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Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
Sharing information with MediaWiki
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Sharing information with MediaWiki

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About sharing information within a user community. …

About sharing information within a user community.

Techniques on how to setup a MediaWiki server, and encourage users to read, and contribute content.

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  • 1. Wiki - Sharing informationwithin a user communityComponents – structure – technology –examples - positioning - usage guidelines –configuration – strengths – weaknesses -opportunities – threatsGeert Van Pamel, Belgacom, SCS/CCA/IOT
  • 2. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 2IntroductionA Wiki is an easy to use collaborative web applicationto gather, structure, share, and distribute relatedinformation within a community, using a database, a(dedicated) web server and simple markup.Interactive Knowledge Exchange• To the external world, a Wiki is a web site• For the programmer, it is a bunch of PHP scripts• For the administrator, it is a database & web server• For the moderator, it is a list of linked articles & authors• For the user, it is a documentation tool & search engine• For robots, it is rich & up-to-date web content
  • 3. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 3What you will learn here• Structure, components, technology, configuration• How it started• How to use it• When to use it• Examples• Advantages, disadvantages, strong points, weaknesses• Comparison & positioning with other utilities• Types of users• Protection against spam & vandalismI present both the technical & non-technical aspects
  • 4. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 4About me• ICT Project Manager SCS/CCA/IOT• Engineer• ICT Professional since 1984• Working for Belgacom since 1997• Author about Linux subject matters• Interested in (practical) new technology• Using Wiki since 2005• Using conference technology since 1986• Board member of HP-Interex Belgium /Luxembourg
  • 5. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 5Typical Components• A network: intranet, internet• A server with storage & memory• LAMP– Operating system: Linux– Web server: Apache– Database: MySQL– Programming language: PHP• An application: Mediawiki• User community: Administrators, moderators, users, teams• A browser: Internet Explorer, FirefoxComponents are (mostly) Open Source - Other implementations exist
  • 6. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 6History of Wiki• Wiki wiki = Hawaii word for “hurry quick” (on the busses)• First implementation in 1995 - Ward Cunningham• The lazy programmer (programmers do not like todocument)• Wikipedia started in 2001• Mediawiki was developed in 2003• Cunningham joined Microsoft in 2004 & 2005• 2005 = The year of the Wiki• In 2006 Wikipedia contained 4.6 M articleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki
  • 7. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 7Ideas behind• Structure non-structured data• Organise & stimulateteamwork• Capture knowledge easily• Simple markup with greatlayout• No application neededRichard Stallman– Wikimania 2005Jimmy WalesWikimediaFoundation
  • 8. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 8Examples on the Internet• Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia http://xx.wikipedia.orgall languages – xx = nl, fr, en, etc.• http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Terry_Shannon• http://www.wikipedia.org• WikiBooks• Wiktionaries - Wiki dictionaries• Wikiquotes• Technical documentation: Linux, Wiki -https://wiki.ubuntu.com• http://www.smetty.be (WordPress)• Organisations: http://www.hp-interex.be - HP Users GroupBelgium /Luxembourg
  • 9. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 9Examples in Belgacom• 2004 - http://wiki.bc – Wiki ITN Strategy (Michel Huberts)• 2005 - http://bike.bc - BiKe – Belgacom InteractiveKnowledge Exchange, SCS/CCA (Geert Van Pamel)• 2006 - SDI (Rudi Vankemmel)• others?
  • 10. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 10Principles• Articles are structured text• Simple text is knowledge - Layout is automatic• … or can be done by others• An URL is a (group of) word(s)• An article is an URL• A Wiki word contains at least 1 uppercase• Content is linked• Markup is simple, simpler than HTML• Everybody can do it• You do not need to be a webmaster to contribute content• You do not need a tool, only a web browser• A search engine is embedded• Revision control is embedded and automatic
  • 11. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 11Business rules• A user logs in• A user can write or update an article• An article can be linked to other articles• An article can contain media type• Media can be uploaded separately• An article can contain external URLs• An article is an URL• An article can be referenced from the outside (via URL)• A user (author) is identified (username, password, domaincontroller, IP address)• Full change history is maintained: who changed what when
  • 12. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 12Characteristics• Anybody can change everything, everywhere, anytime• Nobody is owner of the content• Information is centrally stored• Structured• Easy to become a new member (no transfer of documents)• A database keeps all (historical) information• Moderators keep an eye and intervene when necessary• A built-in search engine• A database allows to query for articles
  • 13. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 13Practical• Edit is everywhere• Everything is linked• Content is shared• All users are author• Users build on one-another• All changes are kept
  • 14. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 14When to use• Project management• Application documentation• Technical notes• Metadata (data about data)• Product description• Methods & Procedures• Policies• Infrastructure inventory• Scripts (description)• Process description• Support knowledge base• Documentation (archive)• Meeting minutes• Teams, departments• Alternative shared driveRemember:– public readable– updatable by users– historical updates archived
  • 15. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 15Search engine• Embedded• Search in titles• Search in full text• Special SQL queriesIf you do not find the topic, you can create one (if you knowthe subject matter)External search engines like Wiki also, because of its rich &structured content -> use of <meta name="KEYWORDS"content= " … ">
  • 16. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 16Articles• Must have a title• The title is the most important part of an article (chooseone carefully)• Synonyms = redirect• Have a discussion page• Have a change history• revision differences• can be protected (by moderator)• Note:–spaces are automatically replaced by _ (underscore)–if all lowercase, first letter is converted to uppercase
  • 17. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 17Technology behindInternet standards !• HTTP – HyperText Transport Protocol• HTML – HyperText Markup Language (SGML, XHTML)• CSS – Cascading Style Sheets• PHP – Personal Home Page• MySQL - Database• NTLM – NT LAN Manager (domain controller)• RCS – Revision Control System• SMTP – Simple Mail Transport Protocol• Sendmail – SMTP mail router• LaTeX – Typesetting system• Media types – PNG, JPEG, GIF• TCP/IP – Internet network protocol
  • 18. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 18Additional tools• GIMP – GNU Image Manipulation Program• Internet tools:–iptables–whois–host (nslookup)• MySQL utilities:–MySQL Administrator–Query Browser
  • 19. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 19More information• Mediawiki – http://www.mediawiki.org–http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediawiki• Linux – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux• Apache – http://www.apache.org• MySQL – http://www.mysql.org• PHP – http://www.php.net• HTML, CSS – http://www.w3.orghttp://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee
  • 20. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 20Intranet implementation• 1 browser type and only 1 version (normally)–can build specific CSS when needed–house style, company style sheets, strict• NTLM authentication, no separate password needed• modest server• can serve small communities• organised teams, departments• disciplined users, easy control, less moderator effort• all users in 1 location, 1 language• no firewall (intranet) -> firewall to protect intranet!
  • 21. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 21Internet implementation• many browser types (+ versions)• need to verify special CSS browser specific effectsExtra protection needed–danger for vandalism• user creation protection• password protection• need robust server• bigger unorganised communities, no control• users worldwide, many languages• decent firewall needed• daily moderator follow-up needed
  • 22. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 22Other Wiki systems• JSPWiki – Java Server Pages with Tomcat• TWiki• WikidPad• WordPressCaveat: all using other markup language
  • 23. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 23Related technologiesSome of them exist since the start of Internet!• Mailing lists – just a bunch of e-mails, no structure• Newsgroups – difficult to link articles• SharePoint – complex setup, proprietary• (Lotus) Notes – VAXnotes, VMSnotes• phpBB and other forums (e.g. Agora)• Web sites – limited number of web authors, complex, strict• Blogs – 1 author, no interaction, little structure• RSS & Atom – Automatic News feed
  • 24. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 24Advantages – disadvantages• Every advantage can be a disadvantage (depending on thecontext, and the strategy)• Advantages and disadvantages are close to each other, andcan balance• Moderator & administrator have to make implementationdecisions• SWOT–Strengths–Weaknesses–Opportunities–Threats
  • 25. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 25Advantages• Availability (to anybody)• No client tools needed, except web browser• Platform independent (client + server)• Uses internet standards• Little administrative effort needed• Knowledge tool: who knows can contribute (independent from theorganisational structure)• Text-based with (rather) rich markup• Consistency in look and feel• Non-proprietary software (Open Source)• No paid license needed• Embedded media allowed• No mandays needed (except to setup & maintain the server)• Users contribute: you have more than a webmaster (team)• Automatic RCS (Revision Control System)• Authors can be geographically and organisationally dispersed
  • 26. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 26Disadvantages• No detailed access rules & restrictions• You only have users + moderators (no content specialist, authors,publishing author, reviewer, release manager, tester)• Danger for anarchy• No formal content structure• Everybody (read: non-users) can read content• All users can update content (no delete s.s.)• Relies on the goodwill of the community• Relies on social control• No flow control (CMS = content management system) -> noformal review and approval• No WIP (Work In Progress) – need external, offline storage• No content releases (publications are immediately visible)
  • 27. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 27Strong points• Community based tool• Little administration, little overhead• Only a browser needed• Available anywhere, anytime• Minimum bureaucracy• Google gives a high ranking to Wiki articles
  • 28. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 28Dangers• Spam (publication of non-related info: Viagra, watches, medicalproducts)• Vandalism (incorrect information, deleting of good content)• Bad guys are thrown out by moderator (temporarily,permanently)• Mostly invisible for humans -> only robots will see this -> rankingup “Google” searches• Using bad syntax• At the bottom of articles (after a lot of empty lines)How to prevent:• Firewall – block IP ranges• User account control (creation, blocking)• Mandatory user authentication to change content (but botnets cancreate new user accounts)
  • 29. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 29External search enginesSearch engines are harvesting Wiki databases, due to itsstructure and rich URL referringThey use special programs that understand the structure ofthe Wiki database• Google• Yahoo• Microsoft MSN• Voila• Ask Jeeves• Gigabot• ZyBorg
  • 30. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 30RobotsFrequently known as bot, bots, spiders, crawler, scooterThey love Wiki sites, because structured, rich contentYou can prevent robots from indexing certain directories(you could block robots not behaving according to policy)
  • 31. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 31Examplecd /html/wikicat robots.txtUser-agent: *Disallow: /bot-trap/Disallow: /cgi-bin/Disallow: /forum/Disallow: /images/Disallow: /languages/Disallow: /skins/Disallow: /includes/Disallow: /extensions/Disallow: /config/Disallow: /maintenance/Disallow: /docs/Disallow: /math/Disallow: /tests/Disallow: /irc/
  • 32. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 32Robot typesGeneral• Web IndexingSpecialised• Content updating (adding URLs, rule based editing)• Deleting of bad or illegal content, badly copyrightedpictures• Automatically verifying copyright infringements
  • 33. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 33Examples of Web Spiders• 206 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Yahoo! Slurp;http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/ysearch/slurp)• 83 msnbot/1.0 (+http://search.msn.com/msnbot.htm)• 53 Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; Windows 95) VoilaBotBETA 1.2 (http://www.voila.com/)• 13 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1;+http://www.google.com/bot.html)• 8 MJ12bot/v1.0.8 (http://majestic12.co.uk/bot.php?+)• 3 Yahoo-MMCrawler/3.x (mms dash mmcrawler dash supportat yahoo dash inc dot com)• 2 Mozilla/4.0 compatible ZyBorg/1.0 (wn-16.zyborg@looksmart.net; http://www.WISEnutbot.com)• 1 Mozilla/2.0 (compatible; Ask Jeeves/Teoma;+http://sp.ask.com/docs/about/tech_crawling.html)• 1 Gigabot/2.0; http://www.gigablast.com/spider.html• 1 Snapbot/1.0
  • 34. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 34Bot-Trap• Detect non-behaving robotsgrep bot-trap /var/log/httpd/access_log• When you do find a non-behaving robot, you can blockthem with iptables:iptables -I INPUT -s 216.144.51.98 -j DROP
  • 35. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 35Attacks from the internetAttempts to use 1 known hacks were logged 58 time(s)phpmyadmin by217.91.53.7 2 time(s)216.144.51.98 56 time(s)A total of 2 sites probed the server217.91.53.7216.144.51.98Protect yourself via iptables, and/or not installingphpmyadmin–use SSH and mysql instead–never use telnet (password at risk)
  • 36. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 36Types of vandalism & incorrect usage• spam to artificially uplift Google ranking• incorrect information• removing correct information• commercial info• too much external links• personal information (not everybody is a VIP)• corporate sensitive information on a public Wiki• spelling mistakes• not using “Preview” before publishing• not giving comments when creating a new version• poorly structured
  • 37. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 37<div style="overflow:auto; height:1px;">[http://d3d.strangled.net/?valium/]80.66.66.217 - - [14/Jul/2006:23:18:09 +0200] "POST/wiki/index.php?title=Brecust&action=submit HTTP/1.0" 302 - "-""Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.00; Windows NT 9.0)"host 80.66.66.217217.66.66.80.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer pan.riss-telecom.ru.Real world Vandalism
  • 38. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 38Whois and iptableswhois 80.66.66.217@whois.ripe.netinetnum: 80.66.64.0 - 80.66.68.127netname: RISSdescr: JSC "Riss-Telecom", Novosibirsk, Russiacountry: RUroute: 80.66.64.0/19iptables -I INPUT -s 80.66.64.0/19 -j DROP• Further actions:–Block user–Cleanup impacted article
  • 39. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 39Block user
  • 40. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 40Remove vandalism
  • 41. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 41Functionality• Link into• Link out• Upload an image• Delete an image• Replace an image• Copyright an image• Describe an image• Link an image to an article• Refer to other articles• Categories, keywords• Create a template• Embed a template• Create an article• Change an article• Restore an article• Delete an article• Block an article• Search articles• Discuss an article (Talk pages)• Difference 2 versions• Login• Logout• Create a user account• Reset a password• Block users• Send e-mail
  • 42. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 42Reporting• Referred where• Search unlinked articles• Search unlinked images• Search most wanted articles• Last changes• Short articles• Long articles• Statistics• History of article• My articles• My watchlist
  • 43. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 43Moderator reporting• Number of users• Number of articles• Number of updates• Number of articles per day• Blocked users• % of blocked users• # articles /users• most active users• most active domains
  • 44. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 44Automatic reportingVia crontab & MySQL queries• Recent changes• Spam
  • 45. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 45Layout extensions• HTML can be used, if needed & if allowed by moderator• Layout can be changed via CSS• Different skins exist, or can be created by administrator• CSS Reference:–http://bike.bc/wiki/index.php/CSS–http://www.ilovejackdaniels.com/css/css-cheat-sheet
  • 46. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 46Personal Home PageEvery author automatically has a home page, linked as anURL to his Wiki username, example:• http://bike.bc/wiki/index.php/User:Id075621• Caveat: every user can change your home page• You could add a list of articles that you maintain• You can refer to other content on the internet• You could talk about your cat, hobbies, …It is up to you
  • 47. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 47Wiki RolesList of Wiki Roles:–Administrator–Moderator–Identified User–Anonymous userRecent versions of Mediawiki allows the administrator tocreate extra roles.
  • 48. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 48Administrator activities• Install /maintain the web server• Configure the wiki• Backup• Restore• Upgrade• Start, stop server• Automated queries• Manage IP tables firewall
  • 49. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 49Moderator activities• Block users or IP addresses• Protect articles• Remove spam (delete articles)• Change structure• Set usage policy• Create users?• Only the moderator can delete articles• You should have more than 1 moderator (holiday!)
  • 50. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 50Identified user activities• create or amend articles (including home page)• rename articles• send e-mailIdentification• either with username & password• or single sign on with NTLM on the intranet• or with IP addressSome bots are logged in, so can make identified changes
  • 51. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 51Anonymous user activities• A not-logged-in user has limited access–read articles–use search engine–create a user accountThis includes most spider botsNormally a user should be logged in to amend the Wiki (toavoid vandalism)
  • 52. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 52Policy rules & decisionsThe following questions need an answer before starting:• What is the content - what topics do we want /accept• Minimum quality for articles• How do we handle “bad” content• How do we allow access - authentication required, anonymousupdates (dis)allowed• What credentials are used (password, SSO e.g. domain controllerwith NTLM)• Do we allow user creation• Do we allow e-mail• Do we allow HTML• Do we use LaTeX• Maintain templates
  • 53. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 53Wiki configuration• wiki = subdirectory of Apache root• includes/DefaultSettings.php• LocalSettings.php• directory structure
  • 54. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 54Wiki configuration parameters• logo $wgLogo = "/images/logo_belgacom_167.gif";• user white list $wgWhitelistEdit = true;• allow HTML $wgRawHtml = true;• allow e-mail $wgEnableUserEmail = true;• document types $wgFileExtensions = array( eps, png, gif,jpg, jpeg, doc, mdb, pdf, ppt, ps, txt, vsd, xls, zip )$wgUploadSizeWarning = 150000;• allow LaTeX $wgUseTeX = true;• allow rescaling of images + tools$wgDisableUploads = false;$wgUseImageResize = true;$wgUseImageMagick = true;# $wgImageMagickConvertCommand = "/usr/bin/convert";$wgImageMagickConvertCommand = "/usr/bin/X11/convert";• enable debugging #$wgDebugLogFile = "/tmp/wiki.log";
  • 55. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 55Cascading Style SheetsBetter known as CSS• internet standard since 1998• via Wiki skins (you can make your own!)• change layout centrally, once• keep HTML as simple as possible (no attributes, juststructure)• compact code (use browser cache effectively)• layout consistency• possibility to hide certain objects (even if they aredownloaded by the browser)
  • 56. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 56Wiki programming• If Wiki parameters are not sufficient, you can change thePHP programs yourselfI did it!But you need to know the PHP programming languageGood site:http://www.php.net
  • 57. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 57PHP configuration parameters• Stored in php.ini• When changed -> need to restart Apache serverTypical changesvi /etc/php.ini…max_execution_time = 120max_input_time = 120memory_limit = 80Mpost_max_size = 80Mupload_max_filesize = 100Msession.save_path = /ramdisk
  • 58. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 58Apache configuration• DocumentRoot• Protection of /images• Protection of /upload• Protection of PHP scripts• REMOTE_USER
  • 59. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 59Single signon – SSO• Avoids using another password• User is identified with Windows username• User must only login once into Windows• Using NTLM mechanism• You must have 2 domain controllers in the LAN• Needs Apache mod_ntlm• Needs Apache mod_vi /html/wiki/includes/SpecialUserlogin.php…$this->mName=strtolower(substr($_SERVER["REMOTE_USER"],0,8));
  • 60. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 60Browser settings• Must allow cookies for session management• Must understand Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)Mostly used:• Internet Explorer• Firefox• Lynx (text browser) can be used for server testing!Caveat: Some browsers interpret CSS differently
  • 61. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 61Mediawiki Markup - Quick Intro• paragraph• * unnumbered list• # numbered list• : definition list• ! table header• space example• = Title =• == Sub title ==• === Sub sub title ===• {{template}}• #REDIRECT [[ ]]• [[Wiki word|Description]]• http://• [external-URL description]• [[Category: ]]• [[Media: ]]• [[Image: ]]• table• <nowiki>wiki tag</nowiki>• bold• italic
  • 62. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 62Tables• Could use HTML <table> as well{|![[Geert Van Pamel]]![[Danny De Thaye]]![[Jean Laloy]]|-|[[Image:Geert-Van-Pamel.jpg|Geert Van Pamel]]|[[Image:Danny-De-Thaye.jpg|Danny De Thaye]]|[[Image:Jean-Laloy.jpg|Jean Laloy]]|}
  • 63. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 63Caveat• Other Wiki implementations use different markup• This is why we only presented Mediawiki syntax
  • 64. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 64Rules for Wiki Words• Remember: Words are primary keys for database• Use singular, if possible• [[singular]]s• Use lowercases• use full name• use acronyms as REDIRECT• can replace by list with ambiguity• Use uppercase with acronymsExample: HTML -> HyperText Markup Language• Document less used synonyms via REDIRECT
  • 65. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 65Renaming an article• When the title was not correctly chosen• To resolve a naming conflict• For disambiguation• Historical changes requiring a new name• A new title can be given• Creates a synonym old -> new• old redirect can be given a new content
  • 66. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 66Namespaces• normal article• Talk:• Image:• Media:• Category:• Other wikis: (shortcut)
  • 67. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 67Categories• Hierarchy of indexes• Navigation structure shown at bottom of article
  • 68. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 68Article types• Normal• Disambiguate (list) page• (Acronym) REDIRECT• Private home page
  • 69. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 69Multilingual• Normally (and preferably) a Wiki is in one natural languageonly• You can group languages (e.g. on one page)• Technically every author can use its own language (otherscan translate articles)• Caveat: every natural language variant has its own tags(bad decision actually) – c.f. French COBOL-> No copy /paste possible amongst natural languages-> You can change this behaviour in languagessubdirectory
  • 70. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 70Copyrights• Every article, photo, image, media is copyrighted• Articles or objects violating copyright rules are removed bymoderator• Author is only allowed to contribute “own” content• Referral is allowed• Different (and complicated) copyright rules exist• Plus different per country copyright rules• On Wikipedia, non-conformant content is deleted bymoderator(s)• You have a chance to motivate your content /image beforefatal deletion
  • 71. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 71Backup• MySQL backup• wiki/images backup• Backup on tape• RAID-5 disks, against disk technical failure• snapshotting, against user error
  • 72. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 72Shadow copy• Speed up unidentified readers (static web server content)• No database access needed• Disk I/O balancing• Kind of a backup (latest version only)Caveat• Only anonymous readers benefit• Using skin of last updater$wgShowIPinHeader = false;$wgUseFileCache = true;$wgFileCacheDirectory = "/scratch/cache/wiki";
  • 73. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 73Logging in• Unique username• Authentication of author• Via password, NTLM, or other technique• Guaranties your identity when making changes–Remember IP address can change with each session–To make username mandatory: $wgWhitelistEdit = true;• Groups all “your” changes (what did I change)• Allows you to have a home page• Allows you to send e-mail to other authors
  • 74. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 74User profile• You can choose username + initial password• Full name• e-mail address–allows unattended password reset• Natural language• Time difference (however no automatic summertime)• Editor preferences
  • 75. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 75e-mail• Can be handy if another user needs to contact you privately(remember: discussion page is public!)• Administrator should enable e-mail before use• Sending e-mail is only available if you are identified• Your e-mail address is hidden (secret until you actuallysend a message)• E-mail transfer is external to wiki (uses sendmail, mailgateway, Outlook, etc.)• You can block the use of your address by others(but then you cannot receive e-mail)• You can automatically obtain a new password via your e-mail address without administrator intervention
  • 76. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 76Editorial cycle• Have a first idea• Think once again• Write it down on paper• Use notepad or Outlook forWIP• Copy /paste• Automatic paragraphs• Always use preview!• Add [[ ]]• add other markup• add heads• (un)numbered lists• (code) examples• images• tables• formulas• amend referral articles (addWiki words to other articles)• Final Preview!• Do not forget the comment• Talk pages (open discussion)• use e-mails for offline /privatediscussions
  • 77. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 77How to use the editor• Standard JavaScript editor• Needs Cookies + SESSION ID• You can copy /paste also pure <HTML> content from e.g.FrontPage, Dreamweaver, etc.• Remember to set $wgRawHtml = true;• Migration of existing Web content to Wiki …• If your administrator has enabled this feature
  • 78. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 78Sandbox• Speeltuin -> trial and error• Also try “view before save”
  • 79. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 79Editing hints• Use a lot of Wiki references (internal links)• Avoid using too much dangling references (unexisting articles)• Structure your articles• Use heads to group paragraphs• No spelling mistakes! Correct language.• Be to the point• Do not use external links too much• Group external links at the end of the article (External links)• Do never publish secret information• Never become personal (no private information)Wikipedia is allergic for too many external links -> edits will beundone via social controlNo commercial info (advertisements)
  • 80. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 80Discussion pagesProposal for content to be added, amended, deleted, movedAutomatically available for every topicTypical content:–Duplicate content?–Missing content (“I do not know the full subject”)–Overlapping content–Bad content–Suspected errorsIf it becomes too personal, send e-mailDo not start a FLAME war
  • 81. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 81Templates• Content can be included in other articles• Content can be changed afterwards (and centrally, once)• Content by moderator (mostly)• Examples: Incomplete, stub, bad copyright• Use {{ }} to include inline template
  • 82. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 82Disambiguation• If 2 topics have the same name, but a different meaning• Then a split must be made to 2 or more target pages• Use a bullet list with subsequent linkExampleThis topic is ambiguous, it can be any of*[[topic one]]*[[topic two]]*[[topic three]]
  • 83. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 83Images & Multimedia• Upload, delete, replace• Copyrights• Do not use too big files (not everyone has a high speedconnection)• Use GIMP to scale (1 time CPU time needed whenuploading)• Automatic scaling also possible, if allowed by administrator,but needs extra CPU time on the server each time the pageis downloaded
  • 84. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 84LaTeX• Write inline mathematical functions• Use the special <math> tag• Needs LaTeX & Ocaml moduleExample:<math>int_0^inftyfrac{sin(omega)}{omega},domega= frac{pi}{2}</math>• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OcamlLeslie LamportDonald Knuth
  • 85. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 85Demo
  • 86. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 86Missing functionality• Blocking of bots via visualnumber (Turing Test)• Notify via e-mail about articleupdates• WIP = Work In ProgressAlan Turing
  • 87. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 87Database model
  • 88. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 88Questions
  • 89. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 89Questions• What is the difference with blogs?• Can I migrate from HTML documents?• Do I need to program?• Do I need to be a database expert?• Do I need to be a webmaster?
  • 90. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 90FeedbackHope you enjoyed IT!Thank you for your attentionKeep in touch… on the Wiki Web?geert.van.pamel@belgacom.behttp://bike.bc/wiki/index.php/User:Id075621http://www.hp-interex.be
  • 91. 11 October 2009Wiki - Sharing information 91References• Lecture about Wiki, Wouter Van daele, KVIV, 15/06/2005http://users.pandora.be/nukleos/wiki/wiki.html• How Open is the Future? Economic, Social & CulturalScenarios inspired by Free & Open Source Software.Marleen Wynants & Jan Cornelis (Eds). Crosstalks, VUBBrussels University Press, 2005• IP firewalls and VPNs, course by Telindus High-TechInstitute, Livien Pelgrims, 2004

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