Flour Milling Plant Design

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  • Flour Milling Plant Design

    1. 1. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part I Planning, Structural, and Life Safety Gregory D Williams, Ph.D., P.E., S.E. Kurt Rosentrater, Ph.D
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>26,000 flour mills in late 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>336 flour mills in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Larger more complex facilities with higher outputs </li></ul><ul><li>26.5 million tons of output </li></ul><ul><li>Design Information is limited and not documented </li></ul>
    3. 3. Flour Milling Process <ul><li>Break system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates wheat into components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purification system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorts particles based on size, air resistance, and specific gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine grinding system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishes flour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tailings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwanted components </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Elements of Flour Milling Facility <ul><li>Grain Receiving, Storage & Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Grain Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-clean Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Tempering </li></ul><ul><li>Milling </li></ul><ul><li>Finished Flour </li></ul><ul><li>Warehousing & Packaging </li></ul>
    5. 5. Flour Milling Process
    6. 6. Flour Milling Process
    7. 7. Facility Planning <ul><li>Long Range Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grain Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local farm sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grain types and volumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROI </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Facility Planning <ul><li>Regulatory Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location/Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation and Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rails/Trucking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Bearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion/New Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading or expanding existing facility </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Facility Planning <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly Changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be flexible and adaptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facility Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate with design team </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Facility Layout <ul><li>Start with block flow diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings determined by like unit operations </li></ul><ul><li>Layout buildings around unit operations and vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Work integrally with process design for final layout that is compliant with building codes and OSHA </li></ul>
    11. 11. Flour Milling Process
    12. 12. Life Safety Design Considerations <ul><li>Model Building Code (2003 IBC) </li></ul><ul><li>FDA </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA </li></ul>
    13. 13. Model Building Codes <ul><li>International Building Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height and floor area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location on site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Details </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Occupancy <ul><li>Group B – Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group H-2 – Hazardous – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grain storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grain Cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milling areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group F1 - Factory and Industrial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further processing areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group S – Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouse areas </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Fire Rated Construction Types <ul><li>Types I to V </li></ul><ul><li>Types I & II are least combustible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete and steel construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types III,IV, & V are more combustible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes wood structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Flour Mills are Type I construction </li></ul><ul><li>Details – Chapter 7 of the International Building Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floors, partitions, exterior walls, barriers, etc </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Height and Floor Areas <ul><li>Function of occupancy type and construction type </li></ul><ul><li>Frontage area and sprinkler systems can increase allowable area </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited Area buildings can be built if certain height, sprinkler, and frontage requirements are met </li></ul>
    17. 17. Location on Site <ul><li>Grain elevators (storage) must be 30 ft from adjacent structures of different use or property lines </li></ul><ul><li>Other facility locations are determined by exterior wall fire ratings and site space. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 6 of the IBC </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Equipment Access Platforms <ul><li>Special case of mezzanine </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 2/3 the area of floors </li></ul><ul><li>Access or egress to or from shall not serve as egress for building system </li></ul>
    19. 19. Building Envelope <ul><li>No particular national energy conservation requirements for industrial buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good business practice dictates energy efficient building design for economical reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASRAE requirements can serve as guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. OSHA <ul><li>Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations - OSHA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Ladders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guardrails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment Access </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. FDA <ul><li>Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained in a manner such that it is not a source of contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floors walls and ceilings easily cleaned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and Drains for cleaing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lighting and Ventilation </li></ul>
    22. 22. NFPA <ul><li>NFPA 68 Guide for Venting Deflagrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosion venting is required in flour mills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NFPA 69 Standard on explosion prevention systems </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 61 Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Product Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 85 Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 13 Fire Sprinklers </li></ul>
    23. 23. Loads <ul><li>Live Loads </li></ul><ul><li>Dead Loads </li></ul><ul><li>Loads due to Grain, Flour ect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Janssen's Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Flow – first in first out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Seismic </li></ul>
    24. 24. Grain Storage <ul><li>Concrete or Steel Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw grain stored in slip form concrete or corrugated steel bins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large volume bins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Details of construction in Williams and Rosentrater 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major elements include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reclaim, storage, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distribution system </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Cleaning Tower <ul><li>Houses raw gain cleaning equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Often constructed integral with grain storage </li></ul><ul><li>5 to 7 stories high </li></ul><ul><li>Slip formed concrete or steel tower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slip formed concrete tower cast integrally with the pilasters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete construction is more common </li></ul><ul><li>ACI 313 or AISC Steel manual </li></ul>
    26. 26. Tempering Bins <ul><li>Slip formed concrete bins </li></ul><ul><li>Steel silos </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust Grain MC </li></ul>
    27. 27. Finished Flour Bins <ul><li>Smooth wall concrete or steel bins </li></ul><ul><li>Mass flow design for first in first out flow </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete bins are rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>Steel bins are round </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic pressures are possible </li></ul>
    28. 28. Flour Bins
    29. 29. Mill Construction <ul><li>Large mills are slipform construction </li></ul><ul><li>Small mills are steel construction </li></ul><ul><li>Slipformed structures are designed using ACI 313 and ACI318 </li></ul><ul><li>Bins can integrally with slipform </li></ul><ul><li>Mat foundations are typical </li></ul><ul><li>Pilasters are wall stiffening elements that carry vertical load </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete design done using ACI 313 and ACI 318 </li></ul><ul><li>Steel design done using AISC documents </li></ul>
    30. 30. Mill Pilaster Arrangements
    31. 31. Packaging & Warehouse <ul><li>Precast concrete or steel construction </li></ul><ul><li>Fire code dictates construction type </li></ul><ul><li>Precast or steel construction </li></ul>
    32. 32. Sanitary Construction <ul><li>Coving or Curbing </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitary Structural Shapes </li></ul><ul><li>No Ledges </li></ul><ul><li>No Voids </li></ul><ul><li>Durable Cleanable Coatings for Floors and Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Storage for Final Product </li></ul><ul><li>Openings should be cleanable </li></ul>
    33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Brief overview of planning and life safety considerations for Flour Milling Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to paper for specific details and code sections </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent opportunities for Agricultural Engineers </li></ul>

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