11.10.21 harvard-referencing-guide-4th-edition 2011


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11.10.21 harvard-referencing-guide-4th-edition 2011

  1. 1. Referencing Guide Questions & AnswersThe Harvard System Produced by Information Services 4th Edition, 2011.
  2. 2. ContentsSection One - Aspects of Referencing1 What is referencing? p. 42 Why reference? p. 53 What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography? p. 64. How do I present referred material in my essay? p. 65 How do I cite authors in my essay? p. 76 What rules apply if there is more than one author? p. 87 What will my reference list look like? p. 88 Where do I find the exact information I need for my list of references? p. 99 Is an editor cited like an author? p.1010 What do I do if I can’t find a named person as the author/editor? p.1111 What do I do if I want to refer to a part or chapter of a book? p.1112 What do I do if I want to cite an author that someone else has cited? p.1213 How do I use quotations? p.1314 How do I distinguish between two items by the same author in the same year? p.1415 How do I distinguish between two authors with the same surname in the same year? p.1516 What do I do if publication details are not given? p.15Section Two - Formats for Printed Material2.1 Books p.162.2 Journal article p.172.3 Corporate author p.172.4 Government Publications p.172.5 White or Green Papers (Command Papers) p.182.6 Conference papers p.182.7 Newspapers p.182.8 Legislation p.192.9 Theses p.202.10 Patents p.202.11 British Standards p.202.12 Maps p.212.13 Diagrams p.21 2
  3. 3. 2.14 Musical Scorep.212.15 Works of Artp.22Section Three - Formats for Electronic and other MaterialTypes3.1 World Wide Web p.223.2 E-bookp.233.3 Electronic Journal (WWW) p.243.4 Blogs p.243.5 Wikis p.253.6 YouTube p.253.7 CD-ROM and DVD p.253.8 Mailbase/Listserv e-mail lists p.263.9 Personal Electronic Communication – E-mail p.26Section Four - Other Material Types4.1 Videotape p.264.2 Film p.274.3 Images – Onlinep.274.4 Broadcast Media – TV/Radio Programmes p.284.5 Personal Communications; conversations, interviews or telephone calls p.284.6 Cochrane Reviewsp.284.7 Seminar/Lectures or Lecturer’s Notes p.294.8 Notes taken by self at lecture p.294.9 Unpublished material p.294.10 Software Code p.29Section Five - Points to Remember!Points to remember! p.30Section Six – Plagiarism and University Policy onReferencingStatement on Plagiarism (from University Student Code 1999) p.30University Policy on referencing p.31 3
  4. 4. Section Seven - ReferencesReferences and bibliography p.32 Referencing - Questions & AnswersThe aim of this document is to offer an introduction to the practiceof referencing published material to anyone who is starting to writeessays/reports for academic purposes. The ‘question & answer’format is used so that the reader can easily check areas of specificconcern to them. After reading these ‘questions & answers’ youshould be able to: • understand the need for, and how to use, reference systems (specifically the HARVARD SYSTEM) • indicate others writers’ ideas in your own work using accepted citation style • format appropriate references correctly from these citations • deal with a range of common and less common bibliographic and electronically formatted materialLook out for this Nb. sign: -Nb.- this indicates important notes which highlight specific aspects ofstyle or referencing practice.Q. What is referencing?A.Academic writing normally involves using the material you haveread and studied to justify and support the answer to your essay or 4
  5. 5. question. When preparing a piece of written work you will refer tothis information (ideas, theories, statistics or data) in an agreedway or format (the Harvard System). Making reference to otherpeople’s work is called ‘citing’, and the list of these authors’ worksare given at the end of a piece of written work in the form of a‘reference list’.The process of citing authors (and the associated reference list) canbe done in one of two main styles - the Harvard or the Numeric.These are both described in the British Standard BS5605 - Citingand Referencing Published Material (British Standards Institution,1990). This guide describes the Harvard Referencing System.Whichever system is adopted, one golden rule applies: *** be consistent in everything you do! ***This consistency applies to format, layout, type-face andpunctuation.Q. Why reference?A.It is the normal academic convention to reference material youhave read from the existing scholarly body of knowledge that existsin your subject area. To write in an ‘academic’ way you must referto this information to show where it has come from, and use it toconstruct your answer to the question posed by the essay or otherpiece of academic work. An essay without references in the textand a full reference list at the end would not normally beconsidered ‘academic’. So in the broadest sense you reference for anumber of reasons: • To support an argument, to make a claim or to provide ‘evidence’ • To acknowledge other peoples’ ideas or work correctly • To show evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading • To avoid plagiarism (i.e. to take other peoples’ thoughts, ideas or writings and use them as your own) 5
  6. 6. • To allow the reader of your work to locate the cited references easily, and so evaluate your interpretation of those ideas • To avoid losing marks!Q. What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography?A.At the end of your essay under the heading ‘references’ you list allthe items you have made direct reference to in your essay (by theauthors’ name and year of publication). This list of books, journals,newspaper articles (or whatever) is organised ALPHABETICALLY bythe names of the authors (or originators) of the work. This is yourreference list (often called References).Also, during the course of your preparatory reading you may usematerial that has been helpful for reading around the subject, butfrom which you do not make specific reference to in your essay. Itis important to acknowledge this material. Under the headingbibliography list all these items, again alphabetically by author,regardless of whether it is a book or journal. Include this list afterthe reference list.Nb.Confusingly some people call the ‘reference list’ the ‘bibliography’(and only use one list). No one is right or wrong in doing either,often institutional convention will determine some aspects of style.Q. How do I present referred material in my essay?A.You present material in two main ways: • Paraphrasing or summarizing text that you have read – this is the most common way to use material. Putting the ideas into your own words (in the context of answering the question) and then stating where that information came from (see next section). Paraphrasing 6
  7. 7. and summarizing is a skill that needs to be practiced and developed. • Quoting material directly from its source – word for word as it was in its original form (See page 12). It is less usual to do this. Your essay should not be a ‘cut and paste’ exercise using other peoples’ words. Use quotations only when you have to use the text in its original form or for presenting a longer quote which you use to highlight and expand on ideas or issues in your essay.Q. How do I cite authors in my essay?A.The Harvard System (sometimes called the ‘name and datesystem’), uses the NAME of the author of the work you wish tocite and the DATE it was published. These are incorporated intothe text of your work each time you make reference to thatperson’s ideas. • This principle applies to any item that you need to reference regardless of what it is or where it comes from – you need to find the author and date of publication. The author (or originator) is the person or organisationresponsible for producing that information and their details shouldbe found in the source document. Author/originators can beindividuals or ‘corporate’. The author and date then become part ofthe text of your essay. Surname(s) only are used; initials are notincluded. Names can be used as part of the sentence or placed inbrackets with the year following.E.g.Names and dates will appear in your text like this:…There are many factors relating to individuals perceived bodyimage. Jones (2009) has suggested that body image is related toself-esteem. Johnson and O’Brien’s’ (2010) study with 80adolescent girls shows that they are also strongly influenced bymedia images…Or the name and date can be in brackets (separated by a comma):-E.g. 7
  8. 8. ... some commentators suggest that body image is related to self-esteem (Jones, 2009), others believe a more complex relationshipexists ... (Philips, 2005; Norton, 2008)Use this form in the middle of a sentence or at the end of aparagraph when you don’t want to ‘name’ the author as part of thesentence.Nb.If a work appears to have no name attached to it then [Anon] canbe used as the author instead of a name. • Some works are the result of co-operation between lots of individuals none of whom can claim authorship e.g. dictionaries, encyclopaedias and films or videos. Titles can then be used in the place of the author name e.g. Gone with the wind. • If no date can be found then [n.d.] can be used (see page 15)Q. What rules apply if there is more than one author?A.If there are TWO authors the names of both should be given in thetext and in the reference list. If there are more than twoauthors the name of the first author only should be given, followedby the abbreviation et al. (meaning ‘and others’).E.g.Knowles et al. (2009) showed that polymer ...Nb.et al. is in italics and is followed by a full stop.Within the reference list it is best practice to include all thenamed authors for your reference.E.g.Wilkins, R., Menzies, A., Wilder, B. and Priestley, S. (1999). SocialPsychology. 7th ed. London: Routledge. 8
  9. 9. Q. What will my reference list looklike?A.Everything you cite in your essay will be listed once alphabeticallyby author (or originator) and subdivided by year and letter, ifnecessary.E.g.Adams, P. J. (2004) Mill workers in Lancashire 1845-1875. London:Cambridge University Press.Bishop, J. and Lawrence, T. (1998) A history of Victorianemployment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Knowles, D. (2005) The way forward: historical change andrevisionism. Cambridge: Harvester Press.Salcey, B. (2007) Changes in history. The Guardian. 21st June. p9.Smith, L. (ed.) (2004) Statistics for engineers. London: Helman.Thompson, R. (2001a) A place in history. History Today. 24 (3),31.Thompson, R. (2001b) Historical theory and real people. HistoryToday. 24 (6), 42-50.Wilkins, R., Menzies, A., Wilder, B. and Priestley, S. (2010)Unearthing the evidence. Derby: Derbyshire Historical Society.Nb.The punctuation, layout and spacing are the same for each type ofitem in the list – remember the golden rule:– BE CONSISTENT.A bibliography would look the same as this. See Section Two -‘formats’ for conventions that apply to all the different types ofmedia e.g. books, journals, newspapers, conferences etc…Q. Where do I find the exact information that I need for list of references? 9
  10. 10. A.Usually from the book title page (or reverse title page) of the bookor document you are citing. For journal articles this information ison the contents pages, front page or individual article page.Remember though:- • The order of authors’ names should be retained for example, if the names are printed as Johnson, Coulson, and Barber then they must remain in the order and not put into alphabetical order i.e. Barber, Coulson and Johnson. • Cite the first named place of publication for books • Edition dates in books are not reprint dates (new editions will have new text and must be cited as such). The copyright sign will often indicate the date of publication • Web pages may not appear to offer the information you need – see if there is a ‘home page’ or an ‘about us/contact us’ link or something similar as these may include ‘publication’ detailsIf your material has not originated from a commercial publisher andlacks obvious title page data, then the appropriate informationshould be gleaned from any part of the printed publication, if youcan say with some certainty that it fulfils the required criteria foryour reference list.Nb.Remember to keep the full reference details for written notes youtake from books and to also note the reference details of any itemsyou have used which you have borrowed from the library orphotocopied.Q. Is an editor cited like an author?A.Yes. But make sure that it is the editor you are citing as theoriginator of the text, not one of the chapter writers (see page 12).In the reference list you should indicate editorship by using one ofthe following abbreviations: 10
  11. 11. E.g.Smith, L. (ed.) (2007) Statistics for engineers. London: Helman.Or:Smith, L. and Pearson, D. T. (eds.) (2008) Solving problems withalgebra. Aberdeen: Falmer.Q. What do I do if I can’t find a named person as the author or editor?A.Sometimes it is impossible to find a named individual as an author.What has usually happened is that there has been a shared or‘corporate’ responsibility for the production of the material.Therefore the ‘corporate name’ becomes the author (often calledthe ‘corporate author’).Corporate authors can be:Government bodiesCompaniesProfessional bodiesClubs or societiesInternational organisationsE.g.Institute of Waste Management (2004) Ways to improve recycling.Northampton: Institute of Waste Management.The ‘corporate author’ appears in the text in the usual way, withthe year of publication.Nb.For journal articles without authors the journal title becomes bothauthor and cited journal title.Q. What do I do if I want to refer to a part or chapter of a book? (edited) 11
  12. 12. A.An edited book will often have a number of authors for differentchapters (on different topics). To refer to a specific author’s ideas(from a chapter) cite or quote them (the chapter writer) in the text- not the editors. Then in your reference list indicate the chapterdetails/title and the book details from which it was published. 12
  13. 13. E.g.Whitehead, C. (2001) Nutrition and growth of fat and lean broilergenotypes. In: Haresign, W and Cole, D. (eds.) Recent advances inanimal nutrition. London: Waverley. pp. 73-89.Nb.Note the use of ‘in’ to link the chapter to the book and the use ofpage numbers. Whitehead would appear as the author in the text,and in the reference list. The year of publication is given once.Q. What do I do if I want to cite an author that someone else has cited?A.A journal article or book someone else cites that you have not seenis called a ‘secondary source’. You should: • try and find this source for yourself and cite it in the normal way. It is important if you are criticising ideas that you do it ‘first hand’ • if you cannot locate the secondary source, you may cite it in your essay using the reference that is provided in your ‘primary source’In your text and reference list you must link these two items withthe term ‘cited in’. The format is:Author of original work’s surname, initials. (Year of originalpublication) Title of original work. Place of publication: Publisher.Cited in Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Place ofpublication: Publisher.E.g.... a change in family circumstances can affect a child’s emotionalstability (Pollock, 2004 cited in Jones ,2006)Pollock, T. (2004) Children in contemporary society. Cambridge:Macmillan. Cited in Jones, P. (2006) A family affair. London:Butterworth. 13
  14. 14. Nb.Only the primary source title is italicised and both years areincluded.Q. How do I use quotations?Most referencing involves putting the information you have readinto your own words within the context of your answer. Quotes aresometimes used but should, in most instances, be kept to aminimum. There are two ways to present both SHORT and LONGquotations.A.To direct your reader to a short quotation (no more than one line)from your source material it is normal to quote the page numberwithin the text (after the author and year) and to include quotationmarks:E.g.... whilst it is possible that ‘poor parenting has little effect onprimary educational development it more profoundly affectssecondary or higher educational achievement’ (Healey, 2003, p.22)Nb.It is not necessary to indicate the page number in the referencelist. It is also acceptable to use a colon before the page numbere.g. Healey, 2003:22.Longer quotes should be: • preceded by a colon • indented from your main text (tabbed in at the side) • single spaced on typed documents • not have quotation marks • cite author, year and page numberE.g. It was just a fragment, no more than 30 seconds: The Euston Road, hansoms, horse drawn trams, passers-by glancing at the camera but hurrying by without the fascination or recognition that came later. It looked like a 14
  15. 15. still photograph, and had the superb picture quality found in expert work of the period, but this photograph moved! Walkley (2005, p.83).Nb.Page numbers on web pages do not normally appear. If you arequoting from a web page it is helpful to include an indication ofwhere the quote can be found (equivalent to the page number inthe text) so give line or screen numbers e.g. use [45 lines] or[approx. 5 screens].Q. How do I distinguish between two items by the same author in the same year?A.Occasionally authors publish two or more book or journal articles inany given year. This would make the text citation identical for both.To distinguish between different articles, letters (a, b, c, etc.) areused with the date in the text:E.g....Johnson (2001a) has progressed both experimental and practicalaspects of software technology to the point where they provide aserious challenge to Pacific Belt dominance (Johnson, 2001b)…Within the reference list the articles are presented alphabetically:2001a then 2001b, etc…E.g.Johnson, C. (2001a) Software: the way ahead....Johnson, C. (2001b) Changing global markets in IT ...Same authors’ with a different year are listed earliest year first inthe reference list. 15
  16. 16. Q. How do I distinguish between two authors with the same surname in the same year?A.At times you may come across two authors with the same surnameand publications in the same year. In this instance, you can usetheir initial(s) to overcome any confusion.E.g. . . . certain sociologists agree that achievement at school is due toparental encouragement (Smith, F, 2006) whereas other advocatepeer influence (Smith, E, 2006) . . .Q. What do I do if publication details are not given?A.Occasionally you will come across documents that lack basicpublication details. In these cases it is necessary to indicate toyour reader that these are not available. A series of abbreviationscan be used and are generally accepted for this purpose: • author/corporate author not given use [Anon.] • no date use [n.d.] • no place (sine loco) use [s.l.] • no publisher (sine nomine) use [s.n.] • not known use [n.k.]For web pages it is often necessary to look beyond the page youare referencing (see page 22) to the ‘Home Page’ for the whole siteor at a link like ‘About Us’ from that home page. Dates are oftengiven at the bottom of web pages.Section Two - Formats for Printed Material 16
  17. 17. There are many different types of material that you may use thatwill need referencing. Each different material format has anaccepted ‘style’ for presentation within the reference list and/orbibliography.The following examples give the format style and are followed byan example. They are broadly separated into ‘printed’ and‘electronic’ material.Remember to: • use the correct source information for all your references e.g. book title page • use the same punctuation consistently in each kind of formatNb.Note the consistency of use of italics for titles. Italics are thepreferred format but it is acceptable to underline.2. Printed Material2.1 BooksAuthor/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Place ofpublication: Publisher.E.g.Orem, D. E. (2009) Nursing: concepts of practice. 4th ed. St. Louis:Mosby-Year Book.Nb. • The title is in italics • The date is the year of publication not printing. • The edition is only mentioned if other than the first. • The place of publication is the City not the Country (normally the first stated). • Authors’ names can be in all capitals or first letter capital then lower case.2.2 Journal article 17
  18. 18. Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of article. Journal Name.Volume number, issue or part number, first and last pagenumbers.E.g.Johns, C. (2003) Professional supervision. Journal of NursingManagement. 21 (1), 9-18.Nb.Journal name is italicised, not the article title. The journal volumenumber is in bold.It is also acceptable to use the terms ‘vol. and no.’ e.g. Vol. 37,no.3, pp. 21-25.2.3 Corporate AuthorFormat is the same as for a book, but uses the ‘corporate’(company, business, organisation) author in place of a namedauthor.E.g.Royal College of Nursing. (2003) Guidance on the handling ofpatients in the hospital and community. London: Royal College ofNursing.(Royal College of Nursing, 2003) would be used in the text of youressay as the citation.2.4 Government PublicationsAvailable data may vary for these, but where possible include thefollowing:Government Department/Institute. Subdivision ofdepartment/institute (if known). (Year) Title of document. (Name ofchairperson if it is a committee.) Place of publication: Publisher.E.g. 18
  19. 19. Department of Health and Social Services. (2000) Inequalities inhealth: report of a research working group. (Chairman: Sir DouglasBlack.) London: DHSS.2.5 White or Green papers (CommandPapers)Department Name (year) Title of paper. Command Paper. Number.Place: Publisher.E.g.Department of Health (2008) Smoking kills a white paper ontobacco. Cm.4177. London: The Stationery Office.2.6 Conference papersConference papers are often published in book form or as a specialissue of a journal. It is necessary to include the name, place anddate of the conference.Author, Initial. (Year) Title of conference paper. In: conferenceproceedings title, including date. Place of publication: Publisher.E.g.Webb, N. L. (2004) Mathematics education reform in California. In:Science and mathematics education in the United States: eightinnovations: proceedings of a conference, Paris, 2000. Paris: OECD.2.7 NewspapersJournalist name, initial. (Year) Title of news item. Name ofnewspaper. Date. Page number.E.g.Peters, R. (2009) Picking up Maxwell’s bills. Independent. 4 June, p28.Nb.Name of newspaper is italicised. 19
  20. 20. E.g.The Guardian (2008) ‘Lottery’ for breast cancer help. The Guardian.21 March, p 10.Nb.If it is a news article and does not attribute an author thenewspaper name is used in the text and instead of the author inthe reference list.2.8 LegislationLaw ReportsDates are given in square brackets, not round.Names of parties involved in case [Year] Volumenumber/Abbreviated name of law report/Page number on whichreport starts.Eg.Holgate v Duke [1984] 2 All ER 660.StatutesThe usual method of citing an Act of Parliament is to cite its title inyour text. (Normally the country of origin is regarded as the‘author’, but this is not always stated if you are discussing the lawof the land you are actually in.) The format is therefore:Title of statute, year of statute. Place of publication: publisher.Nb.Data Protection Act 1984. London: HMSO.Statutory InstrumentsIt is not necessary to put the country of origin if it is the UK. Theformat would be in this form:Short title of the statutory instrument. Year (SI year: number).Place of publication: Publisher. 20
  21. 21. E.g.Lobster pots (size regulations). 1989 (SI 1989: 1201). London:HMSO.2.9 ThesesAuthor, initials. (Year) Thesis title. Level of thesis. AwardingInstitution.E.g.Kirkland, J. (2010) Lay pressure groups in the local educationsystem: a study of two English boroughs. Ph.D. Thesis, BrunelUniversity.2.10 PatentsThis format starts with the patent applicant and should include thecountry, patent number and full date.Patent applicant. (Year) Title of patent. Name of author/inventor.Country of patent, serial number. Date of application.E.g.Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals Inc. (1972) Dyeing by acid dyes. Author:F. Fuji. Japan patent application 6988, 3951969. 2 October 1972.2.11 British StandardsCorporate author. (Year) Title of standard. Number of standard.Place: Publisher.E.g.British Standards Institute. (1989) References to publishedmaterials. BS1629. London: BSI.2.12 Maps 21
  22. 22. Surname of creator, initials (may be mapmaker, cartographer,compiler etc.) (Year) Title. Scale (normally given as ratio). Place ofpublication: publisher.E.g.Jones, H. (2007) East Anglia: North 1:10,000. Peterborough:Grove.If the name of the creator/originator is not known use the title ofthe map in its place.For Ordnance Survey maps use this format:Ordnance Survey (Year) Title of map. Sheet Number, Scale. Series.Place of publication: publisher.E.g.Ordnance Survey (2007) Land’s End & Isles of Scilly. Sheet No.203, 1:50,000. Landranger Series. Southampton: OrdnanceSurvey.2.13 DiagramsThese should be referenced in the same way as you reference adirect quote i.e. the author/date/page number of the book that itcame from (see page 7), with the full source details included inyour reference list.2.14 Musical ScoreComposer (Year of publication) Title of work. Editor(s) followed byed. or any other arrangers, for example Scored by or Arranged by(note that the name is not written surname first). Place ofpublication: Publisher.E.g.Mozart, W. A. (1983) Flute concertos: Concerto no. 2 in D, K. 314and Andante in C, K. 315. T. Wye ed. Sevenoaks, Novello. 22
  23. 23. 2.15 Works of ArtArtist (Year of production) Title. Material type, measurements.Place: Gallery.E.g.Renoir, Pierre-August (1875) The Skiff (La Yole). oil on canvas, 71x 92 cm. London: The National Gallery.Section Three - Formats for Electronic andother Material Types3.1 World Wide WebThe principles for citing web pages are the same as for other typesof media - use author name and date of publication in your textand the following format for the reference list. The nature of webpublication can often mean that author names are missing anddates are vague or unavailable. The solution to this problem is todecide who is responsible for producing the web page (theoriginator) and they will then become the ‘author’. It is often easierto find this information (and a date) if you look at the Home Pagelink for the site you are in or at the ‘About Us’ or ‘Contact Us’ typeof links associated with that page.Nb.Remember, referencing or citing a website in the text of yourassignment is the same as any other resource, you write the nameand date. You never put the URL into your essay.In your essay:(Organisation or Author’s Name, date)Reference list:Author/editor, initials. (Year) Title [online]. (Edition). Place ofpublication: Publisher (if ascertainable). Available from: URL[Accessed date].Do not worry about omitting ‘place and publisher’ if they are notavailable. 23
  24. 24. E.g.In your assignment:Numerous organisations have produced guidelines related tohealthy eating (British Nutrition Foundation, 2010).National guidelines have been produced to allow for themanagement of lower back pain (National Institute for Health andClinical Evidence, 2009).In your reference list:British Nutrition Foundation. (2010) Healthy eating: a whole dietapproach [online]. London: British Nutrition Foundation. Availablefrom: http://www.nutrition.org.uk/home.asp?siteId=43&sectionId=325&subSectionId=320&parentSection=299&which=1 [Accessed 11th August 2010].National Institute for Health and Clinical Evidence. (2009) Low backpain: Early management of persistent non-specific low back pain[online]. London: National Institute for Health and ClinicalEvidence. Available from:http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11887/44343/44343.pdf.[Accessed 22nd April 2010].The “Accessed date” is the date on which you viewed ordownloaded the document. It may be subject to changes orupdating and including this date allows for this possibility. Keepinga record of the document as you used it (if permissible) isrecommended.3.2 E-bookIt is good practice to differentiate between books and e-books. Theformat is as follows:In your essay:(Author’s Name, date)Reference list:Author, initials. (Year) Title [online]. Place of publication: Publisher.Available from: URL. [Accessed date].E.g.Hutcheon, L. (2004) Politics of postmodernism [online]. London:Routledge. Available from: http://reader.eblib.com/Reader.aspx?p=181639&o [Accessed: 3rd August 2009]. 24
  25. 25. 3.3 Electronic Journal (WWW)Some journals are published solely on the internet therefore it isimpossible to reference them in the same way as you would a printjournal. The format for this is:In your essay:(Author’s Name, date)Reference list:Author, initials. (Year) Title. Journal title [online], volume (issue),location within host. Available from: URL [Accessed Date].E.g.McArthur, D. N. and Griffin, T. (2006) A marketing managementview of integrated marketing communications. Journal ofAdvertising Research [online], vol. 37 (5), p19. Available from:http://web3.searchbank.com/infotrac/session/66/850/10267118w3/15!xrn_12&bkm [Accessed 1st March 2007].‘Location within host’ may have to be used to indicate where theitem can be found within the cited address. For example the page,paragraph, or line number (when these are fixed within thedocument) e.g. ‘pp19-29’ or ‘lines 120-249’. Other locations couldbe a specific labeled part, section or table, or any host-specificdesignation.Nb.If a journal exists in both print and electronic form it is oftensimpler and clearer to use the print journal format for referencingthe item, regardless of which item you have viewed.3.4 BlogsIn your essay:(Author’s Name, date)Reference list:Author, initials. (year) Title of blog entry. Date written. Title ofblog. [online]. Available from: URL. [Accessed date].E.g.Olsen, E (2008) Five things I love about Firefox 3. 9 April 2008.Librarian Avengers. [online]. Available from:http://librarianavengers.org/page/2/ [Accessed 2nd July 2008]. 25
  26. 26. 3.5 WikisIn your essay:(Wiki Name, date)Reference list:Wiki name. (Date). Title of article. [online]. Available from: URL.[Accessed date].E.g.Wikipedia. (2008). William Shakespeare. [online]. Available from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_shakespeare [Accessed 3 July2008].Lexis-Nexis wiki for higher education. (2008). Consumer Law.[online]. Available from:http://wiki.lexisnexis.com/academic/index.php?title=Consumer_Law [Accessed: 23 July 2008].3.6 YouTubeScreen name. (Year). Title. [online]. Available from: URL.[Accessed date].E.g.Leelefever. (2008). Podcasting in plain English. [online]. Availablefrom: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-MSL42NV3c [Accessed3 July 2008].3.7 CD-ROM and DVDAuthor/editor, initials (Year) Title. [type of medium e.g. CD-ROM].Place of publication: publisher (if ascertainable). Supplier.Identifying number (optional).E.g.Acland, R. D. (2003) Acland’s DVD atlas of human anatomy: DVD2: the lower extremity. [DVD]. London: Lippincott, Williams andWilkins.Nb.This format is for full-text CD-ROM/DVD and does not include CD-ROM bibliographic databases. 26
  27. 27. 3.8 Mailbase/Listserve e-mail listsAuthor, Initials. Day Month year. Subject of Message. DiscussionList [online] Available from: list e-mail address [Accessed Date]E.g.Bates, E. 11th Aug 2005. Re: Changes to NLH. Lis-Nursing [online]Available from: jiscmail@jiscmail.ac.uk [Accessed 12th August2005].3.9 Personal Electronic Communication – E-mailSender’s Surname, Initials. (Sender’s e-mail address), Day MonthYear. Subject of Message. e-mail to Recipient’s Initials, Surname(Recipient’s e-mail address)E.g.Haley, K. (k.haley@pilton.co.uk) 10th August 2004 Changes to yourreport format. e-Mail to C. Bond (chris.bond@ntlworld.co.uk)Section Four - Other Material Types4.1 VideotapeFor off-air (recorded from television Programmes) recordings use:Broadcast company (Year) Title of programme. Off-air recording.Transmission date. Format.E.g. TV ProgrammesChannel Four (1992) J’Accuse: Sigmund Freud. Off-air recording.10th June, 1992. Videotape.In your essay refer to: (Channel Four, 1992).For an off-air recording of a film use this format:Title (Year) Person or body responsible for production. Off-airrecording. Format. 27
  28. 28. E.g. Video/DVDThe Graduate (1969) Directed by Mike Nichols. Off-air recording.Videotape.In the text of your essay refer to: (The Graduate, 1969).The Commitments (1991) Directed by Alan Parker. Off-airrecording. DVD.In the text of your essay refer to: (The Commitments, 1991).4.2 FilmTitle. (Year). Person or body responsible for production. Runningtime. Production company. Place of production or publication (ifknown). Format.E.g.The Apartment (1960) Directed by Billy Wilder. 124 mins. UnitedArtists. Videotape.In the text of your essay refer to (The Apartment, 1960)Nb.It is permissible to list films separately under a ‘filmography list’.4.3 Images - OnlineOriginator (Year) Title of image [online]. Available from: URL.[Accessed date]E.g.Daisy_Chains (2009) Victoria Butterfly Gardens [online]. Availablefrom: http://www.flickr.com/photos/69561650@N00/3784458656/[Accessed: 3rd August 2009]. 28
  29. 29. 4.4 Broadcast Media – TV/RadioProgrammesSeries title (Year) Title and number of episode. Transmittingorganisation and channel, full date and time of transmission.E.g.Doctor Who (2005) The empty child. Episode 9. BBC1. 21st May,1830 hrs.Or:Women’s Hour (2004) BBC Radio 4. July 29th, 1030 hrs.Contributions within individual programmes should be cited ascontributors:Blair, T. (2005) Interview. In: Today Programme. BBC Radio 4. 1stMay, 0810 hrs.4.5 Personal Communications;conversations, interviews or telephonecallsAs this data has not been recorded anywhere (and is therefore notrecoverable) details should only be recorded within the text.Surname, Initials. Type of communication e.g. interview or personalcommunication) Date of communicationE.g.… we need to ‘invest more money in student accommodation’(Jones, S. interview. 27th Aug 2004) and until we do …4.6 Cochrane ReviewsAuthor, Initials. Title of review. Cochrane Database of SystematicReviews. Year, Issue number, Article number. DOI: number.E.g.Loveman, E, Royle, P and Waugh, N. Specialist nurses in diabetesmellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2003, Issue 2,Art. No. CD003286. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. 29
  30. 30. 4.7 Seminar/Lectures or Lecturer’sNotesLecturer’s surname, Initials. (Year) Title of Lecture, Course. Coursecode. Place, Day, Month.E.g.Williams, B. (2004) Introduction to pollination. Plant Biology.BIO1234. University of Bramchester, Fri 12th August.4.8 Notes taken by self at lectureLecturer’s surname, Initials. (year) Lecture Notes. [Description ofLecture Note, Day, Month].E.g.Maxwell, J. (2003) Lecture notes. [Notes from World War OneHistory lecture, Monday, 10th July].4.9 Unpublished MaterialSome printed materials are not produced by recognisablepublishers, and may not be widely available. In this case it isnecessary to indicate this, and if the document is archival in nature,e.g. a manuscript or personal letter, its location should also beincluded.E.g.Lawler, C. (1987) Childhood vaccinations. Health promotion leaflet,Chester Group Practice, unpublished.4.10 Software CodeAuthor (Year) Title of Program (Version Number) [format type](computer program, software or code0 Place of publication:publisher (if available). Available from: URL (if online).E.g.In Text: (Techsmith, 2008)In Reference list:TechSmith (2008) Snagit (Version 9.1) [Software] TechSmithCorporation. Available from: http://www.techsmith.com/screen-capture.asp. 30
  31. 31. Section Five - Points to Remember!5.1 Above all - be consistent in whatever method of referencing you use.5.2 The main title of the document should be distinguishable - italics or underlined5.3 Author(s) name(s) can be in capitals or lower case.5.4 The date is the year of publication not printing.5.5 For a book the edition is only mentioned if other than the first.5.6 The place of publication is the city not the country.5.7 Journal titles should be given in full.5.8 Volume and part numbers can be: Vol. 25 no. 2 25 (2) 25:25.9 Page numbers can be written: p.33-39. 33-39. pp.33-39.Section Six – Plagiarism and UniversityPolicy on ReferencingPlagiarismStatement on Plagiarism (from Student Code 1999)The University unequivocally condemns plagiarism, which itconsiders to be comparable to falsifying data and cheating in anexamination, and warns students that the Senate looks gravelyupon incidents of plagiarism. Such incidents are classed asAcademic Misconduct and are subject to the procedures further setout in the Student Code.DefinitionThe University considers plagiarism involves an intention to deceiveand entails the submission for assessment of work which purportsto be that of the student but is in fact wholly or substantially thework of another. Since it is difficult to establish such an intentionto deceive except through practice the University defines plagiarismin the following way.The University defines plagiarism as the incorporation by a studentin work for assessment of material which is not their own in thesense that all or substantial part of the work has been copiedwithout an attempt at attribution or has been incorporated as if itwere the students own when in fact it is wholly or substantially thework of another person. 31
  32. 32. The University of Northampton Policy on ReferencingThe University considers that referencing is an essential componentof academic activity. It is a sound discipline for students, whichrequires them to demonstrate the provenance of their material andthe sources of their argument. It should indicate theirunderstanding of scholarship and enable them to recognise theirplace as learners in an academic discipline. Acknowledgement ofthe academic work of others emphasises the integrity of both theUniversitys undergraduate and postgraduate study within the wideracademic community.Referencing is also vital in reinforcing the Universitys policy onplagiarism and in enabling students to understand the relevanceand importance of that policy.In promoting good practice in relation to referencing, the Universityconsiders it is more important that students understand why theyshould be referencing than that they are simply concerned withhow to reference.As a result, the University thinks it is important to relate thepractice of referencing to the academic requirements andexpectations of a particular discipline rather than requiring slavishadherence to a uniform model.The University therefore does not require adherence to a singlestandard form of reference. However, the University recognises theproblems and concerns that referencing can occasion for studentsand therefore it considers that in order to simplify the problem ofreferencing for students there should be a limited number ofmodels in operation in the University.The University therefore issued the Referencing Guide which itwould expect course teams to use, unless they can justify that it isinappropriate in relation to accepted external academic orprofessional practices in their area. Minor variations of practice arediscouraged. 32
  33. 33. Section Seven - ReferencesBritish Standards Institute. (1989) British Standardrecommendations for references to published materials. BS1629.London: BSI.British Standards Institute. (1990) Recommendations for citing andreferencing published material. BS5605. London: BSI.Gibaldi, J. (1988) MLA handbook for writers of research papers. 3rded. New York: Modern Language Association of America.Holland, M., (2004). Citing references: brief guide [online]. Poole:Bournemouth University. Available from:http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/academic_services/documents/Library/Citing_References.pdf [Accessed 12 August 2005].Leeds University (2008) Harvard style bibliographies andreferences. [online] Leeds: Leeds University. Available from:http://www.leeds.ac.uk/library/training/referencing/harvard.htm[Accessed 2 July 2008].Li, X. and Crane, N. B. (1993) Electronic style: a guide to citingelectronic information. London: Meckler.This guide is also available electronically via the University’s Library Web pages at: http://library.northampton.ac.uk/pages/hrg 33