of adaptability among visitors and participants of socialThis requires that social software is built on software.small services that interoperate, connectusing open standards, and should be built The principle of connectivitywith open source software. So that people The principle of connectivity is based on thecan adapt and evolve systems to suit their idea that everything should influencelocal needs (Dron, 2007). everything else and there should nothing existhttp://www.ifets.info/journals/10_3/5.pdf). in isolation (Dron, 2007).The principle of evolvability The principle of contextThis principles encourages design of deferred This principle ensures that social softwaresystems; easily decidable systems whose must be built on the concept that it is a verystructure is not fixed. valuable small part of a much greater whole (Dron, 2007).The principle of participationThe principle of participation requires that The principle of constrainthow participation of users is enabled, how This principle requires that constraints mustusers’ participation is guaranteed, what be incorporated in social software and usersaspects are built in systems that encourage should be aware of those constraints and alsoparticipation (Dron, 2007). know how to use them to enhance learning.The principle of parcellation The principle of scaleThis principle ensures that systems are built This principle tracks small and largedistinctly from each other, they are loosely components in the system and ensures thatcoupled and occasionally connected with each the large should arise out of the small in another, and are ideal hierarchical niches that endless cycle.talk with each other.The principle of trust The principle of understanding The principle of trust ensures building of psychology of userreliable and harmless social software that This ensures that what user wants from socialidentify reliability in people and systems, and software, and it should provide the user allprotects them from harm. collaborative and other social presence features.The principle of stigmergy The Rise of Web 2.0This principle ensures that social systems bebuilt on concept that guide users how to get There were times when people used to go tomaximum from them by using signs and do search engines and seek their requirements 6
  • 5. Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Computingby typing out search terms and taking great AJAXcare of the sequence and combination of AJAX is web development technique forterms. The term ‘Apple’ almost consistently interactive Web applications. AJAX providesreaped an ‘apple’ to all searchers across the standard ways of dynamically interacting withglobe. The reason behind this consistency was content to make dynamic requests to thethe non-gallant approach by search engines to server without refreshing the full page.optimize searches.As time passed by search engine optimization Podcasthit the market like a wave – soon enough A podcast is the collection of media filesevery search engine company was working on (either audio or video) distributed andSEO and search results began to change and released episodically over the internet usingbecome more specific and relevant almost syndication feeds for playback on portableovernight. The proof is irrefutable and search media players and personal computers.results have dramatically become highlyspecific and more-so ‘targeted’. This is the WidgetsWeb 2.0 paradigm, where search results are A widget, also known as gadget, snippet, orhighly specific, relevant, and geared towards flake, is web application software for the webindividual’s taste, interests, ideas, etc. installable and executable within a web pageThe term Web 2.0 is often referenced as the by the web user.web applications that facilitate collaborativeinformation sharing, interoperability, and Pythonuser-centered design on the web in order to Python is a multi paradigm programmingprovide better user experience. These sites language that integrates your work moreuse technologies such as AJAX, JavaScript, quickly and reduces your maintenance costsWidgets, Python, Perl, Flash, Silverlight, and by using automatic memory management ofREST to enhance their look and interaction. programming tasks.These sites usually include blogs, wikis, newsforums, mashups, social bookmarking, social Perlpeer-to-peer networking sites, open source Perl (practical extraction and reportingcommunities, photo and video sharing language) is a general purpose interpretedcommunities, and more. programming language used for a huge number of uses including systemSocial Computing Enabling administration, Web applicationtechnologies & Architecture development, GUI development, etc.The architecture and technologies whichmake social computing applications possible Ruby on Railsin today’s collaborative environment are Ruby on Rails is an open source webcontinuously evolving over time and will framework that lowers the barriers of entry tocontinue to change and grow as new programming. It has made easy the powerfulcapabilities become available on Internet web applications that formerly might have(Parameswaran & taken weeks or months to develop.Whinston 2007b). 6
  • 6. Chapter 1 Introduction to Social ComputingMySQL an interface and the web service then responds to the users input.MySQL is the most popular open source,multi-user, and multithreaded SQL database The Models of Social Computingmanagement system, developed, distributed, and their Relevance to Behaviourand supported by Oracle Corporation. "The capacity of human communities toMicrosoft SharePoint evolve towards higher order complexity and harmony through such innovationMicrosoft SharePoint is a unique social mechanisms as differentiation andcomputing application that has taken a integration, competition, and collaboration”.unique approach of designing 8 applications –using one platform. Here are 8 ways users canextend SharePoint’s out-of-the-box -Wikipediacapabilities to better fit their social computingvision. People in Pakistan are leading with example when it comes to enhancing interaction ofJavaScript local and overseas users. This is exactly the kind of insight, which will encourage andJavaScript was designed to add interactivity to enable new users to foster tangible focus onHTML pages. It allows developers to program problems related to the socio-economic upliftcode that would be downloaded as part of the of the nation.page’s content and run inside user’s browser. One of the major models that have come toSilverLight face is collaboration. Defined as “a recursiveMicrosoft Silverlight is a popular web process where two or more people orapplication framework used to build and organizations work together toward andeliver cross-browser and cross-platform intersection of common goals,” (Thomas,experiences on the web. It allows web 2010). Collaboration has been one of the keydevelopers to create powerful user interfaces elements for the success of the so-calledusing an XML-based language called XAML, social community paradigm. The extent toJavaScript, AJAX, and .net. which communities have aligned themselves in organized and connected ways toREST coordinate with each other is immense.A common architecture used for getting The new paradigm is of working ininformation content from a social computing collaboration and reaping the rewards ofapplication by reading web pages that contain synergy in the last year all great enterpriseXML data files that describe and include formation has been through social means.desired content. People have begun to change their onlineWeb Services behavior as a result of the social computingWeb Services are a collection of open influence on their lives. The Largest enterpriseprotocols developed to interact with users online have been social:and exchange their data between -Democratic media websiteapplications. Here, a user enters data through -Online community 6
  • 7. Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Computing-Most comprehensive encyclopedia-Video archive-Movie review database-Auction market-Travel resourceCrowd Sourcing Vs Out SourcingAlthough crowd sourcing and out sourcing is a Referencesphenomenon which has existed since many a Bo Jiang, Yun Ling, Jiale Wang , "Tagyear or perhaps even centuries; from the day Recommendation Based on Social Commentof the trade. It is recently that has been Network ", JDCTA: International Journal ofrevolutionized with the advent of increased Digital Content Technology and itscomputer use. Applications, Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 110 ~ 117, 2010Not only has this trend been revived, it hasbeen made very easy. Before we get into Chrysanthos Dellarocas: Reputationexamples and uses of these two concepts, we Mechanism Design in Online Tradingmust start of with defining each of them. Out Environments with Pure Moral Hazard.sourcing as the name suggests is giving out Information Systems Research 16(2): 209-230 (2005)part of the work, usually which is not the corebut a support function, to a group or entity Dron, J. (2007b). Designing the undesignable:for which it acts as a core function or a main Social software and control. Educationalactivity in line with its stated area of activity. Technology & Society, 10(3), 60-71. http://www.ifets.info/journals/10_3/5.pdfAn example of this in the conventional way isthe call center boom in parts of India where Kreps, D. M., and Wilson, R. “Reputation andthe customer service work was out sourced. Imperfect Information,” Journal of EconomicThe examples of out sourcing on the Internet Theory (27:2), August 1982, pp. 253-279.are plenty with online customer support or M. Strohmaier, C. Körner, and R. Kern. Whypayment systems like Pay pal. do users tag? detecting users’ motivation for tagging in social tagging systems. Technical report, Knowledge Management Institute - Graz University of Technology, 2009.Now we come to crowd sourcing. Crowdsourcing is the activity of out sourcing work to Parameswaran, M., and A.B. Whinstonthe crowd in general. People on the Internet (2007a), “Social Computing: An Overview”,who volunteer, amateur enthusiasts, for the Communications of the AIS, forthcoming.work out of interest. This is separate from thework of out sourcing as the people are not Parameswaran, M., and Whinston, A. B.identifiable and are anonymous. An example (2007b) “Research Issues in Social Computing,” Journal of AIS (8:6), June 2007,of this is the freelance web sites like Essay pp. 336-350. ProbabilitySports.com,Writers. 6
  • 8. Chapter 1 Introduction to Social ComputingBrian (2004) Prediction Markets: Does MoneyMatter?, Electronic Markets, 14: 3, 243 —251S. Amer-Yahia, L. Lakshmanan, and C. Yu,“Social Scope: Enabling Information Discoveryon Social Content Sites”, In CIDR, 2009.Sarwar, B. M., Karypis, G., Konstan, J. A., andReidl, J. 2001. Item-based collaborativefiltering recommendation algorithms. InProceedings of the World Wide WebConference (WWWC10). 285–295.Schwartz, B, Ranlett, M & Draper, S 2009,‘Social Computing with Microsoft SharePoint2007: Implementing Applications forSharePoint to Enable Collaboration andInteraction in the Enterprise’, John Wiley andSons.Servan-Schreiber Founder ofNewsFutures.com and Leading Provider,Emile, Wolfers Assistant Professor ofEconomics, Justin , Pennock Senior ResearchScientist, David M. and Galebach Founder ofTennie C, Frith U, and Frith CD., 2010.Reputation management in the age of theworld-wide web.Thomas, D. 2010. Practice Notes:Collaborative Software Design: the benefits,Health Care and Informatics Review Online,2010, 14(1), pg 24-28, Published online atwww.hinz.org.nz ISSN 1174-3379Wolfers, J. and Zitzewitz, E. (2004) ‘PredictionMarkets’, Journal of Economic Perspectives,Spring.Zhimin Chen, Yi Jiang, Yao Zhao: ACollaborative Filtering RecommendationAlgorithm Based on User Interest Change andTrust Evaluation. JDCTA 4(9): 106-113 (2010) 6