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Meat Processing Facility Design
 

Meat Processing Facility Design

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Meat Processing Facility Design Meat Processing Facility Design Presentation Transcript

  • Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Meat and Poultry Processing Facilities. Gregory D Williams, Ph.D., P.E., S.E. Kevin Keener, Ph.D., P.E.
  • Introduction
    • 122 Billion Dollar industry, 500,000 employees
    • Nearly 4000 facilities in 2002
    • Larger more complex facilities with higher outputs
    • 506 Construction Projects over 1 million dollars in 2007.
    • Design Information is limited and not documented
  • Meat Industry
    • Poultry Processing
    • Pork Processing
    • Beef Processing
    • Others
    • Many Common Elements
  • Elements of Meat Processing Facility
    • Live Hold & Receiving
    • Kill & Evisceration
    • Raw Processing
    • Further Processing
    • Cold Storage & Shipping
    • Utilities & Maintenance
    • Admin & Welfare
  • Poultry Processing
  • Beef Processing
  • Pork Processing
  • Facility Planning
    • Regulatory Issues
      • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP’s)
      • Title 9 of Code of Federal Regulations
    • Animal Supply
    • Utilities & Water
      • Availability
      • Waste/BOD
    • Long Range Planning
      • Strategic Plan
      • Strategic Vision
      • Organizational Objectives
  • Facility Planning
    • Economic factors
      • Local
        • Feed Supply
        • Demand
      • Global
        • Population trends
        • Demographics
    • Labor Force
    • Location/Site/Zoning
      • Transportation & Infrastructure
      • Roads
      • Site Properties
        • Soil Bearing
        • Drainage
    • Expansion/New Construction
      • Upgrading or expanding existing facility
  • Facility Planning
    • Technology
      • Constantly Changing
      • Must be flexible and Adaptable
    • Facility Layout
      • Key to Efficiency
      • Design Team Critical
  • Detailed Facility Layout
    • Start with block flow diagrams
    • Buildings determined by like unit operations
    • Layout buildings around like unit operations
    • Work integrally with process design for final layout that is compliant with building codes, USDA, & OSHA
  • Poultry Processing Areas
  • Life Safety Design Considerations
    • Model Building Code (2003 IBC)
    • USDA
    • OSHA
    • NFPA
  • Model Building Codes
    • International Building Code
      • Occupancy
      • Construction type
      • Height and floor area
      • Location on site
      • Special requirements
      • Design Details
  • Occupancy
    • Group B – Business
      • Offices
    • Group F1 - Factory and Industrial
      • Main Food Processing
    • Group S – Storage
      • Cold Storage
  • Fire Rated Construction Types
    • Types I to V
    • Types I & II are least combustible
      • Concrete and steel construction
    • Types III,IV, & V are more combustible
      • Includes wood structures
    • Most Meat Processing Plants are Type I & II construction
    • Details – Chapter 7 of the International Building Code
      • Floors, partitions, exterior walls, barriers, etc
  • Height and Floor Areas
    • Function of occupancy type and construction type
    • Frontage area and sprinkler systems can increase allowable area
    • Unlimited Area buildings can be built if certain height, sprinkler, and frontage requirements are met
  • Equipment Access Platforms
    • Special case of mezzanine
    • No more than 2/3 the area of floors
    • Access or egress to or from shall not serve as egress for building system
  • Building Envelope
    • No particular national energy conservation requirements for industrial buildings
      • Good business practice dictates energy efficient building design for economical reasons
      • USE ASHRAE Design Requirements for loads and design
      • Envelope used as separation between areas
  • OSHA
    • Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations - OSHA
      • Access
      • Stairs
      • Fixed Ladders
      • Guardrails
      • Equipment Access
  • USDA
    • Title 9 of the Code of Federal Regulations
    • Site
      • Maintained in a manner such that it is not a source of contamination
    • Building
      • Floors walls and ceilings easily cleaned
    • Utilities
      • Water and Drains for cleaning
    • Lighting and Ventilation
  • NFPA
    • NFPA 85 Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code
    • NFPA 13 Fire Sprinklers
  • Building Envelope
      • Must be designed in a manner to prevent condensation
        • Heat Transfer
        • Mass Transfer
        • Air Infiltration
      • Condensation is a Serious Sanitation Issue
        • Air infiltration is most common contributor
  • Sanitary Construction
    • Coving or Curbing
    • Sanitary Structural Shapes
    • No Ledges
    • No Voids
    • Durable Cleanable Coatings for Floors and Walls
    • Clean Storage for Final Product
    • Openings should be cleanable
  • Room Finishes
    • Floors
      • Slightly roughened plain concrete
      • Epoxy or Urethane floor finish after wear occurs
    • Walls
      • Durable, water & vapor tights
      • IMP with SS or White Kynar finish
      • Precast with hard smooth finish
    • Ceilings
      • Hung IMP ceilings
      • Provides separate utility access area
  • Loadings
    • ASCE 7-02
    • Process Piping
      • Rooftop ammonia lines
      • Internal Utilities
    • Condenser Stands
      • Special Deflection and Load criteria
  • Main Building Construction
    • Steel Construction (Type II)
      • Bar Joists
      • Columns
      • IMP Walls
      • Ceiling or No Ceiling
    • Precast Construction (Type I)
      • Insulated Precast Walls
      • Post and Beam Style Construction.
  • Secondary Area Construction
    • Offices, Maintenance and Welfare areas
      • Relaxed or no sanitation requirements
      • No IMP
      • CMU or Precast construction is common
  • Docks
    • Adjacent to Freezer & Cooler Areas
    • Source of Air Infiltration & Contamination
    • CMU or Precast Construction preferred
    • Should be strong enough to stand up to abuse from Trucks
  • Coolers and Freezers
    • Insulation R Values per ASHRAE
    • IMP or Insulated Precast Construction
    • Freezers require under floor insulation and heat
    • Coolers don’t require under floor insulation but consideration should be given if conversion to freezer is possible.
  • Platforms, Misc Equipment and Piping Supports
    • Platforms
      • Interior Stainless Steel
      • Exterior Galvanized
    • Pipe Supports
      • Span based
    • Condenser
      • Special Load Criteria
      • Galvanized Platforms
  • Summary
    • Brief overview of planning and life safety considerations for Meat Processing Facilities
    • Refer to paper for specific details and code sections
    • Excellent opportunities for Agricultural Engineers