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Sustainable Design Principles Adam Krason, Zmm


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  • 1. Sustainable Design Principles
  • 2. The U.S. Green Building Council
  • 3. The U.S. Green Building Council
  • 4. LEED Green Building Rating System
    Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
  • 5. Sustainable Sites
    Limit expansion of developed areas, preserve ecologically productive land
    Prevent site disturbance during construction
    Do not develop on inappropriate sites
    Develop in areas with existing infrastructure, not greenfields
    Redevelop brownfield sites
    site selection
  • 6. Sustainable Sites
    Reduce emissions & land development impacts from vehicle use
    Public transportation access
    Bicycle storage & changing rooms
    Preferred parking for fuel efficient vehicles & carpools
    Reduce parking capacity (minimum zoning requirements)
  • 7. Sustainable Sites
    Reduce pollutants & strain on infrastructure,
    Reduce stormwater quantity, improve quality (wetlands & vegetated filtration)
    Maximize open areas on the site
    Protect or restore habitat
    Eliminate heat island effect
    Light pollution reduction
    stormwater / development
  • 8. Water Efficiency
    Eliminate potable water use for irrigation, reduce demand on infrastructure & natural resources
    Use native vegetation
    Capture rainwater for irrigation
    Eliminate site irrigation systems
    Reuse condensate water from HVAC systems
  • 9. Water Efficiency
    Eliminate potable water demand for conveying wastewater
    Treat wastewater on-site
    Use stormwater/graywater for sewage conveyance
    Use high efficiency/dry fixtures
    Reduce demand on infrastructure
  • 10. Water Efficiency
    Conserve water – it is a natural resource
    Energy Policy Act of 2005
    Use high efficiency/dry fixtures
    Recycle graywater
    Dual flush toilets/low flow shower heads
    reduce water consumption
  • 11. Energy & Atmosphere
    Many systems are designed correctly, but installed or operated improperly
    A quality-oriented process for achieving, verifying and documenting the performance of facilities, systems and assemblies to meet defined objectives and criteria
    Cost of fundamental commissioning +/- $1/SF
    Owner develops project requirements
    Designer develops basis of design
  • 12. Energy & Atmosphere
    Commissioning requirements should be incorporated into the construction documents
    Enhanced commissioning includes systems manuals, training & a 10-month review
  • 13. Energy & Atmosphere
    optimize energy performance
    Reduce energy consumption (reduces pollution)
    Includes building envelope, HVAC, lighting
    Minimum standard:
    ASHRAE 90.1-2007
    Up to 19 points available for 48% energy reduction
    Over 20,000 SF requires whole building energy simulation
  • 14. Energy & Atmosphere
    optimize energy performance
    Building orientation, improved building shell
    Appropriately-sized HVAC systems
    Energy recovery from exhaust air
    Harvest on-site energy: solar, wind, geothermal
  • 15. Energy & Atmosphere
    CFC’s deplete the ozone layer
    No CFC’s permitted, phase out of old facilities
    Reduce use of CFC’s, HCFC’s, HFC’s
    Consider use of natural refrigerants: carbon dioxide, ammonia, propane
    reduce refrigerants
  • 16. Energy & Atmosphere
    Maintain equipment: prevent leakage into the atmosphere
    Depleted ozone layer permits ultraviolet rays to penetrate the atmosphere
    reduce refrigerants
  • 17. Energy & Atmosphere
    Measure building energy consumption over time
    Establish a base year of operation
    Compare future performance to the base
    M&V period starts after reasonable occupation & stability
    measure & verify
  • 18. Energy & Atmosphere
    Promote alternative energy sources
    Purchase at least 35% of electricity from Green-e certified provider
    Tradable renewable energy certificates (REC’s) can be used
    green power
  • 19. Materials & Resources
    Reduce materials extracted, reduce their transportation
    Reduce: materials extracted
    Reuse: existing products
    Recycle: demolition & construction waste
    ReStore: Habitat for Humanity
    Regional: sustainable for the environment & the economy
    the 3 R’s + 2
  • 20. Materials & Resources
    Reduce waste hauled to & disposed of in landfills
    During construction: develop waste management plan
    Operation: provide an area within the building for storage & collection of recyclables
    Minimum: paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastic & metals
  • 21. Materials & Resources
    Extend life cycle of existing buildings, reduce impact of new buildings as they relate to materials & transportation
    Reuse structure & envelope
    Reuse interior partitions & products where possible
    Do not reuse contaminants & hazardous materials
    Upgrade HVAC, windows & plumbing fixtures for increased efficiency
    building reuse
  • 22. Materials & Resources
    Reuse building materials, reduce demand for virgin materials
    “One man’s trash….”
    Consider furnishings
    Other options: posts & beams, flooring, doors, brick, cabinetry
    materials reuse
  • 23. Materials & Resources
    Reduce demand for virgin materials
    Post-consumer: generated by households & businesses
    Pre-consumer: generated by manufacturing process
    Many suppliers list recycled content
    Establish goals during the design phase
    recycled content
  • 24. Materials & Resources
    Steelcase “Context” furniture
    40% recycled content
    8% post-consumer recycled content
    92% recyclable
    Context also incorporates water-based adhesives with low VOC’s
    recycled content
  • 25. Materials & Resources
    Reduce impact of transportation
    Options: concrete, block, brick, wood products
    West Virginia is in a great location (500 mile radius)
    Creates healthier local economy
    regional materials
  • 26. Materials & Resources
    Reduce depletion of finite raw materials
    10-year plant-to-harvest cycle
    Options: bamboo, wool, linoleum, cork, wheatboard, even poplar
    rapidly renewable materials
  • 27. Materials & Resources
    Encourage environmentally responsible forest management
    Current standard: Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
    Most West Virginia forests adhere to Sustainable Forest Initiative (SFI) standard
    USGBC is reviewing this credit to possibly include SFI
    certified woods
  • 28. Indoor Environmental Quality
    Enhance indoor air quality in buildings
    Indoor air can be 2-5 times more polluted than outdoor air
    Prevent “sick building syndrome”
    Standard for fresh air:
    ASHRAE 62.1-2007
    Eliminate or contain tobacco smoke
    minimum performance
  • 29. Indoor Environmental Quality
    We all need fresh air!
    Measure fresh air delivery
    Increase natural ventilation… can be difficult while reducing energy use
    Monitor air quality during construction to keep workers safe
    Protect systems during construction
  • 30. Indoor Environmental Quality
    Reduce harmful contaminants released by many materials
    Adhesives & sealants (GreenSeal standard)
    Paints/stains (low VOC)
    Flooring (Green Label, Floor Score)
    Composite wood (no urea formaldehyde)…remember Katrina trailers
  • 31. Indoor Environmental Quality
    Minimize exposure to pollutants in the indoor environment
    Entryway systems
    Housekeeping, copy/print rooms & laundry areas: separate HVAC systems
    MERV 13 filters
    reduce pollutants
  • 32. Indoor Environmental Quality
    Promote productivity, comfort & well-being of occupants
    Controllability of lighting & HVAC systems
    Set increased HVAC design parameters for temperature & humidity
    Give a majority of occupants access to daylight & views
    occupant comfort
  • 33. Innovation & Design Process
    Be rewarded for exceptional performance above LEED requirements
    Education of the users & general public
    Life cycle cost analysis
    additional items…
  • 34. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Awarded commission in October 2000
    Presented green design study to the Superintendent in 2002
    Incorporated affordable green design features
    Construction bids received in March 2004
    Building occupied fall term 2006
  • 35. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Sustainable Sites:
    Building orientation
    Erosion and sedimentation control
    Stormwater management
    Stormwater filtering
    Holding pond
  • 36. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Explored, but not incorporated:
    Bicycle storage
    Reflective roof to combat heat island effect
    Bid add alternate was $95K – not accepted
    Preferred parking for energy efficient vehicles
    Could be implemented now at no cost
  • 37. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Water efficiency:
    No landscape irrigation
    Water use reduction
    Dual flush fixtures
    Water saving fixtures
    Explored, but not incorporated:
    Graywater system
    Bid add alternate was $200K, not accepted
    Graywater sprinkler system
    Bid add alternate was $250K, not accepted
  • 38. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Energy & Atmosphere:
    High efficiency equipment
    Condensing boilers (95%+ efficient)
    Chiller heat recovery
    Fluorescent lighting, high CRI
    CFC reduction
    No ozone-depleting refrigerants
    Explored, but not incorporated:
    Full system commissioning
    Estimated cost was $200K
    Measurement & verification
    Estimated cost was $20K
  • 39. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Materials & Resources:
    Storage & collection of recyclables
    Educational opportunities of recycling
    Local & regional materials
    Explored, but not incorporated:
    Construction waste recycling
    Estimated cost was $50K
    Rapidly renewable materials
    Wood from managed forests
  • 40. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Indoor environmental quality:
    CO2 monitoring/control
    Construction IAQ management
    Low VOC-emitting adhesives, paints & carpets
    HVAC digital control system
    Building orientation
    Automatic light level control
    Benefits of natural light
    Reduce energy consumption
  • 41. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Cost breakdown:
    Sustainable Sites
    Water Efficiency
    Estimated at $50K
    Energy & Atmosphere
    Estimated at $50K
    Materials & Resources
    Indoor Environmental Quality
    Estimated at $625K (daylighting & lighting controls make up $600K of this cost)
  • 42. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    First costs vs. long-term benefits:
    First cost of green features
    $3.23 per square foot
    Percent of construction costs
    = 2.25%
  • 43. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    and the numbers demonstrate…
    4 Consolidated HS Used 2,156,900 Gallons
    New HS used 618,600 Gallons in the 2nd Year
    71% Savings
    Natural Gas
    Previous Use: 11,592 MCF
    New: 7,195 MCF
    38% Savings
  • 44. ZMM Case Studies
    Lincoln County High School
    Long-term benefits:
    Lower natural gas consumption
    Lower water consumption
    Lower electricity consumption
    Longer life of HVAC equipment
    Lower absenteeism
    Higher student & teacher performance
    Much better indoor air quality
    Lower impact on the environment
  • 45. ZMM Case Studies
    WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
    Sustainable Sites:
    The project site has access to public transportation
    A bicycle storage & shower area (potentially a campus-wide facility) should be developed to encourage bicycle commuting for employees who live nearby
    Prime parking areas should be developed for employees who carpool, as well as for alternative fuel vehicles
    The new roof will be highly reflective to reduce heat island effect
  • 46. ZMM Case Studies
    WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
    Water Efficiency:
    Low flow & dual flush fixtures will be used throughout
    All new landscaping plans should utilize native vegetation
  • 47. ZMM Case Studies
    WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
    Energy & Atmosphere:
    New windows will help reduce solar heat gain
    New, more efficient HVAC system will replace the perimeter induction units
    Systems will be commissioned to ensure that all mechanical and electrical systems operate properly
  • 48. ZMM Case Studies
    WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
    Materials & Resources:
    Recycling areas are developed for each floor, and should be developed for the entire campus
    A recycling program should be established, and all employees educated in the process
    A construction waste management plan will be implemented
    Included in the specifications
    Has already included recycling of the demolished demountable partitions
  • 49. ZMM Case Studies
    WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
    Materials & Resources:
    Recycled content materials will be utilized, including drywall, steel & acoustic ceiling tiles
    Locally & regionally produced materials will be used, including acoustic ceiling tiles, plywood,
    carpeting & resilient flooring
    Cradle-to-Cradle certified furniture systems are specified
    Raised floor with a modular, “plug & play” wiring system will eliminate future demolition waste
  • 50. ZMM Case Studies
    WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7
    Indoor Environmental Quality:
    Smoking will be prohibited near entryways & near air intakes
    An indoor air quality (IAQ) management plan will be implemented during construction
    Air quality will be measured & verified in all occupied areas to ensure that occupants are receiving enough fresh air
    All paints, mastics & sealants will contain low VOC’s
    Regular replacement of mechanical filters should be implemented
  • 51. Final thoughts….
    It’s not about doing less…
    It’s about designing better!