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  1. 1. Bread at homeHarvest ritesPreparation of dough BreadBake customsStovePrejudice
  2. 2. Bread at home Bread is one of the oldest dishes in Lithuania and itused from the first centuries after Christ. It was started toproduce when people didn‘t know how to farm. In a high antiquity, bread was personalized anddeified. Already in pagan times and later, bread wassacrificed to the goddess of fire Gabija and to thegoddess of ground Žemyna. Before Christianity times,bread was associated with sun, fertility andconsequently with tribe prolongation. To the beginning
  3. 3. Harvest rites Bread was very important attribute in the harvest’sstarting and finishing rites. The housewife used to begin to cut rye with a sickle.After finishing rye harvest women used to plait wreathesfrom the latest pocket-handkerchief and sing songsabout black poplar.
  4. 4. The Housewife used to put five ears of rye on thetable, and two grains on the plates, which have to beeaten before meal. After the rye harvest people used tocelebrate harvest-home. This holiday lasted some weekswith lots of meals, which was left and for souls. To the beginning
  5. 5. Preparation of dough There were put the modest gritty flour andwarm water into the dough of bread. It was leftwarmly in a kneading-trough for about one – twodays to sour. It was thought that this process wasostensibly controlled by the deity. Kneading of bread was very hard work. It waskneaded with the damp hands not to stick up. Theready bread dough was put into the furnace, whichwas prepared the night before. The bread has beenbaked for 3-4 hours. To the beginning
  6. 6. Bake customs Bread was baked in a hearth cinder, embers, on flatstones and in holes in many regions. The goddess offire Gabija took care of bread while it was left in afurnace. Just you can‘t gasped with an open mouth andto slame the door – the crust will rebound.
  7. 7. If anyone came round during the time ofbaking the bread, they should say “Skalsu!” (long-tasting). After that, every loaf was washed by thehousewife, it was moisten with water – the crust of thebread is softer then. Daughters wanted to take thebaking of bread from their mothers, because to bakeyour first loaf of bread is the sign of adulthood. To the beginning
  8. 8. Stove People used to build stoves with the help of theneighbours. First they needed to make bakestone, whereyou could put six big loaves of bread. Then to build awooden framework to form an arch. Stove had a place,where you could sweep ash and coal. You could put potsin a place, called “prieždas.” There was a place on thetop of the stove to dry grain before baking, too.
  9. 9. People wanted to finish building the stove whenthe moon was decreasing, because they believed thatthe stove will be durable and it won’t crack then. And thechimney must be finished during the fool moon – thehousewife will always have things to prepare the pottage. To the beginning
  10. 10. Prejudice Lithuanians respected the bread very much, you cansee this in our nations belief, customs and traditions.There was a custom, not so long time ago – the slice ofa bread, that fell on the ground, people respectfullyraised, kissed and ate then. People thought that if theyapologized to bread, so it won’t be angry and won’t leavethe home. Children from an early age, were taught torespect bread and not to throw it.
  11. 11. The loaf of bread, or even a little peace of it, wasconsidered human’s destiny, therefore bread can notbe throw away, there weren’t acceptable to leave theuneaten piece on the table or take the last slice, if noone offered. But if the bread was offered it was notallowed to refuse it.
  12. 12. Information from:Pranė Dundulienė “Duona lietuvių buityje ir papročiuose” http://www.google.lt/imghp?hl=lt&tab=wihttp://www.azeri.lt/Duona-lietuviu-paprociuose-2353.html Gabija Kumžaitė ir Roberta Žemaitytė 8d To the beginning