Space Based Energy<br />Energy & Spacepower from the last frontier<br />Presentation Visualizations Courtesy Right Hemisph...
The next 100 years<br />What we know to be true<br />Everyone wants to be Free?<br />Energy Need Background<br />My grandk...
What gets us into trouble is not what we don't know.It's what we know for sure that just ain't so.	Mark Twain<br />At curr...
Energy Reality <br /><ul><li>CO2 is now--350 ppm--above anything measured in the prior 650,000-year record
Inconvenient Truth, © 2006
20% of the worlds oil comes from only 14 giant oilfields that are 50 years old
Twilight in the Desert, © 2005</li></li></ul><li>Everyone Wants to be Free?<br />The Arab Spring is a precursor to a burge...
Freedom’s Energy Issues<br />The primary issues are therefore:<br />Too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and<br />A ...
Premise<br />The world’s energy needs will double by 2050.  Total energy from all terrestrial carbon based and terrestrial...
My grandkids are 95<br />Future value of solving this now <br />If all works out, my grandkids will be 95 in 2115.  that i...
Eliminating Fossil FuelWe can’t get there from here<br />Hydropower<br />The power of water is abundant — approximately 73...
USA burns about 23 Quads of gas & diesel in vehicles
Replacing all fossil fuel energy in the US only with Biomass would take 80 Quads
80 Quads of Biomass is about 400 million (M) acres over what we have now
In 1997, only had 331M Acres of Farmland26
We would have to DOUBLE the farmland in the US alone
Can we make more land?</li></ul>Need this much again Biomass farmland<br />BioMass Answer?Where do we find this much farm ...
Energy Use <br /><ul><li>fossil fuel  (coal/nat gas) US electric generation output = 3000 billion kilowatt-hours or 10 Qua...
Current Uranium use about 68,000 tU/yr. World's resource (5.4 Mt) enough to last for about 80 years24
To replace fossil fuel, 20X more nuclear plants must be built ( US only!)
Therefore we’d run out of fuel 20x faster.  Can’t make more Uranium.
Risks:  radioactive iodine, -- half-life of eight days.  soil with strontium-90 and caesium-137, half-lives of about 30 ye...
What we must learnSpace Based Solar Power<br />Energy needs will double by 2050.  Total energy from terrestrial carbon and...
Power Transmission Background<br /><ul><li>Successful Earth-moon power beams are already in use by the Arecibo planetary r...
Synthetic-aperture radars on the Space Shuttle demonstrated multibeam transmission of pulsed power directed to Earth from ...
But, Power beams are considered esoteric and a technology of the distant future.</li></ul>We need to be able to simply dem...
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This PowerPoint explorers the reasons why we should consider and develop solar power outside our atmosphere (space based) and transmit the collected power to earth-based antennas. It describes the limitations of earth-based green energy and its lack of ability to replace fossil fuels because of cost and lack of energy output.

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  1. 1. Space Based Energy<br />Energy & Spacepower from the last frontier<br />Presentation Visualizations Courtesy Right Hemisphere<br />George w. Earle <br />NSBE-AE Space SIG<br />
  2. 2. The next 100 years<br />What we know to be true<br />Everyone wants to be Free?<br />Energy Need Background<br />My grandkids are 95<br />Future value of solving this now<br />We can’t get there from here<br />Energy Use Background<br />Energy Supply Background<br />What we must learn<br />What we must do<br />Sustainable leaps<br />Note: superscript references refer to the Appendix Reference<br />
  3. 3. What gets us into trouble is not what we don't know.It's what we know for sure that just ain't so. Mark Twain<br />At current rates of global consumption, there are sufficient oil and gas supplies to last well into the next century21. <br />Our Man-Made Energy Crisis, Wall St. Journal, 3/2011<br />
  4. 4. Energy Reality <br /><ul><li>CO2 is now--350 ppm--above anything measured in the prior 650,000-year record
  5. 5. Inconvenient Truth, © 2006
  6. 6. 20% of the worlds oil comes from only 14 giant oilfields that are 50 years old
  7. 7. Twilight in the Desert, © 2005</li></li></ul><li>Everyone Wants to be Free?<br />The Arab Spring is a precursor to a burgeoning wish<br />Why? What do they want?<br />Economic Freedom – requires energy. They must be supplied with ~6 kWt/person or ~2 kWe/person in order to achieve energy and economic prosperity18.<br />A Job<br />A car<br />A house <br />Political and Social Freedom<br />Doesn’t require energy<br />What if we got what we wish for?<br />
  8. 8. Freedom’s Energy Issues<br />The primary issues are therefore:<br />Too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and<br />A dearth of storable, renewable energy.<br />Atmospheric Goals<br />The human world could irrevocably affect its coasts and economic sustainability ignoring CO2 growth and habitat elimination<br />pulling the atmospheric CO2 level from today's 379 ppm down to 350 ppm (a level which would probably stabilize Greenland and Antarctica) requires the net capture of about 230 billion tons of carbon dioxide20<br />Renewable Energy Goals<br />The world will bankrupt itself trying to provide US – equivalent power to 10 billion people<br />to solve the greenhouse problem, the fuels must be able to deliver sufficient energy to the user to replace what we'd otherwise require from fossil fuels20<br />And it must grow linearly with the needs of a large human population<br />Therefore either pull increasing CO2from the air or stop creating it in the first place, or both.<br />
  9. 9. Premise<br />The world’s energy needs will double by 2050. Total energy from all terrestrial carbon based and terrestrial solar power now is only half this number. <br />We will not be able to generate this level of energy from all nonrenewal energy. <br />Power output must be maintained indefinitely. Conventional power systems are too expensive for the Developing Nations. Six kilowatts of thermal power now costs 50% of their average per capita income18.<br />NASA is losing interest from the public because it is only interested in scientific pursuits. NASA could change the public interest level by building a case for national energy policy changes using space-based solar power, specifically on the moon1,3,4,11.<br />
  10. 10. My grandkids are 95<br />Future value of solving this now <br />If all works out, my grandkids will be 95 in 2115. that is close enough to care about.<br />All our economic oil scenarios stop at 2050. Why?<br />Oil depletion from a 20-model average shows22:<br /> Peak Oil: 94-mbd in 2022<br /> Post-peak production Avg Decline Rate to 2050: 0.7%/yr<br /> The year 50% of URR/EUR has been extracted: 2031<br /> The year flow breaches below today's (2010) 86-mbd: 2040<br />
  11. 11. Eliminating Fossil FuelWe can’t get there from here<br />Hydropower<br />The power of water is abundant — approximately 73 percent of all renewable energy according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). It is also the smallest of all power plants.<br />Wind Power<br />Wind power is a very simple process. Wind power is abundant in California and Texas. Great for those 2 states but how about everywhere else?<br />Geothermal Power<br />Trap heat underground, create hot water or steam, then turn a steam turbine to generate electricity. <br /> Creates only small power plants.<br />Biomass<br />Biomass power plants burn biomass fuel in boilers to heat water and turn a steam turbine to create electricity.Promising but requires lots of farm land to compete with food. Food vs energy? Can either one win?<br />Solar Power<br />Solar cells absorb the sun's radiation and create electricity, through heat based steam turbines or photovoltaics.<br /> Also promising, but can it scale terrestrially?<br />Nuclear Power<br />Nuclear fission creates hot water or steam, then turn a steam turbine to generate electricity. <br />Hydropower25<br /><ul><li>Nosignificant construction of new, large hydroelectric plants is expected (due to environmental concerns and the small number of available sites).</li></ul>Wind Power25<br /><ul><li>Would require building 13,000 plants at a cost of $4 Trillion. We only have 5400 power plants of any kind in all of US.</li></ul>Geothermal Power25<br /><ul><li>Would require building 85,000 plants at a cost of $10 Trillion. Only have 5400 power plants in all of US.</li></ul>Biomass25<br /><ul><li>Biomass power plants burn biomass fuel in boilers to heat water and turn a steam turbine to create electricity.Promising but requires lots of farm land to compete with food. Food vs energy? Can either one win?</li></ul>Solar Power25<br /><ul><li>Would require building 214,000plants at a cost of $21 Trillion (Freude 2010)</li></ul>Can it scale terrestrially?<br />Nuclear Power25<br /><ul><li>Would require building 1300 more plants at a cost of $13 Trillion (1 yr US GDP). Would run out of Uranium before 2050. (WNO 2010)</li></li></ul><li>Energy Use <br /><ul><li>fossil fuel (coal/nat gas) US electric generation output = 3000 billion kilowatt-hours or 10 Quads
  12. 12. USA burns about 23 Quads of gas & diesel in vehicles
  13. 13. Replacing all fossil fuel energy in the US only with Biomass would take 80 Quads
  14. 14. 80 Quads of Biomass is about 400 million (M) acres over what we have now
  15. 15. In 1997, only had 331M Acres of Farmland26
  16. 16. We would have to DOUBLE the farmland in the US alone
  17. 17. Can we make more land?</li></ul>Need this much again Biomass farmland<br />BioMass Answer?Where do we find this much farm land?<br />
  18. 18. Energy Use <br /><ul><li>fossil fuel (coal/nat gas) US electric generation output = 3000 billion kilowatt-hours or 10 Quads27
  19. 19. Current Uranium use about 68,000 tU/yr. World's resource (5.4 Mt) enough to last for about 80 years24
  20. 20. To replace fossil fuel, 20X more nuclear plants must be built ( US only!)
  21. 21. Therefore we’d run out of fuel 20x faster. Can’t make more Uranium.
  22. 22. Risks: radioactive iodine, -- half-life of eight days. soil with strontium-90 and caesium-137, half-lives of about 30 years</li></ul>Nuclear Answer?Is it enough?Safe enough?<br />
  23. 23. What we must learnSpace Based Solar Power<br />Energy needs will double by 2050. Total energy from terrestrial carbon and terrestrial solar power now is only ½ this number.<br />But intriguingly, every day, the moon receives 1000 times this amount (~13,000 TW) 2. Are we ostriches?<br />
  24. 24. Power Transmission Background<br /><ul><li>Successful Earth-moon power beams are already in use by the Arecibo planetary radar, operating from Puerto Rico18.
  25. 25. Synthetic-aperture radars on the Space Shuttle demonstrated multibeam transmission of pulsed power directed to Earth from orbit18
  26. 26. But, Power beams are considered esoteric and a technology of the distant future.</li></ul>We need to be able to simply demonstrate its feasibility.<br />
  27. 27. Power Transmission Background<br /><ul><li>Abengoa Solar, which plans to build one of the largest solar plant in the world in Arizona, proves solar farms are feasible30.
  28. 28. Each lunar power base would be augmented by fields of solar converters located on the back side of the moon28
  29. 29. Solar cells collect sunlight, and buried electrical wires carry the solar energy as electric power to microwave generators28.
  30. 30. China recognizes that mining of lunar helium-3 is an ideal fuel for nuclear fusion power plants. Another power plant possibility17,29.</li></li></ul><li>Power Transmission Background<br />The lunar solar power program would be immensely generative to science, jobs, technology, and finance, not to mention the biosphere.<br />Creating the launch infrastructure to go to the moon, the industrial engineering to live and build on the moon, the energy infrastructure development on the moon, in power satellites and for power reception and distribution on earth would provide $trillions in multi-country economic development8,9,10,15.<br />
  31. 31. Power Transmission Background<br /><ul><li>The moon itself contains a ready list of elements to make glass, fiberglass, and ceramics, and processed chemically into its elements. Solar cells, electric wiring, some micro-circuitry components, and the reflector screens can be made out of lunar materials28,31.
  32. 32. The moon is ideal for solar arrays:
  33. 33. There is no air or water to degrade large area thin film devices
  34. 34. The high cost of transportation to and from the moon is cancelled out by sending machines and small factories to the moon
  35. 35. Products present in the lunar surface are silicon, iron, TiO2, etc. These products can be used as raw materials for solar cell fabrication28,31,32</li></li></ul><li>What we must do<br />The LSP System is an unconventional approach to supplying commercial power to Earth. However, the key operational technologies of the LSP have been demonstrated at a high technology readiness level (TRL = 7)33.<br />TRL = 7 denotes technology demonstrated at an appropriate scale in the appropriate environment33. <br />
  36. 36. Power Transmission Research Projects<br />
  37. 37. Sustainable leaps<br />Power Beam demo<br />Uses same frequency as Moon to Earth link<br />Power 12V electronic circuit<br />Efficiency about equal to coal plant in only the demo! (30%)<br />SpaceX.com<br />10 to 100X lower cost in LEO launch cost than governmental organizations16<br />Solar technologies benefit from Moore’s Law34<br />Other energy companies don’t benefit from semiconductor material science and equipment improvements<br />
  38. 38. Terrestrial Solar<br />
  39. 39. Energy & Spacepower from the last frontier<br />
  40. 40. Appendix APower Plant Types<br />Typical coal plant power and output<br />600 MW for $1.5 billion<br />http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL34746.pdf<br />CO2emitted -- 209 pounds CO2per MMBtu<br />Coal Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant <br />600 MW for $2B<br />CO2emitted -- 209 pounds CO2per MMBtu<br />Natural Gas plant<br />500 MW for $0.5B<br />CO2emitted – 117 pounds CO2per MMBtu<br />Nuclear plant <br />2200 MW for $10B<br />Wind plant<br />200 MW for $0.350B<br />Geothermal plant<br />35 MW for $0.120B<br />Terrestrial Solar Thermal plant<br />300 MW for $1B<br />Terrestrial Solar Photovoltaic plant<br />14MW for $0.1B<br />
  41. 41. Appendix AUS Energy Quick Facts<br /><ul><li>Energy Use
  42. 42. Current fossil fuel US electric generation output = 3000 billion kilowatt-hours or 10 Quads
  43. 43. There are about 5,400 power plants in the United States.
  44. 44. USA burns about 17 quads of gasoline in vehicles
  45. 45. Replacing all fossil fuel energy in the US only with Biomass would take about 400 million acres over what we have now
  46. 46. In 2003, only about 380 million acres for all crops were planted in the entire USA!
  47. 47. CO2 problem
  48. 48. stop the increase of atmospheric CO2, we need to cut emissions on the order of 80%
  49. 49. we're going to have to replace all oil-derived fuels with renewables</li></li></ul><li>Appendix CU.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)conversion factors <br />This is a quick-reference list of conversion factors used by the Bioenergy Feedstock Development Programs at ORNL. It was compiled from a wide range of sources, and is designed to be concise and convenient rather than all-inclusive. Most conversion factors and data are given to only 3 significant figures. Users are encouraged to consult other original sources for independent verification of these numbers. The following are links to Web sites we have found useful (many universities worldwide maintain good guides and conversion calculator pages):<br />U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) <br />Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching, University of Exeter, U.K. <br />Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan <br />Convertit.com Measurement Converter <br />http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html<br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Energy units<br />Quantities <br />1.0 joule (J) = one Newton applied over a distance of one meter (= 1 kg m2/s2). <br />1.0 joule = 0.239 calories (cal) <br />1.0 calorie = 4.187 J <br />1.0 gigajoule (GJ) = 109 joules = 0.948 million Btu = 239 million calories = 278 kWh <br />1.0 British thermal unit (Btu) = 1055 joules (1.055 kJ) <br />1.0 Quad = One quadrillion Btu = million billion (1015 Btu) = 1.055 exajoules (EJ), or approximately 172 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe) <br />1000 Btu/lb = 2.33 gigajoules per tonne (GJ/t) <br />1000 Btu/US gallon = 0.279 megajoules per liter (MJ/l) <br />Power <br />1.0 watt = 1.0 joule/second = 3.413 Btu/hr <br />1.0 kilowatt (kW) = 3413 Btu/hr = 1.341 horsepower <br />1.0 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.6 MJ = 3413 Btu <br />1.0 horsepower (hp) = 550 foot-pounds per second = 2545 Btu per hour = 745.7 watts = 0.746 kW <br />Energy Costs <br />$1.00 per million Btu = $0.948/GJ<br />$1.00/GJ = $1.055 per million Btu <br />Multiplication Factor Power Prefix Symbol Name in USA <br />1,000,000,000,000,000,000 1018 exa E quintillion <br />1,000,000,000,000,000 1015 peta P quadrillion <br />1,000,000,000,000 1012 tera T trillion <br />1,000,000,000 109 giga G billion <br />1,000,000 106 mega M million <br />1,000 103 kilo k thousand <br />100 102 hecto h hundred <br />10 101 decada ten <br />0.1 10-1 deci d tenth <br />0.01 10-2 centi c hundredth <br />0.001 10-3 milli m thousandth <br />0.000 001 10-6 micro m millionth <br />0.000 000 001 10-9 nano n billionth <br />0.000 000 000 001 10-12 pico p trillionth <br />0.000 000 000 000 001 10-15 femto f quadrillionth <br />0.000 000 000 000 000 001 10-18 atto a quintillionth <br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Some common units of measure<br />1.0 U.S. ton (short ton) = 2000 pounds <br />1.0 imperial ton (long ton or shipping ton) = 2240 pounds <br />1.0 metric tonne (tonne) = 1000 kilograms = 2205 pounds <br />1.0 US gallon = 3.79 liter = 0.833 Imperial gallon <br />1.0 imperial gallon = 4.55 liter = 1.20 US gallon <br />1.0 liter = 0.264 US gallon = 0.220 imperial gallon <br />1.0 US bushel = 0.0352 m3 = 0.97 UK bushel = 56 lb, 25 kg (corn or sorghum) = 60 lb, 27 kg (wheat or soybeans) = 40 lb, 18 kg (barley) <br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Areas and crop yields <br />1.0 hectare = 10,000 m2 (an area 100 m x 100 m, or 328 x 328 ft) = 2.47 acres <br />1.0 km2 = 100 hectares = 247 acres <br />1.0 acre = 0.405 hectares <br />1.0 US ton/acre = 2.24 t/ha <br />1 metric tonne/hectare = 0.446 ton/acre <br />100 g/m2 = 1.0 tonne/hectare = 892 lb/acre <br />for example, a "target" bioenergy crop yield might be: 5.0 US tons/acre (10,000 lb/acre) = 11.2 tonnes/hectare (1120 g/m2) <br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Biomass energy <br />Cord: a stack of wood comprising 128 cubic feet (3.62 m3); standard dimensions are 4 x 4 x 8 feet, including air space and bark. One cord contains approx. 1.2 U.S. tons (oven-dry) = 2400 pounds = 1089 kg <br />1.0 metric tonne wood = 1.4 cubic meters (solid wood, not stacked) <br />Energy content of wood fuel (HHV, bone dry) = 18-22 GJ/t (7,600-9,600 Btu/lb) <br />Energy content of wood fuel (air dry, 20% moisture) = about 15 GJ/t (6,400 Btu/lb) <br />Energy content of agricultural residues (range due to moisture content) = 10-17 GJ/t (4,300-7,300 Btu/lb) <br />Metric tonne charcoal = 30 GJ (= 12,800 Btu/lb) (but usually derived from 6-12 t air-dry wood, i.e. 90-180 GJ original energy content) <br />Metric tonne ethanol = 7.94 petroleum barrels = 1262 liters <br />ethanol energy content (LHV) = 11,500 Btu/lb = 75,700 Btu/gallon = 26.7 GJ/t = 21.1 MJ/liter. HHV for ethanol = 84,000 Btu/gallon = 89 MJ/gallon = 23.4 MJ/liter <br />ethanol density (average) = 0.79 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3) <br />Metric tonne biodiesel = 37.8 GJ (33.3 - 35.7 MJ/liter) <br />biodiesel density (average) = 0.88 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3) <br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Fossil fuels <br />Barrel of oil equivalent (boe) = approx. 6.1 GJ (5.8 million Btu), equivalent to 1,700 kWh. "Petroleum barrel" is a liquid measure equal to 42 U.S. gallons (35 Imperial gallons or 159 liters); about 7.2 barrels oil are equivalent to one tonne of oil (metric) = 42-45 GJ. <br />Gasoline: US gallon = 115,000 Btu = 121 MJ = 32 MJ/liter (LHV). HHV = 125,000 Btu/gallon = 132 MJ/gallon = 35 MJ/liter <br />Metric tonne gasoline = 8.53 barrels = 1356 liter = 43.5 GJ/t (LHV); 47.3 GJ/t (HHV) <br />gasoline density (average) = 0.73 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3) <br />Petro-diesel = 130,500 Btu/gallon (36.4 MJ/liter or 42.8 GJ/t) <br />petro-diesel density (average) = 0.84 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3) <br />Note that the energy content (heating value) of petroleum products per unit mass is fairly constant, but their density differs significantly – hence the energy content of a liter, gallon, etc. varies between gasoline, diesel, kerosene. <br />Metric tonne coal = 27-30 GJ (bituminous/anthracite); 15-19 GJ (lignite/sub-bituminous) (the above ranges are equivalent to 11,500-13,000 Btu/lb and 6,500-8,200 Btu/lb). <br />Note that the energy content (heating value) per unit mass varies greatly between different "ranks" of coal. "Typical" coal (rank not specified) usually means bituminous coal, the most common fuel for power plants (27 GJ/t). <br />Natural gas: HHV = 1027 Btu/ft3 = 38.3 MJ/m3; LHV = 930 Btu/ft3 = 34.6 MJ/m3 <br />Therm (used for natural gas, methane) = 100,000 Btu (= 105.5 MJ) <br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Carbon content of fossil fuels and bioenergyfeedstocks<br />coal (average) = 25.4 metric tonnes carbon per terajoule (TJ) <br />1.0 metric tonne coal = 746 kg carbon <br />oil (average) = 19.9 metric tonnes carbon / TJ<br />1.0 US gallon gasoline (0.833 Imperial gallon, 3.79 liter) = 2.42 kg carbon <br />1.0 US gallon diesel/fuel oil (0.833 Imperial gallon, 3.79 liter) = 2.77 kg carbon <br />natural gas (methane) = 14.4 metric tonnes carbon / TJ<br />1.0 cubic meter natural gas (methane) = 0.49 kg carbon <br />carbon content of bioenergyfeedstocks: approx. 50% for woody crops or wood waste; approx. 45% for graminaceous (grass) crops or agricultural residues <br />--------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />
  50. 50. Appendix DReferences<br />http://www.nss.org/resources/library/spacepolicy/HSF_Cmte_FinalReport.pdf<br />http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/04/020416073334.htm<br />http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/01/11/is-space-exploration-worth-the-cost-a-freakonomics-quorum/<br />http://wiki.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate:Funding_for_space_exploration<br />http://history.nasa.gov/sep.htm<br />http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200806/asteroids/2<br />http://www.aip.org/fyi/2008/070.html<br />http://azerbaijan-news.blogspot.com/<br />http://zuserver2.star.ucl.ac.uk/~iac/case_for_space.html<br />http://www.esa.int/esaMI/SME_Achievements/SEMX29L8IOE_0.html<br />http://www.slate.com/id/2155164<br />http://esapub.esrin.esa.it/microgra/micrv9n1/fuhv9n1.htm<br />http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/policy/chinese-nuclear-policy/PDFs/China_Space_Johnson_Freese%5B1%5D.pdf<br />http://cleantechnica.com/2009/04/18/space-based-solar-power-satellite-program-from-pge-and-solaren/<br />http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30198977/<br />http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/atlasv.htm<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ouyang_Ziyuan<br />http://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=1149636<br />http://www.scholastic.com/kids/exit.asp?url=http://science.nasa.gov/Realtime/jtrack/3d/JTrack3d.html<br />
  51. 51. Appendix DReferences<br />http://www.theoildrum.com/story/2006/11/27/0432/3533<br />http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703386704576186622682563228.html#articleTabs%3Darticle<br />http://www.trendlines.ca/free/peakoil/Scenarios/scenarios.htm<br />Universität Leipzig, Dr. Dieter Freude 2010<br />http://uni-leipzig.de/~energy/ef/21.htm<br />World Nuclear Organization (WNO) 12/2010<br />http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf75.html<br />http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL34746.pdf<br />http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/NRI/maps/meta/m4983.html<br />http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html<br />http://www.aip.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-8/iss-2/p12.pdf<br />http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/19296/<br />http://www.consumerenergyreport.com/2010/07/05/us-commits-2-billion-to-two-solar-power-companies/<br />http://www.agci.org/dB/PPTs/03S2_DCriswell_0710.pdf<br />http://www.niac.usra.edu/files/studies/final_report/880Chirikjian.pdf<br />http://87.224.35.44/tech_papers/17th_congress/4_1_33.asp <br />http://www.techeye.net/chips/moores-law-begins-to-shake-up-solar-industry<br />

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