Intonation Report


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Teaching intonation

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Intonation Report

  1. 1. INTONATION Gemma N. Costa GRTE 203- Teaching of Speech
  2. 2. What is it? <ul><li>► Intonation is the variation of pitch </li></ul><ul><li>when speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>► One of the elements of linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>prosody . </li></ul><ul><li>► Perhaps the most important </li></ul><ul><li>element of a good accent. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>► Intonation helps create the music of a language. (like notes in music) </li></ul><ul><li>► It is a part of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>* the rise and fall of pitch in our voice plays a crucial role in how we express meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>► Intonation is the change of level of voice </li></ul>
  4. 4. 4 Levels of Voice in English <ul><li>Extra high </li></ul><ul><li>High </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert(1994) stated that the purpose of intonation is “helping the listener to follow”. It is a navigation guide for the listener. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why do we need it? <ul><li>Main Functions of Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical function </li></ul><ul><li>* Intonation is used to signal the syntactic or grammatical structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. She dressed and fed the baby . </li></ul><ul><li>( the baby was dressed and fed ) </li></ul><ul><li>She dressed / and fed the baby . </li></ul><ul><li>( She dressed herself and then fed the baby) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Qamar& Rubab (2007) <ul><li>“ A learner who learns a new language has not only to grasp the grammar of that language but also the intonation pattern to prove himself a good communicator.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2 . Accentual information <ul><li>Distributes accents among stressed syllables to emphasize what need to be perceived as significant word. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Paul is very tall. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul is very tall. (Paul and not another </li></ul><ul><li>one) </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Discourse Function </li></ul><ul><li>* The study of the intonation related to the context. </li></ul>
  8. 8. It means to convey what is new and what is old or known. The main accent is in the last lexical word. <ul><li>Ex. My name is Bond. </li></ul><ul><li>My name is Bond. </li></ul><ul><li>James Bond. (new is accented ) </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Attitudinal Function </li></ul><ul><li>* Intonation is used to convey attitude, emotions or feelings. This adds a special kind of meaning to spoken language. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Say “HELLO” <ul><li>● to a friend you meet regularly </li></ul><ul><li>● to a friend you haven’t seen for 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>● to a neighbor whom you don’t like </li></ul><ul><li>● to a 6 month old baby </li></ul><ul><li>● to someone doing what he shouldn’t </li></ul><ul><li>● to know if someone is listening (phone) </li></ul>
  10. 10.   I did not say you stole my red hat. <ul><li>  I did not say you stole my red hat. </li></ul><ul><li>( the meaning contains the idea that someone else said it, not me ) </li></ul><ul><li> I did not say you stole my red hat. (Strong anger and denial of the fact.) </li></ul><ul><li>            </li></ul>
  11. 11. I did not say you stole my red hat.  (But I implied it that you did. Did you?)  I did not say you stole my red hat.   (I wasn't accusing you. I know it was someone else)
  12. 12. I did not say you stole my red hat . (I meant that you stole someone else's red hat) <ul><li>I did not say you stole my red hat.  (I said that you stole my blue hat.) </li></ul><ul><li>I did not say that you stole my red hat . </li></ul><ul><li>(I said that you stole my red bat. You misunderstood my pronunciation) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Fry, et al, (2000), the changes in meaning are due to what is called supersegmental phonemes. Phonemes are speech sounds and the supersegmental stress/inflection kind affect the meaning . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Segmentals are isolated sounds ( consonants, vowels, dipthongs) <ul><li>Suprasegmentals features of speech like stress, intonation and rhythm </li></ul>
  15. 15. 5 . Sociolinguistic function <ul><li>Intonation gives the clue </li></ul><ul><li>a. where somebody comes from </li></ul><ul><li>b. his social level </li></ul><ul><li>c. sex, age, personality </li></ul><ul><li>d. Individual features (idiosyncrasy) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Importance of Intonation in Social Interaction <ul><li>TURN-TAKING : Giving the floor to another person or taking your turn in a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION STRUCTURE : Major stress items pick out the most important words in the sentence . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Word Stress vs. Intonation Are they different? <ul><li>STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>- stress within a word </li></ul><ul><li>- a syllable is said Louder, Longer at a higher pitch </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>It goes beyond the word level. </li></ul><ul><li>- it’s a change in pitch within a group of words. </li></ul><ul><li>A long line of melody </li></ul>
  18. 18. Kinds of Tones <ul><li>Fall – gives the impression of finality </li></ul><ul><li>Rise- conveys an impression that something more is to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall-Rise – shows limited agreement, uncertainty and doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise-Fall – convey rather strong feelings of approval, disapproval or surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Level- tone is neutral and uninterested </li></ul><ul><li>(usually calls “flat”) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Intonation Pattern <ul><li>Two Basic Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>1. Falling Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rising Intonation </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is falling intonation? <ul><li>► A pattern in which your voice falls to a low pitch by the end of a thought group or statement. </li></ul>
  21. 21. What does it communicate? <ul><li>Certainty </li></ul><ul><li>You are telling a fact and/or you believe you are right. </li></ul><ul><li>Finality </li></ul><ul><li>Completion : Y o u a r e d o n e s p e a k i n g. Your listener can now respond. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Falling intonation <ul><li>■ Declarative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>■ W H – questions </li></ul><ul><li>■ Commands </li></ul>
  23. 23. Example: <ul><li>Erik builds flutes . // He began building flutes after c o ll e ge . // He has one flute of his very own . // </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is rising intonation? <ul><li>conveys an impression that something </li></ul><ul><li>more is to follow </li></ul><ul><li> ■ YES/ NO questions </li></ul><ul><li> ■ Open- choice alternative questions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rising Intonation <ul><li>Example: </li></ul>Is that Estelle with them? (Rising Intonation) He just won first place!
  26. 26. Why teach intonation? <ul><li>Awareness of intonation aids communication. </li></ul><ul><li>(Difference it makes to meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest or even taking offence! </li></ul><ul><li>As important as word choice </li></ul>
  27. 27. What are the main means of improving intonation while teaching pronunciation? <ul><li>the best way to achieve quick result is constant practicing </li></ul><ul><li>start listening to speech of native speakers as frequently as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>the most important is not only to listen to pronunciation, but to repeat phrases and try to imitate the speakers. </li></ul>
  28. 28. THAT’S ALL and Thank you for listening!! Gemma Naval – Costa MATE 1