Intonation Report
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Intonation Report



Teaching intonation

Teaching intonation



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Intonation Report Intonation Report Presentation Transcript

  • INTONATION Gemma N. Costa GRTE 203- Teaching of Speech
  • What is it?
    • ► Intonation is the variation of pitch
    • when speaking.
    • ► One of the elements of linguistic
    • prosody .
    • ► Perhaps the most important
    • element of a good accent.
    • ► Intonation helps create the music of a language. (like notes in music)
    • ► It is a part of communication.
    • * the rise and fall of pitch in our voice plays a crucial role in how we express meaning.
    • ► Intonation is the change of level of voice
  • 4 Levels of Voice in English
    • Extra high
    • High
    • Gilbert(1994) stated that the purpose of intonation is “helping the listener to follow”. It is a navigation guide for the listener.
    • Medium
    • Low
  • Why do we need it?
    • Main Functions of Intonation
    • Grammatical function
    • * Intonation is used to signal the syntactic or grammatical structure.
    • Ex. She dressed and fed the baby .
    • ( the baby was dressed and fed )
    • She dressed / and fed the baby .
    • ( She dressed herself and then fed the baby)
  • Qamar& Rubab (2007)
    • “ A learner who learns a new language has not only to grasp the grammar of that language but also the intonation pattern to prove himself a good communicator.”
  • 2 . Accentual information
    • Distributes accents among stressed syllables to emphasize what need to be perceived as significant word.
    • Ex. Paul is very tall.
    • Paul is very tall. (Paul and not another
    • one)
    • 3 . Discourse Function
    • * The study of the intonation related to the context.
  • It means to convey what is new and what is old or known. The main accent is in the last lexical word.
    • Ex. My name is Bond.
    • My name is Bond.
    • James Bond. (new is accented )
    • 4 . Attitudinal Function
    • * Intonation is used to convey attitude, emotions or feelings. This adds a special kind of meaning to spoken language.
  • Say “HELLO”
    • ● to a friend you meet regularly
    • ● to a friend you haven’t seen for 10 years
    • ● to a neighbor whom you don’t like
    • ● to a 6 month old baby
    • ● to someone doing what he shouldn’t
    • ● to know if someone is listening (phone)
  •   I did not say you stole my red hat.
    •   I did not say you stole my red hat.
    • ( the meaning contains the idea that someone else said it, not me )
    •  I did not say you stole my red hat. (Strong anger and denial of the fact.)
  • I did not say you stole my red hat.  (But I implied it that you did. Did you?)  I did not say you stole my red hat.   (I wasn't accusing you. I know it was someone else)
  • I did not say you stole my red hat . (I meant that you stole someone else's red hat)
    • I did not say you stole my red hat.  (I said that you stole my blue hat.)
    • I did not say that you stole my red hat .
    • (I said that you stole my red bat. You misunderstood my pronunciation)
    • Fry, et al, (2000), the changes in meaning are due to what is called supersegmental phonemes. Phonemes are speech sounds and the supersegmental stress/inflection kind affect the meaning .
  • Segmentals are isolated sounds ( consonants, vowels, dipthongs)
    • Suprasegmentals features of speech like stress, intonation and rhythm
  • 5 . Sociolinguistic function
    • Intonation gives the clue
    • a. where somebody comes from
    • b. his social level
    • c. sex, age, personality
    • d. Individual features (idiosyncrasy)
  • Importance of Intonation in Social Interaction
    • TURN-TAKING : Giving the floor to another person or taking your turn in a conversation
    • INFORMATION STRUCTURE : Major stress items pick out the most important words in the sentence .
  • Word Stress vs. Intonation Are they different?
    • STRESS
    • - stress within a word
    • - a syllable is said Louder, Longer at a higher pitch
    • It goes beyond the word level.
    • - it’s a change in pitch within a group of words.
    • A long line of melody
  • Kinds of Tones
    • Fall – gives the impression of finality
    • Rise- conveys an impression that something more is to follow.
    • Fall-Rise – shows limited agreement, uncertainty and doubt.
    • Rise-Fall – convey rather strong feelings of approval, disapproval or surprise
    • Level- tone is neutral and uninterested
    • (usually calls “flat”)
  • Intonation Pattern
    • Two Basic Patterns
    • 1. Falling Intonation
    • 2. Rising Intonation
  • What is falling intonation?
    • ► A pattern in which your voice falls to a low pitch by the end of a thought group or statement.
  • What does it communicate?
    • Certainty
    • You are telling a fact and/or you believe you are right.
    • Finality
    • Completion : Y o u a r e d o n e s p e a k i n g. Your listener can now respond.
  • Falling intonation
    • ■ Declarative sentences
    • ■ W H – questions
    • ■ Commands
  • Example:
    • Erik builds flutes . // He began building flutes after c o ll e ge . // He has one flute of his very own . //
  • What is rising intonation?
    • conveys an impression that something
    • more is to follow
    • ■ YES/ NO questions
    • ■ Open- choice alternative questions
  • Rising Intonation
    • Example:
    Is that Estelle with them? (Rising Intonation) He just won first place!
  • Why teach intonation?
    • Awareness of intonation aids communication.
    • (Difference it makes to meaning)
    • Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest or even taking offence!
    • As important as word choice
  • What are the main means of improving intonation while teaching pronunciation?
    • the best way to achieve quick result is constant practicing
    • start listening to speech of native speakers as frequently as possible.
    • the most important is not only to listen to pronunciation, but to repeat phrases and try to imitate the speakers.
  • THAT’S ALL and Thank you for listening!! Gemma Naval – Costa MATE 1