Why Are So Many African American Males Being.Psy492
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Why Are So Many African American Males Being.Psy492

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  • 1. T’Yana BlackburnPsy 492 UC, Advanced General Psychology February 27th, 2012
  • 2.  -Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder -To be diagnosed should have at least six attention or six activity/impulsivity symptoms for at least six months in at least two observable different settings -Symptoms must cause severe difficulties in everyday tasks This disorder crosses all cultural, social and racial lines
  • 3.  -Gavvn is a six year old African American male -Gavvn can be hyper and inattentive at times -Gavvn was diagnosed by his teacher with ADHD according to the ARS (ADHD Rating Scale) Gavvn’s mother had him tested with his pediatrician and the school psychologist -Gavvn had been misdiagnosed by his teacher due to not wanting to deal with behavioral issues that were a result of a learning disability
  • 4.  -Behavioral issues in class -Low socio-economical background -Cultural differences in perceptions of children’s behaviors -Clinician’s not understanding the dynamics involved in the assessment and diagnosis -Preconceived bias
  • 5.  -Psycho-tropic Medication -Behavior Modification -Therapy -Biofeedback -Change in diet -Structured environment
  • 6.  -Biological disorder -Parents are generally the most accurate diagnosticians -Young African American males are often misdiagnosed -Other possible causes are not ruled out , a premature diagnosis is given -Various treatments include medication, behavior modification, structured environment, therapy and change in diet
  • 7. STRUCTURAL DIAGNOSTIC UNSTRUCTURED CLINICALREVIEW OBSERVATIONS -To assess DSM IV  -Observations were conducted by 1 of 27 clinicians & trainees from a diagnostic status of ADHD variety of disciplines -The computerized interview  -Children were observed for 48.03 minutes schedule for children was  -Clinician rated the degree of both administered to the parents inattentive and hyperactive impulsive behaviors on a 5-point -Closed ended questions scale (1=low to 5=high) related to specific behaviors  Clinician provided a yes or no (such as presence and rating of their perception of whether the child’s duration of psychiatric inattentive/hyperactive impulsive symptoms behaviors were excessive for the child’s development
  • 8.  -African American males lead  -Overrepresented in specific all other race and gender learning disabilities (18%) groups with learning  -Emotional disturbances (28%) disorders  -Inaccurate assessment and -In 2006 in the United States diagnosis for African 4.5 million children between American, cultural differences the ages of 5 and 17 years of in perceptions of children’s age had been diagnosed with behavior ADHD  -Replication modification- The -African American male Guilford Model- a youths have a collaborative approach disproportionately high rate of following clear assessment ADHD with an estimated protocols that might help prevalence rate of 5.56% reduce the misdiagnosis in compared to Caucasian males African American males at 4.33% during the assessment
  • 9.  -Diagnostic issues involving African  -Clinicians’ personal perceptions and American adolescent males prejudices, unclear understanding of the -It’s either ADHD or Conduct Disorder DSM-IV criteria for diagnosing ADHD -ADHD is attributed to the central can result in misdiagnosis in African nervous system dysfunctions American males -Conduct Disorder is attributed largely to  -Stereotype, racism, prejudice and sexism social maladjustment are a few variables that impact clinical diagnoses -African American males who exhibit  Through this explanatory study, (3) ADHD symptoms characterized by a lack significant reasons that contribute to the of impulse control are given an informal misdiagnosis of African American males diagnosis of Conduct Disorder  1) schools do not have a significant number of African Americans in teaching positions  2)schools favor homogeneous or ability grouping over heterogeneous grouping  3)schools that do not support a curriculum that promotes multicultural awareness and sensitivity
  • 10.  -Empirical Study  To be rated 2+ standard -3,998 elementary students deviations above the mean for (ages 5-11) inattention-over -2,124 African American activity, aggression, or IOWA students Connors Rating scale scores -1,874 Caucasian students -The IOWA rating scale was used to evaluate for ADHD -Results proved that African American boys and girls received significantly higher scores than the Caucasian students There was a significantly greater likelihood for African American males and females
  • 11.  -Exploratory Case Study on African American males between the ages of 6-12 years of age -Sample population from 4 different low socio-economic communities -100 students total with current ADHD diagnoses (25 students per school) -Information regarding study will be sent home for the parent/guardian to review and sign an informed consent form for their child to participate in the study -Face to face interviews at the participant’s home will be conducted to perform the assessment -The parent/guardian will be administered a survey to rate the participants behavior (inattentive and hyperactive symptoms) -A behavioral survey would have been completed from the participants teacher of at least 6months prior to this study
  • 12.  -Based on the research (previous diagnosis, current assessment, behavioral survey from teacher, parent/guardian) the results will determine if the participant had in fact been diagnosed accurately for ADHD - Findings will suggest that at least 2 out of every 5 African American males will be misdiagnosed with ADHD due to preconceived, bias and prejudice perceptions about young African American males
  • 13.  -Understanding of what ADHD is and what it looks like -Understand that all cultures are different -Research other possibilities -Remove all prejudices, preconceived ideas, biases, stereotypes, labels and prejudgments -Be objective not subjective -Diagnose according to the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD -Do No Harm
  • 14.  Davidson, A. (1996). Marking and molding identity in schools: Student narratives on race, gender, and academic engagement . Edwards, M. C., Schulz, E. G., Echelons, J., Gardner, E., & Pediatrics, E. a. (2005). Estimates of the Validity and Utility of Unstructured Clinical Observations of Children in the Assessment of ADHD , 9. Google Health. (nod.). Retrieved May 17, 2010, from Google Health-Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): https://www.health.google.com/health/ref/Attention+deficit+hyperactivity+disorder +(ADHD) Pastor, P. &. (2008). Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: United States, 2004-2006.NAtional Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Statistics,10 (237). Spencer, L. E., & Terry, O. (1999). Conduct Disorder vs. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnostic Implications For African-American Adolescent Males , 5. Tucker, C., & Dixon, A. (2009). Low-income African American Male Youth with ADHD Symptoms in the United States , 13. Williams, L. C. (1995). Understanding ADHD. (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) , 3. Reid, Robert, Nebraska, (2002). Using behavior rating scales for ADHD across ethnic groups:The IOWA Conners,1-14.