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Energy & Space V5 public


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This PowerPoint explorers the reasons why we should consider and develop solar power outside our atmosphere (space based) and transmit the collected power to earth-based antennas. It describes the …

This PowerPoint explorers the reasons why we should consider and develop solar power outside our atmosphere (space based) and transmit the collected power to earth-based antennas. It describes the limitations of earth-based green energy and its lack of ability to replace fossil fuels because of cost and lack of energy output.

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  • 1. Space Based Energy
    Energy & Spacepower from the last frontier
    Presentation Visualizations Courtesy Right Hemisphere
    George w. Earle
    NSBE-AE Space SIG
  • 2. The next 100 years
    What we know to be true
    Everyone wants to be Free?
    Energy Need Background
    My grandkids are 95
    Future value of solving this now
    We can’t get there from here
    Energy Use Background
    Energy Supply Background
    What we must learn
    What we must do
    Sustainable leaps
    Note: superscript references refer to the Appendix Reference
  • 3. What gets us into trouble is not what we don't know.It's what we know for sure that just ain't so. Mark Twain
    At current rates of global consumption, there are sufficient oil and gas supplies to last well into the next century21.
    Our Man-Made Energy Crisis, Wall St. Journal, 3/2011
  • 4. Energy Reality
    • CO2 is now--350 ppm--above anything measured in the prior 650,000-year record
    • 5. Inconvenient Truth, © 2006
    • 6. 20% of the worlds oil comes from only 14 giant oilfields that are 50 years old
    • 7. Twilight in the Desert, © 2005
  • Everyone Wants to be Free?
    The Arab Spring is a precursor to a burgeoning wish
    Why? What do they want?
    Economic Freedom – requires energy. They must be supplied with ~6 kWt/person or ~2 kWe/person in order to achieve energy and economic prosperity18.
    A Job
    A car
    A house
    Political and Social Freedom
    Doesn’t require energy
    What if we got what we wish for?
  • 8. Freedom’s Energy Issues
    The primary issues are therefore:
    Too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and
    A dearth of storable, renewable energy.
    Atmospheric Goals
    The human world could irrevocably affect its coasts and economic sustainability ignoring CO2 growth and habitat elimination
    pulling the atmospheric CO2 level from today's 379 ppm down to 350 ppm (a level which would probably stabilize Greenland and Antarctica) requires the net capture of about 230 billion tons of carbon dioxide20
    Renewable Energy Goals
    The world will bankrupt itself trying to provide US – equivalent power to 10 billion people
    to solve the greenhouse problem, the fuels must be able to deliver sufficient energy to the user to replace what we'd otherwise require from fossil fuels20
    And it must grow linearly with the needs of a large human population
    Therefore either pull increasing CO2from the air or stop creating it in the first place, or both.
  • 9. Premise
    The world’s energy needs will double by 2050. Total energy from all terrestrial carbon based and terrestrial solar power now is only half this number.
    We will not be able to generate this level of energy from all nonrenewal energy.
    Power output must be maintained indefinitely. Conventional power systems are too expensive for the Developing Nations. Six kilowatts of thermal power now costs 50% of their average per capita income18.
    NASA is losing interest from the public because it is only interested in scientific pursuits. NASA could change the public interest level by building a case for national energy policy changes using space-based solar power, specifically on the moon1,3,4,11.
  • 10. My grandkids are 95
    Future value of solving this now
    If all works out, my grandkids will be 95 in 2115. that is close enough to care about.
    All our economic oil scenarios stop at 2050. Why?
    Oil depletion from a 20-model average shows22:
    Peak Oil: 94-mbd in 2022
    Post-peak production Avg Decline Rate to 2050: 0.7%/yr
    The year 50% of URR/EUR has been extracted: 2031
    The year flow breaches below today's (2010) 86-mbd: 2040
  • 11. Eliminating Fossil FuelWe can’t get there from here
    The power of water is abundant — approximately 73 percent of all renewable energy according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). It is also the smallest of all power plants.
    Wind Power
    Wind power is a very simple process. Wind power is abundant in California and Texas. Great for those 2 states but how about everywhere else?
    Geothermal Power
    Trap heat underground, create hot water or steam, then turn a steam turbine to generate electricity.
    Creates only small power plants.
    Biomass power plants burn biomass fuel in boilers to heat water and turn a steam turbine to create electricity.Promising but requires lots of farm land to compete with food. Food vs energy? Can either one win?
    Solar Power
    Solar cells absorb the sun's radiation and create electricity, through heat based steam turbines or photovoltaics.
    Also promising, but can it scale terrestrially?
    Nuclear Power
    Nuclear fission creates hot water or steam, then turn a steam turbine to generate electricity.
    • Nosignificant construction of new, large hydroelectric plants is expected (due to environmental concerns and the small number of available sites).
    Wind Power25
    • Would require building 13,000 plants at a cost of $4 Trillion. We only have 5400 power plants of any kind in all of US.
    Geothermal Power25
    • Would require building 85,000 plants at a cost of $10 Trillion. Only have 5400 power plants in all of US.
    • Biomass power plants burn biomass fuel in boilers to heat water and turn a steam turbine to create electricity.Promising but requires lots of farm land to compete with food. Food vs energy? Can either one win?
    Solar Power25
    • Would require building 214,000plants at a cost of $21 Trillion (Freude 2010)
    Can it scale terrestrially?
    Nuclear Power25
    • Would require building 1300 more plants at a cost of $13 Trillion (1 yr US GDP). Would run out of Uranium before 2050. (WNO 2010)
  • Energy Use
    • fossil fuel (coal/nat gas) US electric generation output = 3000 billion kilowatt-hours or 10 Quads
    • 12. USA burns about 23 Quads of gas & diesel in vehicles
    • 13. Replacing all fossil fuel energy in the US only with Biomass would take 80 Quads
    • 14. 80 Quads of Biomass is about 400 million (M) acres over what we have now
    • 15. In 1997, only had 331M Acres of Farmland26
    • 16. We would have to DOUBLE the farmland in the US alone
    • 17. Can we make more land?
    Need this much again Biomass farmland
    BioMass Answer?Where do we find this much farm land?
  • 18. Energy Use
    • fossil fuel (coal/nat gas) US electric generation output = 3000 billion kilowatt-hours or 10 Quads27
    • 19. Current Uranium use about 68,000 tU/yr. World's resource (5.4 Mt) enough to last for about 80 years24
    • 20. To replace fossil fuel, 20X more nuclear plants must be built ( US only!)
    • 21. Therefore we’d run out of fuel 20x faster. Can’t make more Uranium.
    • 22. Risks: radioactive iodine, -- half-life of eight days. soil with strontium-90 and caesium-137, half-lives of about 30 years
    Nuclear Answer?Is it enough?Safe enough?
  • 23. What we must learnSpace Based Solar Power
    Energy needs will double by 2050. Total energy from terrestrial carbon and terrestrial solar power now is only ½ this number.
    But intriguingly, every day, the moon receives 1000 times this amount (~13,000 TW) 2. Are we ostriches?
  • 24. Power Transmission Background
    • Successful Earth-moon power beams are already in use by the Arecibo planetary radar, operating from Puerto Rico18.
    • 25. Synthetic-aperture radars on the Space Shuttle demonstrated multibeam transmission of pulsed power directed to Earth from orbit18
    • 26. But, Power beams are considered esoteric and a technology of the distant future.
    We need to be able to simply demonstrate its feasibility.
  • 27. Power Transmission Background
    • Abengoa Solar, which plans to build one of the largest solar plant in the world in Arizona, proves solar farms are feasible30.
    • 28. Each lunar power base would be augmented by fields of solar converters located on the back side of the moon28
    • 29. Solar cells collect sunlight, and buried electrical wires carry the solar energy as electric power to microwave generators28.
    • 30. China recognizes that mining of lunar helium-3 is an ideal fuel for nuclear fusion power plants. Another power plant possibility17,29.
  • Power Transmission Background
    The lunar solar power program would be immensely generative to science, jobs, technology, and finance, not to mention the biosphere.
    Creating the launch infrastructure to go to the moon, the industrial engineering to live and build on the moon, the energy infrastructure development on the moon, in power satellites and for power reception and distribution on earth would provide $trillions in multi-country economic development8,9,10,15.
  • 31. Power Transmission Background
    • The moon itself contains a ready list of elements to make glass, fiberglass, and ceramics, and processed chemically into its elements. Solar cells, electric wiring, some micro-circuitry components, and the reflector screens can be made out of lunar materials28,31.
    • 32. The moon is ideal for solar arrays:
    • 33. There is no air or water to degrade large area thin film devices
    • 34. The high cost of transportation to and from the moon is cancelled out by sending machines and small factories to the moon
    • 35. Products present in the lunar surface are silicon, iron, TiO2, etc. These products can be used as raw materials for solar cell fabrication28,31,32
  • What we must do
    The LSP System is an unconventional approach to supplying commercial power to Earth. However, the key operational technologies of the LSP have been demonstrated at a high technology readiness level (TRL = 7)33.
    TRL = 7 denotes technology demonstrated at an appropriate scale in the appropriate environment33.
  • 36. Power Transmission Research Projects
  • 37. Sustainable leaps
    Power Beam demo
    Uses same frequency as Moon to Earth link
    Power 12V electronic circuit
    Efficiency about equal to coal plant in only the demo! (30%)
    10 to 100X lower cost in LEO launch cost than governmental organizations16
    Solar technologies benefit from Moore’s Law34
    Other energy companies don’t benefit from semiconductor material science and equipment improvements
  • 38. Terrestrial Solar
  • 39. Energy & Spacepower from the last frontier
  • 40. Appendix APower Plant Types
    Typical coal plant power and output
    600 MW for $1.5 billion
    CO2emitted -- 209 pounds CO2per MMBtu
    Coal Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant
    600 MW for $2B
    CO2emitted -- 209 pounds CO2per MMBtu
    Natural Gas plant
    500 MW for $0.5B
    CO2emitted – 117 pounds CO2per MMBtu
    Nuclear plant
    2200 MW for $10B
    Wind plant
    200 MW for $0.350B
    Geothermal plant
    35 MW for $0.120B
    Terrestrial Solar Thermal plant
    300 MW for $1B
    Terrestrial Solar Photovoltaic plant
    14MW for $0.1B
  • 41. Appendix AUS Energy Quick Facts
    • Energy Use
    • 42. Current fossil fuel US electric generation output = 3000 billion kilowatt-hours or 10 Quads
    • 43. There are about 5,400 power plants in the United States.
    • 44. USA burns about 17 quads of gasoline in vehicles
    • 45. Replacing all fossil fuel energy in the US only with Biomass would take about 400 million acres over what we have now
    • 46. In 2003, only about 380 million acres for all crops were planted in the entire USA!
    • 47. CO2 problem
    • 48. stop the increase of atmospheric CO2, we need to cut emissions on the order of 80%
    • 49. we're going to have to replace all oil-derived fuels with renewables
  • Appendix CU.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)conversion factors
    This is a quick-reference list of conversion factors used by the Bioenergy Feedstock Development Programs at ORNL. It was compiled from a wide range of sources, and is designed to be concise and convenient rather than all-inclusive. Most conversion factors and data are given to only 3 significant figures. Users are encouraged to consult other original sources for independent verification of these numbers. The following are links to Web sites we have found useful (many universities worldwide maintain good guides and conversion calculator pages):
    U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
    Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching, University of Exeter, U.K.
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan Measurement Converter
    Energy units
    1.0 joule (J) = one Newton applied over a distance of one meter (= 1 kg m2/s2).
    1.0 joule = 0.239 calories (cal)
    1.0 calorie = 4.187 J
    1.0 gigajoule (GJ) = 109 joules = 0.948 million Btu = 239 million calories = 278 kWh
    1.0 British thermal unit (Btu) = 1055 joules (1.055 kJ)
    1.0 Quad = One quadrillion Btu = million billion (1015 Btu) = 1.055 exajoules (EJ), or approximately 172 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe)
    1000 Btu/lb = 2.33 gigajoules per tonne (GJ/t)
    1000 Btu/US gallon = 0.279 megajoules per liter (MJ/l)
    1.0 watt = 1.0 joule/second = 3.413 Btu/hr
    1.0 kilowatt (kW) = 3413 Btu/hr = 1.341 horsepower
    1.0 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.6 MJ = 3413 Btu
    1.0 horsepower (hp) = 550 foot-pounds per second = 2545 Btu per hour = 745.7 watts = 0.746 kW
    Energy Costs
    $1.00 per million Btu = $0.948/GJ
    $1.00/GJ = $1.055 per million Btu
    Multiplication Factor Power Prefix Symbol Name in USA
    1,000,000,000,000,000,000 1018 exa E quintillion
    1,000,000,000,000,000 1015 peta P quadrillion
    1,000,000,000,000 1012 tera T trillion
    1,000,000,000 109 giga G billion
    1,000,000 106 mega M million
    1,000 103 kilo k thousand
    100 102 hecto h hundred
    10 101 decada ten
    0.1 10-1 deci d tenth
    0.01 10-2 centi c hundredth
    0.001 10-3 milli m thousandth
    0.000 001 10-6 micro m millionth
    0.000 000 001 10-9 nano n billionth
    0.000 000 000 001 10-12 pico p trillionth
    0.000 000 000 000 001 10-15 femto f quadrillionth
    0.000 000 000 000 000 001 10-18 atto a quintillionth
    Some common units of measure
    1.0 U.S. ton (short ton) = 2000 pounds
    1.0 imperial ton (long ton or shipping ton) = 2240 pounds
    1.0 metric tonne (tonne) = 1000 kilograms = 2205 pounds
    1.0 US gallon = 3.79 liter = 0.833 Imperial gallon
    1.0 imperial gallon = 4.55 liter = 1.20 US gallon
    1.0 liter = 0.264 US gallon = 0.220 imperial gallon
    1.0 US bushel = 0.0352 m3 = 0.97 UK bushel = 56 lb, 25 kg (corn or sorghum) = 60 lb, 27 kg (wheat or soybeans) = 40 lb, 18 kg (barley)
    Areas and crop yields
    1.0 hectare = 10,000 m2 (an area 100 m x 100 m, or 328 x 328 ft) = 2.47 acres
    1.0 km2 = 100 hectares = 247 acres
    1.0 acre = 0.405 hectares
    1.0 US ton/acre = 2.24 t/ha
    1 metric tonne/hectare = 0.446 ton/acre
    100 g/m2 = 1.0 tonne/hectare = 892 lb/acre
    for example, a "target" bioenergy crop yield might be: 5.0 US tons/acre (10,000 lb/acre) = 11.2 tonnes/hectare (1120 g/m2)
    Biomass energy
    Cord: a stack of wood comprising 128 cubic feet (3.62 m3); standard dimensions are 4 x 4 x 8 feet, including air space and bark. One cord contains approx. 1.2 U.S. tons (oven-dry) = 2400 pounds = 1089 kg
    1.0 metric tonne wood = 1.4 cubic meters (solid wood, not stacked)
    Energy content of wood fuel (HHV, bone dry) = 18-22 GJ/t (7,600-9,600 Btu/lb)
    Energy content of wood fuel (air dry, 20% moisture) = about 15 GJ/t (6,400 Btu/lb)
    Energy content of agricultural residues (range due to moisture content) = 10-17 GJ/t (4,300-7,300 Btu/lb)
    Metric tonne charcoal = 30 GJ (= 12,800 Btu/lb) (but usually derived from 6-12 t air-dry wood, i.e. 90-180 GJ original energy content)
    Metric tonne ethanol = 7.94 petroleum barrels = 1262 liters
    ethanol energy content (LHV) = 11,500 Btu/lb = 75,700 Btu/gallon = 26.7 GJ/t = 21.1 MJ/liter. HHV for ethanol = 84,000 Btu/gallon = 89 MJ/gallon = 23.4 MJ/liter
    ethanol density (average) = 0.79 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3)
    Metric tonne biodiesel = 37.8 GJ (33.3 - 35.7 MJ/liter)
    biodiesel density (average) = 0.88 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3)
    Fossil fuels
    Barrel of oil equivalent (boe) = approx. 6.1 GJ (5.8 million Btu), equivalent to 1,700 kWh. "Petroleum barrel" is a liquid measure equal to 42 U.S. gallons (35 Imperial gallons or 159 liters); about 7.2 barrels oil are equivalent to one tonne of oil (metric) = 42-45 GJ.
    Gasoline: US gallon = 115,000 Btu = 121 MJ = 32 MJ/liter (LHV). HHV = 125,000 Btu/gallon = 132 MJ/gallon = 35 MJ/liter
    Metric tonne gasoline = 8.53 barrels = 1356 liter = 43.5 GJ/t (LHV); 47.3 GJ/t (HHV)
    gasoline density (average) = 0.73 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3)
    Petro-diesel = 130,500 Btu/gallon (36.4 MJ/liter or 42.8 GJ/t)
    petro-diesel density (average) = 0.84 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3)
    Note that the energy content (heating value) of petroleum products per unit mass is fairly constant, but their density differs significantly – hence the energy content of a liter, gallon, etc. varies between gasoline, diesel, kerosene.
    Metric tonne coal = 27-30 GJ (bituminous/anthracite); 15-19 GJ (lignite/sub-bituminous) (the above ranges are equivalent to 11,500-13,000 Btu/lb and 6,500-8,200 Btu/lb).
    Note that the energy content (heating value) per unit mass varies greatly between different "ranks" of coal. "Typical" coal (rank not specified) usually means bituminous coal, the most common fuel for power plants (27 GJ/t).
    Natural gas: HHV = 1027 Btu/ft3 = 38.3 MJ/m3; LHV = 930 Btu/ft3 = 34.6 MJ/m3
    Therm (used for natural gas, methane) = 100,000 Btu (= 105.5 MJ)
    Carbon content of fossil fuels and bioenergyfeedstocks
    coal (average) = 25.4 metric tonnes carbon per terajoule (TJ)
    1.0 metric tonne coal = 746 kg carbon
    oil (average) = 19.9 metric tonnes carbon / TJ
    1.0 US gallon gasoline (0.833 Imperial gallon, 3.79 liter) = 2.42 kg carbon
    1.0 US gallon diesel/fuel oil (0.833 Imperial gallon, 3.79 liter) = 2.77 kg carbon
    natural gas (methane) = 14.4 metric tonnes carbon / TJ
    1.0 cubic meter natural gas (methane) = 0.49 kg carbon
    carbon content of bioenergyfeedstocks: approx. 50% for woody crops or wood waste; approx. 45% for graminaceous (grass) crops or agricultural residues
  • 50. Appendix DReferences
  • 51. Appendix DReferences
    Universität Leipzig, Dr. Dieter Freude 2010
    World Nuclear Organization (WNO) 12/2010