• Save
Flour Milling Plant Design
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Flour Milling Plant Design

on

  • 18,438 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
18,438
Views on SlideShare
18,146
Embed Views
292

Actions

Likes
6
Downloads
0
Comments
1

5 Embeds 292

http://www.forensicgenealogy.info 270
http://forensicgenealogy.info 12
http://www.slideshare.net 5
http://www.linkedin.com 4
https://www.linkedin.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Flour Milling Plant Design Flour Milling Plant Design Presentation Transcript

  • Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part I Planning, Structural, and Life Safety Gregory D Williams, Ph.D., P.E., S.E. Kurt Rosentrater, Ph.D
  • Introduction
    • 26,000 flour mills in late 1800’s
    • 336 flour mills in 2002
    • Larger more complex facilities with higher outputs
    • 26.5 million tons of output
    • Design Information is limited and not documented
  • Flour Milling Process
    • Break system
      • Separates wheat into components
    • Purification system
      • Sorts particles based on size, air resistance, and specific gravity
    • Reduction system
      • Fine grinding system
      • Finishes flour
    • Tailings
      • Unwanted components
  • Elements of Flour Milling Facility
    • Grain Receiving, Storage & Handling
    • Grain Cleaning
    • Pre-clean Storage
    • Tempering
    • Milling
    • Finished Flour
    • Warehousing & Packaging
  • Flour Milling Process
  • Flour Milling Process
  • Facility Planning
    • Long Range Planning
      • Strategic vision
      • Organizational objectives
    • Grain Supply
      • Local farm sources
      • Geographic area
      • Wheat types
    • Economic factors
      • Local
        • Grain types and volumes
      • Global
        • Population trends
        • Demographics
      • ROI
  • Facility Planning
    • Regulatory Issues
      • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP’s)
      • Identity Preservation
    • Location/Site
      • Transportation and Infrastructure
        • Utilities
        • Roads
        • Rails/Trucking
      • Site Properties
        • Soil Bearing
        • Drainage
    • Expansion/New Construction
      • Upgrading or expanding existing facility
  • Facility Planning
    • Technology
      • Constantly Changing
      • Must be flexible and adaptable
    • Facility Layout
      • Key to efficiency
      • Coordinate with design team
  • Facility Layout
    • Start with block flow diagrams
    • Buildings determined by like unit operations
    • Layout buildings around unit operations and vessels
    • Work integrally with process design for final layout that is compliant with building codes and OSHA
  • Flour Milling Process
  • Life Safety Design Considerations
    • Model Building Code (2003 IBC)
    • FDA
    • OSHA
    • NFPA
  • Model Building Codes
    • International Building Code
      • Occupancy
      • Construction type
      • Height and floor area
      • Location on site
      • Special requirements
      • Design Details
  • Occupancy
    • Group B – Business
      • Offices
    • Group H-2 – Hazardous –
      • Grain storage
      • Grain Cleaning
      • Milling areas
    • Group F1 - Factory and Industrial
      • Further processing areas
    • Group S – Storage
      • Warehouse areas
  • Fire Rated Construction Types
    • Types I to V
    • Types I & II are least combustible
      • Concrete and steel construction
    • Types III,IV, & V are more combustible
      • Includes wood structures
    • Most Flour Mills are Type I construction
    • Details – Chapter 7 of the International Building Code
      • Floors, partitions, exterior walls, barriers, etc
  • Height and Floor Areas
    • Function of occupancy type and construction type
    • Frontage area and sprinkler systems can increase allowable area
    • Unlimited Area buildings can be built if certain height, sprinkler, and frontage requirements are met
  • Location on Site
    • Grain elevators (storage) must be 30 ft from adjacent structures of different use or property lines
    • Other facility locations are determined by exterior wall fire ratings and site space.
      • Chapter 6 of the IBC
  • Equipment Access Platforms
    • Special case of mezzanine
    • No more than 2/3 the area of floors
    • Access or egress to or from shall not serve as egress for building system
  • Building Envelope
    • No particular national energy conservation requirements for industrial buildings
      • Good business practice dictates energy efficient building design for economical reasons
      • ASRAE requirements can serve as guidelines
  • OSHA
    • Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations - OSHA
      • Access
      • Stairs
      • Fixed Ladders
      • Guardrails
      • Equipment Access
  • FDA
    • Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations
    • Site
      • Maintained in a manner such that it is not a source of contamination
    • Building
      • Floors walls and ceilings easily cleaned
    • Utilities
      • Water and Drains for cleaing
    • Lighting and Ventilation
  • NFPA
    • NFPA 68 Guide for Venting Deflagrations
      • Explosion venting is required in flour mills
    • NFPA 69 Standard on explosion prevention systems
    • NFPA 61 Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Product Facilities
    • NFPA 85 Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code
    • NFPA 13 Fire Sprinklers
  • Loads
    • Live Loads
    • Dead Loads
    • Loads due to Grain, Flour ect
      • Janssen's Equation
      • Mass Flow – first in first out
    • Wind
    • Seismic
  • Grain Storage
    • Concrete or Steel Construction
      • Raw grain stored in slip form concrete or corrugated steel bins.
      • Large volume bins
    • Details of construction in Williams and Rosentrater 2004
      • Major elements include
      • reclaim, storage, and
      • distribution system
  • Cleaning Tower
    • Houses raw gain cleaning equipment
    • Often constructed integral with grain storage
    • 5 to 7 stories high
    • Slip formed concrete or steel tower
      • Slip formed concrete tower cast integrally with the pilasters
    • Concrete construction is more common
    • ACI 313 or AISC Steel manual
  • Tempering Bins
    • Slip formed concrete bins
    • Steel silos
    • Mass Flow
    • Adjust Grain MC
  • Finished Flour Bins
    • Smooth wall concrete or steel bins
    • Mass flow design for first in first out flow
    • Concrete bins are rectangular
    • Steel bins are round
    • Pneumatic pressures are possible
  • Flour Bins
  • Mill Construction
    • Large mills are slipform construction
    • Small mills are steel construction
    • Slipformed structures are designed using ACI 313 and ACI318
    • Bins can integrally with slipform
    • Mat foundations are typical
    • Pilasters are wall stiffening elements that carry vertical load
    • Concrete design done using ACI 313 and ACI 318
    • Steel design done using AISC documents
  • Mill Pilaster Arrangements
  • Packaging & Warehouse
    • Precast concrete or steel construction
    • Fire code dictates construction type
    • Precast or steel construction
  • Sanitary Construction
    • Coving or Curbing
    • Sanitary Structural Shapes
    • No Ledges
    • No Voids
    • Durable Cleanable Coatings for Floors and Walls
    • Clean Storage for Final Product
    • Openings should be cleanable
  • Summary
    • Brief overview of planning and life safety considerations for Flour Milling Facilities
    • Refer to paper for specific details and code sections
    • Excellent opportunities for Agricultural Engineers