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INTONATION Gemma N. Costa GRTE 203- Teaching of Speech
What is it? <ul><li>►   Intonation  is the variation of pitch  </li></ul><ul><li>when speaking.  </li></ul><ul><li>►   One...
<ul><li>►  Intonation  helps create the music of a language. (like notes in music) </li></ul><ul><li>►  It is a part of co...
4 Levels of Voice in English <ul><li>Extra high </li></ul><ul><li>High </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert(1994)  stated that the pu...
Why do we need it? <ul><li>Main Functions of Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical function </li></ul><ul><li>* Intonat...
Qamar& Rubab (2007) <ul><li>“  A learner who learns a new language has not only to grasp the grammar of that language but ...
2 .  Accentual information <ul><li>Distributes accents among stressed syllables to emphasize what need to be perceived as ...
It means to convey what is new and what is old or known. The main accent is in the last lexical word. <ul><li>Ex. My name ...
Say  “HELLO” <ul><li>●  to a friend you meet regularly </li></ul><ul><li>●  to a friend you haven’t seen for 10 years </li...
  I did not say you stole my red hat.   <ul><li>  I   did not say you stole my red hat.  </li></ul><ul><li>( the meaning c...
I did not  say  you stole my red hat.     (But I implied it that you did. Did you?)  I did not say  you  stole my red hat....
I did not say you stole   my  red hat .  (I meant that you stole someone else's red hat) <ul><li>I did not say you stole m...
<ul><li>Fry, et al, (2000),   the changes in meaning are due to what is called supersegmental phonemes. Phonemes are speec...
Segmentals   are isolated sounds   ( consonants, vowels, dipthongs) <ul><li>Suprasegmentals   features of speech like stre...
5 .  Sociolinguistic function <ul><li>Intonation gives the clue </li></ul><ul><li>a. where somebody comes from </li></ul><...
Importance of Intonation in Social Interaction <ul><li>TURN-TAKING : Giving the floor to another person or taking your tur...
Word Stress vs. Intonation Are they different? <ul><li>STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>- stress within a word </li></ul><ul><li>-...
Kinds of Tones  <ul><li>Fall – gives the impression of finality </li></ul><ul><li>Rise-  conveys an impression that someth...
Intonation Pattern <ul><li>Two Basic Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Falling  Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Rising  Into...
What is falling intonation? <ul><li>► A pattern in which your voice falls to a low pitch by the end of a thought group or ...
What does it communicate? <ul><li>Certainty </li></ul><ul><li>You are telling a fact and/or you believe you are right. </l...
Falling intonation <ul><li>■  Declarative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>■  W H – questions </li></ul><ul><li>■  Commands </l...
Example: <ul><li>Erik builds  flutes . //  He began building flutes after  c o ll e ge . //  He has one flute of his very ...
What is rising intonation? <ul><li>conveys an impression that something </li></ul><ul><li>more is to follow </li></ul><ul>...
Rising Intonation  <ul><li>Example: </li></ul>Is that Estelle with them? (Rising Intonation)  He just won first place!
Why teach intonation? <ul><li>Awareness of intonation aids communication. </li></ul><ul><li>(Difference it makes to meanin...
What are the main means of improving intonation while teaching pronunciation?   <ul><li>the best way to achieve quick resu...
THAT’S ALL  and  Thank you for listening!! Gemma Naval – Costa MATE 1
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Intonation Report

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Teaching intonation

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Transcript of "Intonation Report"

  1. 1. INTONATION Gemma N. Costa GRTE 203- Teaching of Speech
  2. 2. What is it? <ul><li>► Intonation is the variation of pitch </li></ul><ul><li>when speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>► One of the elements of linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>prosody . </li></ul><ul><li>► Perhaps the most important </li></ul><ul><li>element of a good accent. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>► Intonation helps create the music of a language. (like notes in music) </li></ul><ul><li>► It is a part of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>* the rise and fall of pitch in our voice plays a crucial role in how we express meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>► Intonation is the change of level of voice </li></ul>
  4. 4. 4 Levels of Voice in English <ul><li>Extra high </li></ul><ul><li>High </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert(1994) stated that the purpose of intonation is “helping the listener to follow”. It is a navigation guide for the listener. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why do we need it? <ul><li>Main Functions of Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical function </li></ul><ul><li>* Intonation is used to signal the syntactic or grammatical structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. She dressed and fed the baby . </li></ul><ul><li>( the baby was dressed and fed ) </li></ul><ul><li>She dressed / and fed the baby . </li></ul><ul><li>( She dressed herself and then fed the baby) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Qamar& Rubab (2007) <ul><li>“ A learner who learns a new language has not only to grasp the grammar of that language but also the intonation pattern to prove himself a good communicator.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2 . Accentual information <ul><li>Distributes accents among stressed syllables to emphasize what need to be perceived as significant word. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Paul is very tall. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul is very tall. (Paul and not another </li></ul><ul><li>one) </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Discourse Function </li></ul><ul><li>* The study of the intonation related to the context. </li></ul>
  8. 8. It means to convey what is new and what is old or known. The main accent is in the last lexical word. <ul><li>Ex. My name is Bond. </li></ul><ul><li>My name is Bond. </li></ul><ul><li>James Bond. (new is accented ) </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Attitudinal Function </li></ul><ul><li>* Intonation is used to convey attitude, emotions or feelings. This adds a special kind of meaning to spoken language. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Say “HELLO” <ul><li>● to a friend you meet regularly </li></ul><ul><li>● to a friend you haven’t seen for 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>● to a neighbor whom you don’t like </li></ul><ul><li>● to a 6 month old baby </li></ul><ul><li>● to someone doing what he shouldn’t </li></ul><ul><li>● to know if someone is listening (phone) </li></ul>
  10. 10.   I did not say you stole my red hat. <ul><li>  I did not say you stole my red hat. </li></ul><ul><li>( the meaning contains the idea that someone else said it, not me ) </li></ul><ul><li> I did not say you stole my red hat. (Strong anger and denial of the fact.) </li></ul><ul><li>            </li></ul>
  11. 11. I did not say you stole my red hat.  (But I implied it that you did. Did you?)  I did not say you stole my red hat.   (I wasn't accusing you. I know it was someone else)
  12. 12. I did not say you stole my red hat . (I meant that you stole someone else's red hat) <ul><li>I did not say you stole my red hat.  (I said that you stole my blue hat.) </li></ul><ul><li>I did not say that you stole my red hat . </li></ul><ul><li>(I said that you stole my red bat. You misunderstood my pronunciation) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Fry, et al, (2000), the changes in meaning are due to what is called supersegmental phonemes. Phonemes are speech sounds and the supersegmental stress/inflection kind affect the meaning . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Segmentals are isolated sounds ( consonants, vowels, dipthongs) <ul><li>Suprasegmentals features of speech like stress, intonation and rhythm </li></ul>
  15. 15. 5 . Sociolinguistic function <ul><li>Intonation gives the clue </li></ul><ul><li>a. where somebody comes from </li></ul><ul><li>b. his social level </li></ul><ul><li>c. sex, age, personality </li></ul><ul><li>d. Individual features (idiosyncrasy) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Importance of Intonation in Social Interaction <ul><li>TURN-TAKING : Giving the floor to another person or taking your turn in a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION STRUCTURE : Major stress items pick out the most important words in the sentence . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Word Stress vs. Intonation Are they different? <ul><li>STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>- stress within a word </li></ul><ul><li>- a syllable is said Louder, Longer at a higher pitch </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>It goes beyond the word level. </li></ul><ul><li>- it’s a change in pitch within a group of words. </li></ul><ul><li>A long line of melody </li></ul>
  18. 18. Kinds of Tones <ul><li>Fall – gives the impression of finality </li></ul><ul><li>Rise- conveys an impression that something more is to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall-Rise – shows limited agreement, uncertainty and doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise-Fall – convey rather strong feelings of approval, disapproval or surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Level- tone is neutral and uninterested </li></ul><ul><li>(usually calls “flat”) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Intonation Pattern <ul><li>Two Basic Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>1. Falling Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rising Intonation </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is falling intonation? <ul><li>► A pattern in which your voice falls to a low pitch by the end of a thought group or statement. </li></ul>
  21. 21. What does it communicate? <ul><li>Certainty </li></ul><ul><li>You are telling a fact and/or you believe you are right. </li></ul><ul><li>Finality </li></ul><ul><li>Completion : Y o u a r e d o n e s p e a k i n g. Your listener can now respond. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Falling intonation <ul><li>■ Declarative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>■ W H – questions </li></ul><ul><li>■ Commands </li></ul>
  23. 23. Example: <ul><li>Erik builds flutes . // He began building flutes after c o ll e ge . // He has one flute of his very own . // </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is rising intonation? <ul><li>conveys an impression that something </li></ul><ul><li>more is to follow </li></ul><ul><li> ■ YES/ NO questions </li></ul><ul><li> ■ Open- choice alternative questions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rising Intonation <ul><li>Example: </li></ul>Is that Estelle with them? (Rising Intonation) He just won first place!
  26. 26. Why teach intonation? <ul><li>Awareness of intonation aids communication. </li></ul><ul><li>(Difference it makes to meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest or even taking offence! </li></ul><ul><li>As important as word choice </li></ul>
  27. 27. What are the main means of improving intonation while teaching pronunciation? <ul><li>the best way to achieve quick result is constant practicing </li></ul><ul><li>start listening to speech of native speakers as frequently as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>the most important is not only to listen to pronunciation, but to repeat phrases and try to imitate the speakers. </li></ul>
  28. 28. THAT’S ALL and Thank you for listening!! Gemma Naval – Costa MATE 1
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