Super Wi-Fi - What to do with White Spaces in SA
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Super Wi-Fi - What to do with White Spaces in SA

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Presentation to ICASA at Digital Dividend Hearings - 7 & 8 April 2011.

Presentation to ICASA at Digital Dividend Hearings - 7 & 8 April 2011.

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  • "Years ago, there was a band of low-quality spectrum that was lying fallow. Nobody could figure out what to do with this so-called “junk band,” so the FCC decided to free it up as unlicensed spectrum. \n\nThe result was a wave of new technologies – baby monitors, cordless phones, and eventually a real game changer: Wi-Fi. \n\nToday, Wi-Fi is a multi-billion industry and an essential part of the mobile ecosystem."\n
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  • "Years ago, there was a band of low-quality spectrum that was lying fallow. Nobody could figure out what to do with this so-called “junk band,” so the FCC decided to free it up as unlicensed spectrum. \n
  • "Years ago, there was a band of low-quality spectrum that was lying fallow. Nobody could figure out what to do with this so-called “junk band,” so the FCC decided to free it up as unlicensed spectrum. \n
  • The result was a wave of new technologies – baby monitors, cordless phones, and eventually a real game changer: Wi-Fi. \n\nToday, Wi-Fi is a multi-billion dollar industry and an essential part of the mobile ecosystem."\n
  • The result was a wave of new technologies – baby monitors, cordless phones, and eventually a real game changer: Wi-Fi. \n\nToday, Wi-Fi is a multi-billion dollar industry and an essential part of the mobile ecosystem."\n
  • “One last point. Today’s Order is important not only for the innovation, investment and economic benefit it will unleash, but because of the competitive edge it will offer. \n
  • “One last point. Today’s Order is important not only for the innovation, investment and economic benefit it will unleash, but because of the competitive edge it will offer. \n
  • “One last point. Today’s Order is important not only for the innovation, investment and economic benefit it will unleash, but because of the competitive edge it will offer. \n
  • U.S. companies have already invested in research and development of super Wi-Fi \ntechnologies. Now they can take this technology out of the labs and onto the market.\n
  • U.S. companies have already invested in research and development of super Wi-Fi \ntechnologies. Now they can take this technology out of the labs and onto the market.\n
  • Other countries have been looking at Super Wi-Fi. By giving the green light now, the \nUnited States will be the first nation to deploy this technology. \n
  • We can have the investment here, the intellectual property developed here and the products launched here, and then export our products globally – all contributing to U.S. job creation and economic growth.”\n
  • We can have the investment here, the intellectual property developed here and the products launched here, and then export our products globally – all contributing to U.S. job creation and economic growth.”\n
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  • I’m here as the chairperson of ... \n
  • WAPA! \n
  • WAPA stands for Wireless Access Providers Association\n
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  • We’re the ones moving bits across difficult to terrain\n\n
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  • Wireless Access is not just about internet access!\n
  • They build rural community telecommunications networks\n
  • and connect people in far off areas at much greater speed\n
  • Countless schools have been connected to each other and the internet by WISPs. More affordable, higher speeds, free VoIP with each other... I feel the Schools example has been used a bit too much lately (because there are so many), so I wanted to talk about some of the lesser known droving practices. \n
  • Computicket set up a temporary office to sell tickets to the Sevens Tournament in George. 3G too slow/unreliable and ADSL would take weeks to install. \n
  • Up the Creek Music festival, remote area, Wi-Fi the only way. \nNow, the festival goers might not need internet access, but there is media, band managers etc that are pretty dependent on it. \n
  • Billabong J-Bay Surf Contest was streamed across the world.\n
  • A WAPA member set up a 20 km wireless link which enabled a 2 way Skype conversation AND a live uStream to all their friends around the world and a terminally ill family member who couldn’t attend\n
  • Lake Smit Radiology Partners in Durban had to move CAT scans to consulting radiologists working remotely in under 10 minutes.\n
  • With a Wi-Fi network, they could move it in under 2 minutes!\n
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  • 2.4 & 5.8 ISM bands are completely unlicenced with no rules to prevent interference. Garrett Hardin talks about a “tragedy of the commons”. He asserts that even though the contribution of each "bad actor" may be minute, if summed over all bad actors the resource could be degraded to the point of uselessness\n
  • And there are many “bad actors!”\n
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  • A single company gets the nationwide, exclusive use of of a frequency band\n
  • A single company gets the nationwide, exclusive use of of a frequency band\n
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  • Complete underutilization and underserved areas. “So dry even the radio stations dry up”\n
  • When Ronald Coase first presented his vision (of auctioning off spectrum property rights) to the FCC,they asked:\n
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  • Reference: World Wide Worx - “Internet Access in South Africa 2010” \n
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Super Wi-Fi - What to do with White Spaces in SA Super Wi-Fi - What to do with White Spaces in SA Presentation Transcript

  • Super Wi-Fi What to do with the Digital Dividend Henk Kleynhans WAPA www.wapa.org.za henk@wapa.org.zaSunday 10 April 2011
  • The Problem • High Bandwidth Costs • Low service penetration • Need for ICT to become enabler of national competitiveness & economic growth • Overall need to create employment opportunitiesSunday 10 April 2011
  • Solution?Sunday 10 April 2011 View slide
  • In September 2010 the FCC released between 400 & 800 MHz of Sub-900MHz TV White Spaces as Unlicenced Frequency in the USASunday 10 April 2011 View slide
  • The FCC chairman calls it:Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Super Wi-FiSunday 10 April 2011"Years ago, there was a band of low-quality spectrum that was lying fallow. Nobody couldfigure out what to do with this so-called “junk band,” so the FCC decided to free it up asunlicensed spectrum.The result was a wave of new technologies – baby monitors, cordless phones, and eventuallya real game changer: Wi-Fi.Today, Wi-Fi is a multi-billion industry and an essential part of the mobile ecosystem."
  • Here’s what he said:Sunday 10 April 2011
  • “Years ago, there was a band of low-quality spectrum that was lying fallow.Sunday 10 April 2011"Years ago, there was a band of low-quality spectrum that was lying fallow. Nobody could figure out what to do with this so-called “junk band,” so the FCCdecided to free it up as unlicensed spectrum.
  • Nobody could figure out what to do with this so called “junk band” so the FCC decided to free it up as unlicenced spectrum.Sunday 10 April 2011"Years ago, there was a band of low-quality spectrum that was lying fallow. Nobody could figure out what to do with this so-called “junk band,” so the FCCdecided to free it up as unlicensed spectrum.
  • The result was a wave of new technologies - baby monitors, cordless phones, and eventually a real game changer: Wi-FiSunday 10 April 2011The result was a wave of new technologies – baby monitors, cordless phones, and eventually a real game changer: Wi-Fi.Today, Wi-Fi is a multi-billion dollar industry and an essential part of the mobile ecosystem."
  • Today, Wi-Fi is a multi-billion dollar industry and an essential part of the mobile ecosystem”Sunday 10 April 2011The result was a wave of new technologies – baby monitors, cordless phones, and eventually a real game changer: Wi-Fi.Today, Wi-Fi is a multi-billion dollar industry and an essential part of the mobile ecosystem."
  • He goes on to say:Sunday 10 April 2011“One last point. Todayʼs Order is important not only for the innovation, investment and economic benefit it will unleash, but because of the competitive edgeit will offer.
  • “One last point. Today’s Order is important not only for the innovation, investment and economic benefit it will unleash,Sunday 10 April 2011“One last point. Todayʼs Order is important not only for the innovation, investment and economic benefit it will unleash, but because of the competitive edgeit will offer.
  • but because of the competitive edge it will offer.Sunday 10 April 2011“One last point. Todayʼs Order is important not only for the innovation, investment and economic benefit it will unleash, but because of the competitive edgeit will offer.
  • U.S. companies have already invested in research & development of Super Wi-Fi technologies.Sunday 10 April 2011U.S. companies have already invested in research and development of super Wi-Fitechnologies. Now they can take this technology out of the labs and onto the market.
  • Now they can take this technology out of the labs and onto the market.Sunday 10 April 2011U.S. companies have already invested in research and development of super Wi-Fitechnologies. Now they can take this technology out of the labs and onto the market.
  • Other countries have been looking at Super Wi-Fi. By giving the green light now, the United States will be the first nation to deploy this technologySunday 10 April 2011Other countries have been looking at Super Wi-Fi. By giving the green light now, theUnited States will be the first nation to deploy this technology.
  • We can have the investment here, the intellectual property developed here and the products launched here, and then export our products globallySunday 10 April 2011We can have the investment here, the intellectual property developed here and the products launched here, and then export our products globally – allcontributing to U.S. job creation and economic growth.”
  • all contributing to U.S. job creation and economic growth” - Julius Genachowski FCC Chairman September 2010Sunday 10 April 2011We can have the investment here, the intellectual property developed here and the products launched here, and then export our products globally – allcontributing to U.S. job creation and economic growth.”
  • Why is South Africa not leading the way?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • I am HenkSunday 10 April 2011
  • Sunday 10 April 2011I’m here as the chairperson of ...
  • Sunday 10 April 2011WAPA!
  • WAPA = Wireless Access Providers AssociationSunday 10 April 2011WAPA stands for Wireless Access Providers Association
  • a collection of independent wireless operators in South Africa. (±100 members)Sunday 10 April 2011
  • We’re the Wireless PioneersSunday 10 April 2011
  • 0110010001101 0010110011101 1010010111010 0011000010110 1100001000000 Founder 1100100011010 CEO 0101110110011 0100101100100 0110010101101 11001100100Sunday 10 April 2011We’re the ones moving bits of data across difficult, unknown and often treacherous terrain
  • • True National Reach (Mostly Rural) • Strong Local Relationships • Technical Skills • ECNS & ECS licencedSunday 10 April 2011We have...
  • Sunday 10 April 2011Wireless Access is not just about internet access!
  • Community Owned Telecoms Networks (using Mesh Potatoes!)Sunday 10 April 2011Wireless pioneers build rural community telecommunications networks (seewww.villagetelco.org)
  • Emergency Relief Networks Picture of long distance LinkSunday 10 April 2011We connect people to each other and the world during times emergencies
  • Countless schools!Sunday 10 April 2011Countless schools have been connected to each other and the internet by WISPs. Moreaffordable, higher speeds, free VoIP with each other...
  • Rugby Sevens TournamentSunday 10 April 2011Computicket set up a temporary office to sell tickets to the Sevens Tournament in George. 3Gtoo slow/unreliable and ADSL would take weeks to install.
  • Up the Creek Music FestivalSunday 10 April 2011Up the Creek Music festival, remote area, Wi-Fi the only way.Now, the festival goers might not need internet access, but there is media, band managersetc that are pretty dependent on it.
  • Billabong Pro Surfing World Contest textSunday 10 April 2011Billabong J-Bay Surf Contest was streamed across the world from a beach several kilometersfrom the nearest town.
  • Sunday 10 April 2011One member set up a 20 km wireless link so that a terminally ill family member could attendthe wedding via Skype!
  • textSunday 10 April 2011Lake Smit Radiology Partners in Durban had to move CAT scans to consulting radiologistsworking remotely in under 10 minutes.
  • 1 GB file in less than 2 minutesSunday 10 April 2011With a Wi-Fi network, they could move it in under 2 minutes to any of a dozen locations, thefurthest being 23 km apart.
  • But...Sunday 10 April 2011
  • It’s getting crowded!Sunday 10 April 2011
  • •Wi-Fi Hotspots •Long range Wi-Fi •Cordless phones •Baby Monitors • Cheap wireless CCTVSunday 10 April 2011Wi-Fi uses 2.4 GHz band, which is shared with other technologies that don’t adhere to thesame rules or protocols.
  • Traditionally, 2 types of spectrum managementSunday 10 April 2011
  • Licenced & UnlicencedSunday 10 April 2011
  • (Kind of) worked 50 years agoSunday 10 April 2011
  • grossly inefficient1 1Kolodzy(2002) - FCC Spectrum Policy Task ForceSunday 10 April 2011
  • On the one hand...Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Unlicenced, Unmanaged 2.4 & 5.8 GHzSunday 10 April 2011
  • Spectrum Commons (“tragedy of the commons”1) 1Garrett Hardin(1968)Sunday 10 April 20112.4 & 5.8 ISM bands are completely unlicenced with little to no rules to prevent interference. Garrett Hardin talks about a “tragedy of the commons”. He asserts that eventhough the contribution of each "bad actor" may be minute, if summed over all bad actors the resource could be degraded to the point of uselessness
  • •Wi-Fi Hotspots •Long range Wi-Fi •Cordless phones •Baby Monitors • Cheap wireless CCTVSunday 10 April 2011And there are many “bad actors!”
  • On the other hand...Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Spectrum Property Rights ModelSunday 10 April 2011
  • A single companySunday 10 April 2011A single company gets the nationwide, exclusive use of of a frequency band
  • Nationwide, Exclusive UseSunday 10 April 2011A single company gets the nationwide, exclusive use of of a frequency band
  • The result?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Huh?Sunday 10 April 2011Complete underutilization and underserved areas. “So dry even the radio stations dry up”
  • “Is this some kind of joke?” - FCC (in response to Ronald Coase, Nobel Economist)Sunday 10 April 2011When Ronald Coase first presented his vision (of auctioning off spectrum property rights) tothe FCC,they asked:
  • FAQ 1: But what about spectrum scarcity?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • It’s artificialSunday 10 April 2011
  • ICASA auditsSunday 10 April 2011
  • 450 - 470 MHz Huh?Sunday 10 April 2011Note that less than 1% of the 450 - 470 MHz band is used by licencees.
  • 790 - 862 MHz (Digital Dividend) Huh?Sunday 10 April 2011A small mistake here. The total % usage should be 480/34560 = 1.4%. (Note that this is inurban areas, expect it to be less in rural areas)
  • FAQ 2: But what about “Use-it-or-lose-it” policies?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • They will not work!Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Example Requirement 1: “Must cover 50% of the population in 2 years”Sunday 10 April 2011From the 2.6 GHz ITA in 2010.
  • Example Requirement 2: “Must achieve 50% of all requirements”Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Ahah! So I only need to achieve 50% goal of 50% coverage area = 25%Sunday 10 April 2011
  • 66% of Gauteng + Cape Town + Durban = 28% of populationSunday 10 April 2011
  • “Use-it-or-lose-it” policies only exist because the underlying system is brokenSunday 10 April 2011
  • What we know... • Existing model is grossly inefficient • Unlicenced (2.4, 5.8 GHz) frequencies are overcrowded • Spectrum Scarcity is a ARTIFICIAL • Stopgaps (Leasing, Universal Service Contributions, Use-it-or-lose-it policies) won’t work (but may help)Sunday 10 April 2011
  • So what do we do?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Licenced Unlicenced Managed Unmanaged Underutilized Overutilized Unlicenced MANAGED! Balanced UseSunday 10 April 2011
  • But How?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • LOTS of ways! • Light Licencing • Self-Regulation • Light “touch” licencing • 802.11y in the US • etcSunday 10 April 2011Many different ways are already being used around the world.
  • One model stands out:Sunday 10 April 2011
  • FCC made TV White Spaces available on unlicenced basis...Sunday 10 April 2011
  • But Managed, Database Driven basis!Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Sub 900 MHzSunday 10 April 2011
  • 400 - 800 MHz available!Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Really Beautiful SpectrumSunday 10 April 2011
  • “Super Wi-Fi”Sunday 10 April 2011
  • How does it work?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • 1. AP checks online databaseSunday 10 April 2011
  • 2. Must avoid 1st adjacent channelSunday 10 April 2011This is in the case of there being a TV broadcaster in that channel. TVWS devices could beable to share the same channels.
  • 3. Registers location in DBSunday 10 April 2011
  • 50 channels availableSunday 10 April 2011
  • This is NOT 1st come 1st serveSunday 10 April 2011
  • More like: “1st 50 come 1st 50 serve!”Sunday 10 April 2011Possibly even more than 50, depending on the evolution of TVWS technology.
  • that’s just one hilltop!Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Forget a “Use-it-or-lose-it” policy What Africa needs is a:Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Walala Wasala!* policy *You snooze you lose!Sunday 10 April 2011The first providers to use these frequencies, should be the ones who benefit.
  • When?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Equipment already availableSunday 10 April 2011
  • 9 Online TVWS Databases imminent (Google one of ‘em)Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Why is this great?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • It’s inclusive! Incumbents & GreenfieldsSunday 10 April 2011
  • 10% broadband penetration correlates 1.3% GDP growth* *World BankSunday 10 April 2011
  • We’re at 3%Sunday 10 April 2011Reference: World Wide Worx - “Internet Access in South Africa 2010”
  • Current Growth: 4 years to reach 10% Growing at 40% paSunday 10 April 2011
  • Why are we playing “catch up” when we clearly should be leading the way?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • We have 468 MHz available 3Sunday 10 April 2011
  • We have 500 licencees3Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Is it enough for all?Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Definitely YES! but remember:Sunday 10 April 2011
  • Walala Wasala!Sunday 10 April 2011
  • In ConclusionSunday 10 April 2011
  • Managed, Unlicenced spectrum will give a major boost to Entrepreneurship, Innovation & tech skills developmentSunday 10 April 2011
  • This time for Africa! - ShakiraSunday 10 April 2011
  • Henk Kleynhans henk@wapa.org.zaSunday 10 April 2011
  • References 1. Economic Case for Dedicated Unlicensed Spectrum Below 3GHz - William Lehr, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2004) 2. Internet Access in South Africa - Arthur Goldstuck, World Wide Worx (2010) 3. A Broadside Analysis of Spectrum Requirements - Dumisa Ngwenya, ICASA (2011)Sunday 10 April 2011Add <World Bank Report><FCC Chairman statement>