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Intonation Report

Intonation Report



Teaching intonation

Teaching intonation



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    Intonation Report Intonation Report Presentation Transcript

    • INTONATION Gemma N. Costa GRTE 203- Teaching of Speech
    • What is it?
      • ► Intonation is the variation of pitch
      • when speaking.
      • ► One of the elements of linguistic
      • prosody .
      • ► Perhaps the most important
      • element of a good accent.
      • ► Intonation helps create the music of a language. (like notes in music)
      • ► It is a part of communication.
      • * the rise and fall of pitch in our voice plays a crucial role in how we express meaning.
      • ► Intonation is the change of level of voice
    • 4 Levels of Voice in English
      • Extra high
      • High
      • Gilbert(1994) stated that the purpose of intonation is “helping the listener to follow”. It is a navigation guide for the listener.
      • Medium
      • Low
    • Why do we need it?
      • Main Functions of Intonation
      • Grammatical function
      • * Intonation is used to signal the syntactic or grammatical structure.
      • Ex. She dressed and fed the baby .
      • ( the baby was dressed and fed )
      • She dressed / and fed the baby .
      • ( She dressed herself and then fed the baby)
    • Qamar& Rubab (2007)
      • “ A learner who learns a new language has not only to grasp the grammar of that language but also the intonation pattern to prove himself a good communicator.”
    • 2 . Accentual information
      • Distributes accents among stressed syllables to emphasize what need to be perceived as significant word.
      • Ex. Paul is very tall.
      • Paul is very tall. (Paul and not another
      • one)
      • 3 . Discourse Function
      • * The study of the intonation related to the context.
    • It means to convey what is new and what is old or known. The main accent is in the last lexical word.
      • Ex. My name is Bond.
      • My name is Bond.
      • James Bond. (new is accented )
      • 4 . Attitudinal Function
      • * Intonation is used to convey attitude, emotions or feelings. This adds a special kind of meaning to spoken language.
    • Say “HELLO”
      • ● to a friend you meet regularly
      • ● to a friend you haven’t seen for 10 years
      • ● to a neighbor whom you don’t like
      • ● to a 6 month old baby
      • ● to someone doing what he shouldn’t
      • ● to know if someone is listening (phone)
    •   I did not say you stole my red hat.
      •   I did not say you stole my red hat.
      • ( the meaning contains the idea that someone else said it, not me )
      •  I did not say you stole my red hat. (Strong anger and denial of the fact.)
    • I did not say you stole my red hat.  (But I implied it that you did. Did you?)  I did not say you stole my red hat.   (I wasn't accusing you. I know it was someone else)
    • I did not say you stole my red hat . (I meant that you stole someone else's red hat)
      • I did not say you stole my red hat.  (I said that you stole my blue hat.)
      • I did not say that you stole my red hat .
      • (I said that you stole my red bat. You misunderstood my pronunciation)
      • Fry, et al, (2000), the changes in meaning are due to what is called supersegmental phonemes. Phonemes are speech sounds and the supersegmental stress/inflection kind affect the meaning .
    • Segmentals are isolated sounds ( consonants, vowels, dipthongs)
      • Suprasegmentals features of speech like stress, intonation and rhythm
    • 5 . Sociolinguistic function
      • Intonation gives the clue
      • a. where somebody comes from
      • b. his social level
      • c. sex, age, personality
      • d. Individual features (idiosyncrasy)
    • Importance of Intonation in Social Interaction
      • TURN-TAKING : Giving the floor to another person or taking your turn in a conversation
      • INFORMATION STRUCTURE : Major stress items pick out the most important words in the sentence .
    • Word Stress vs. Intonation Are they different?
      • STRESS
      • - stress within a word
      • - a syllable is said Louder, Longer at a higher pitch
      • It goes beyond the word level.
      • - it’s a change in pitch within a group of words.
      • A long line of melody
    • Kinds of Tones
      • Fall – gives the impression of finality
      • Rise- conveys an impression that something more is to follow.
      • Fall-Rise – shows limited agreement, uncertainty and doubt.
      • Rise-Fall – convey rather strong feelings of approval, disapproval or surprise
      • Level- tone is neutral and uninterested
      • (usually calls “flat”)
    • Intonation Pattern
      • Two Basic Patterns
      • 1. Falling Intonation
      • 2. Rising Intonation
    • What is falling intonation?
      • ► A pattern in which your voice falls to a low pitch by the end of a thought group or statement.
    • What does it communicate?
      • Certainty
      • You are telling a fact and/or you believe you are right.
      • Finality
      • Completion : Y o u a r e d o n e s p e a k i n g. Your listener can now respond.
    • Falling intonation
      • ■ Declarative sentences
      • ■ W H – questions
      • ■ Commands
    • Example:
      • Erik builds flutes . // He began building flutes after c o ll e ge . // He has one flute of his very own . //
    • What is rising intonation?
      • conveys an impression that something
      • more is to follow
      • ■ YES/ NO questions
      • ■ Open- choice alternative questions
    • Rising Intonation
      • Example:
      Is that Estelle with them? (Rising Intonation) He just won first place!
    • Why teach intonation?
      • Awareness of intonation aids communication.
      • (Difference it makes to meaning)
      • Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest or even taking offence!
      • As important as word choice
    • What are the main means of improving intonation while teaching pronunciation?
      • the best way to achieve quick result is constant practicing
      • start listening to speech of native speakers as frequently as possible.
      • the most important is not only to listen to pronunciation, but to repeat phrases and try to imitate the speakers.
    • THAT’S ALL and Thank you for listening!! Gemma Naval – Costa MATE 1