saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti      GEORGIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE      konstantine kandelaki,daviT ...
saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti      GEORGIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE      konstantine kandelaki,daviT ...
saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti (GDRI) _ da-moukidebeli, arakomerciuli organizacia, dafuZnda 2011wels. institu...
sarCevi1.	 Sesavali.            ............................................................................... 302.	 arse...
3.1.4.	 xelisuflebis sxvadasxva donis            saqmianobis finansuri safuZvlebi....................... 30    3.1.5.	 Tvi...
3.5.	 saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba         TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris         xelisuflebis organoebis saqmianobaze...........
1. Sesavali    warmodgenili naSromis mizania saqarTvelos admin-istraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis, adgilobrivi TviT­mmarTvelob...
bulia is axali realobebi, romelic Camoyalibda saqa-rTveloSi 2005 wlis Semdeg, maT Soris, im reformebisSedegebi, romlebic u...
2. arsebuli situaciis analizi2.1.	xelisuflebis decentralizaciisa da   adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arsi2.1.1. ZiriTadi pri...
maT gadauwyvetlobas aRar abralebs centralur xe-   lisuflebas;	 sazogadoebis (moqalaqeTa jgufi, ubani, sofeli, Te­   mi, d...
im sakiTxebis gadawyveta, romelTa mogvarebac moqa-   laqes ar SeuZlia;	 ufro maRal safexurze mdgom xelisuflebas insti-   ...
2.1.2.	 decentralizaciis funqciebi da sferoebi   demokratiul saxelmwifoebSi adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobis organoebs ori fu...
1.	 adgilobrivi politikuri elitis Seqmna _ adgilo-    brivi ekonomikuri Tu politikuri klanebis arsebo-    ba totalitaruli ...
	 finansuri da qonebrivi sakiTxebi _ Tu ra saSualebiT   axorcielebs adgilobrivi xelisufleba Tavis ufle-   bamosilebas;	 ...
calkeul soflebSi es iyo uxucesTa da mamasaxlisTainstituti, romelmac (garkveuli saxecvlilebebiT) XXsaukunis dasawyisamde ia...
bazaze Catarda proporciuli sistemiT. xolo arCeuliorganoebi asrulebdnen rogorc TviTmmarTvelobis, iseadgilobrivi saxelmwifo ...
institutebis SemoReba. 1993-95 wlebSi qveyana, avtono-miuri respublikebis garda, daiyo cxra de facto mxared,sadac dainiSna...
doneebsa da ganStoebebs (warmomadgenlobiTi da aRmas-rulebeli) Soris, magram xelisuflebaSi politikurinebis deficitis gamo, ...
movlenebis Semdeg okupirebul tertoriebze aRmoCnda5 municipaliteti _ eredvi, qurTa, TiRvi, aJara da ax-algori. amJamad saqa...
xan izrdeboda, xan mcirdeboda. magaliTisTvis: Tu 1998wels raionul dones marTvis realuri berketebi gaaCnda,2002 wlidan misi...
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis rolis dakninebaCans yvela im mimarTulebiT, romelic aCvenebs qveyanaSidecentralizaciis ganviTa...
sruladaa damokidebuli centraluri xelisuflebis   gadawyvetilebebze, rogorc marTvis, ise saWiro   resursebiT uzrunvelyofis m...
lia sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gawevis xarisxi.   sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis sferos ukontrolo,   xSirad ki monopolizebul...
2.2.4.	 TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi saqarTvelos   saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi    2002 wlis 23 maiss saqarTvelo SeuerTda `adgil...
Sesabamisoba, xolo meore _ Tu ramdenad sruldeba praq-tikaSi qartiis is ZiriTadi moTxovnebi, risi Sesrulebisvaldebulebac sa...
municipalitetis) mosaxleobis saSualo maCvenebeliTbilisis CaTvliT 66235 adamians Seadgens, Tbilisis ga-reSe _ 48380-s. es m...
TviTmmarTvelobis qveda donis (sofeli, Temi, daba,qalaqi) gauqmebisa da TviTmmarTvelobis erTaderTdoned raionis gamocxadebis...
interesebi Tavad sasoflo dasaxlebasa da sxvadasxva   soflebis erTobliobebs Soris, vinaidan arsebul   municipalitetebSi bun...
ratistuli tendenciebis gazrdas.    administraciuli erTeulebis gamsxvilebis tenden-cia Seexo saqarTvelos dedaqalaqsac. 2000...
isaxavda adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis realuriresursebis gadacemas. sinamdvileSi ki:a) TviTmmarTvelobebs realurad ar ...
2.3.2.	 TviTmmarTvelobis struqtura, arCevnebi da saqmi-   anobis wesi    2010 wels, wina wlebis TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebi...
sac mTeli rigi mizezebi ganapirobebs:	 realuri funqciebis ararseboba _ 1998-2002 wlebSi   raionul doneze moqmed sakrebulo...
Tu ganyofilebis menejerTa TaTbirs, sadac gadamwyve-ti roli gamgebels/mers eniWeba. magaliTisTvis: gamgeb-els ufleba aqvs, ...
riuli erTeulis xelmZRvaneli, romelmac xelisufle-basTan adgilobrivi mosaxleobis interesebis dacvasunda Seuwyos xeli, gamgeo...
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis formalurad Tuaraformalurad miniWebul uflebamosilebaTa CamonaT-valSi SesaZlebelia 3 jgufis g...
gilobrivi xelisuflebis prerogativas warmoadgenda:	 adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs CamoerTvaT wyalmo-   maragebis sistemebi ...
bundovani definiciisas da normatiuli ganmartebis   gareSe, qmnis centraluri xelisuflebis mier adgi-   lobrivi TviTmmarTvel...
4.	 municipaluri arqivis Seqmna da momsaxurebis ta-    rifebis dadgena kidev erTi sakuTari damatebiTi    uflebamosilebaa, ...
aRdgena da sxv.), yoveldRiur praqtikaSi xSiria munici-palitetebis mier centraluri xelisuflebis ama Tu imuflebamosilebis ga...
qcia adgilobrivi mosaxleobis yoveldRiuri intere-sebis dacva unda iyos, magram amJamad es gadaulaxavamocanas warmoadgens. a...
cxrili 1. adgilobrivi biujetebis sakuTari        sagadasaxado Semosavlebis wili mTlian Sida        produqtTan da konsolidi...
adgilobrivi biujetebi centris dotaciebze xde-ba damokidebuli. am mxriv saqarTvelo seriozuladCamorCeba rogorc evropul demok...
wili Tbilisze modis.    rac Seexeba adgilobriv mosakreblebs, maTi rolimunicipalitetTa umetesobisTvis nulovania (magaliTad,...
Ruduli sakanonmdeblo reglamentacia im dros, rocafinansTa saministros, faqtobrivad, SeuzRudavi ufle-bamosileba gaaCnia. adg...
zogadi ganaTlebis, jandacvis xarjebi da a.S.) dasafi-nanseblad. is faqti, rom dafinanseba yvelgan erTdrou-lad da msgavsi s...
aqtivobebs.    kidev erTi problema qveynis masStabiT xarjebisaraTanabari gadanawilebaa. Tbiliss, romelsac, sxvamunicipalit...
sakiTxebSi centraluri xelisuflebis Carevis maRalixarisxi.    rogorc wesi, Seferxebis mizezad saxeldeboda sain-formacio baz...
TviTmmarTveli erTeulis arafinansuri aqtivebis klebi-dan (privatizaciidan) miRebuli Semosulobebis maCveneb-lis Sedareba sax...
mis dasawyisSive iCina Tavi, Semdgom wlebSic grZeldeba.Zlierdeba municipalitetebze kontrolis meqanizmebi,rac, sakmaod xSir...
egiebic eniWebaT.    dReisaTvis gvaqvs rigi negatiuri Sedegebisa:	 kanonebis elementaruli normebis darRveva central-   ur...
3. mmarTvelobis sistemis             reformis koncefcia3.1.	zogadi nawili3.1.1.	 SemoTavazebuli modelis arsi   saxelmwifos...
TviTmmarTvelobis meore done _ regioni (olqi, mxare) ad-   ministraciul-geografiuli da erTiani istoriul-   eTnografiuli erT...
	 eqskluziuri uflebamosileba _ adgilobrivi TviTm-   marTveli erTeulis an mxaris xelisuflebis organ-   oTa uflebamosileba,...
aRniSnul sferoSi saqmianoba am saqmianobasTan dakav-Sirebuli qonebis likvidaciis, gayidvis an transforma-ciis gziT.zogadi ...
nili wesiT flobis, gankargvisa da gasxvisebis ufle-   bamosileba;z) 	saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT sawar-    ...
1.	 uZravi qoneba;2.	 moZravi qoneba;3.	 aramaterialuri aqtivebi.    TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaa is qone-ba, ...
wardginebiT amtkicebs saqarTvelos mTavroba.    ZiriTad (ganusxvisebel) adgilobriv qonebas uSualodfloben da am qonebiT sarg...
erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil CarCoSi, raTa   TviTmmarTvelobis erTeulebs gaaCndeT SesaZle-   bloba, kanoniT dadgenil fa...
Soris ziari tipis gadasaxadia. Sesabamisad, Cven mierSemoTavazebuli modeliT, saSemosavlo gadasaxadis saga-dasaxado ganakve...
teritriaze, maSin es sawarmo mogebis gadasaxadis gadamx-delad registrirebulia am mxareSi. mis mier gadaxdilimogebis gadasa...
nicipalitetis an mxaris biujetSi. SemdgomSi es   Semosavlebi gaiTvaliswineba aRniSnuli delegire-   buli uflebamosilebisTvi...
ganxorcielebisaTvis. dauSvebelia misi gamoyeneba dele-girebuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisaTvis.	 gaTanabrebiTi granti...
cielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi saxelmwifo biu-   jetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba samxareo biujetSi;3.	 Tu mxaris xelisufle...
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  1. 1. saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti GEORGIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE konstantine kandelaki,daviT losaberiZe, irakli melaSvili, Tengiz SergelaSvilisaqarTvelos adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sistemis ganvrcobili koncefcia Tbilisi, 2012
  2. 2. saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti GEORGIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE konstantine kandelaki,daviT losaberiZe, irakli melaSvili, Tengiz SergelaSvilisaqarTvelos adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sistemis ganvrcobili koncefcia Tbilisi, 2012
  3. 3. saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti (GDRI) _ da-moukidebeli, arakomerciuli organizacia, dafuZnda 2011wels. institutis amocanaa demokratiis ganviTarebis, politi-kuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da sxva reformebis xelSewyobasaTanado kvlevebisa da diskusiebis meSveobiT.veb-gverdi: www.gdri.geel.fosta: gdri@gdri.ge ufaso gamocema© saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti, 2012© konstantine kandelaki, daviT losaberiZe, irakli melaSvili, Tengiz SergelaSvili, 2012gamomcemloba `nekeri~, 2012ISBN 978-9941-436-28-4
  4. 4. sarCevi1. Sesavali. ............................................................................... 302. arsebuli situaciis analizi........................................... 30 . 2.1. xelisuflebis decentralizaciisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arsi. .................... 30 2.1.1. ZiriTadi principebi.............................................. 30 . 2.1.2. decentralizaciis funqciebi da sferoebi........ 30 . 2.2. administraciul-teritoriuli reformebi da TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi arsebuli mdgomareoba................................................ 30 . 2.2.1. TviTmmarTveloba saqarTveloSi.......................... 30 2.2.2. damoukideblobis periodi.................................... 30 2.2.3. arsebuli viTarebis analizi. ................................ 30 2.2.4. TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi.............................. 30 . 2.3. situacia calkeuli sferoebis mixedviT. ................ 30 2.3.1. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyoba............. 30 . 2.3.2. TviTmmarTvelobis struqtura, arCevnebi da saqmianobis wesi................................ 30 2.3.3. TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosileba. ................... 30 2.3.4. TviTmmarTvelobis ekonomikuri safuZvlebi...... 30 2.3.5. qoneba. ...................................................................... 30 2.3.6. saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba................................. 303. mmarTvelobis sistemis reformis koncefcia.............. 30 3.1. zogadi nawili.............................................................. 30 . 3.1.1. SemoTavazebuli modelis arsi............................. 30 . 3.1.2. uflebamosileba da misi ganxorcilebis ZiriTadi principebi.............................................. 30 . 3.1.3. TviTmmarTvelobis/mxaris qoneba......................... 30 -3-
  5. 5. 3.1.4. xelisuflebis sxvadasxva donis saqmianobis finansuri safuZvlebi....................... 30 3.1.5. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris biujeti......... 30 .3.2. TviTmmarTvelobis pirveli done _ municipaliteti. .............................................. 30 3.2.1. saqarTvelos adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeuli...................................... 30 . 3.2.2. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis warmomadgenlobiTi organo _ sakrebulo. .......... 30 3.2.3. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasrulebeli organoebi _ gamgeoba/meria....... 30 3.2.4. TviTmmarTvelobis organoebSi sazogadoebis monawileobis uzrunvelyofis institutebi....... 30 3.2.5. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosileba..................................................... 30 3.2.6. koncefciiT gansazRvruli TviTmmarTveli erTeulis biujetis Semosulobebi...................... 30 .3.3. saqarTvelos mxareebi (regionebi). ............................ 30 3.3.1. samxareo mowyobis principebi............................... 30 3.3.2. mxaris warmomadgenlobiTi organo _ mxaris sabWo........................................... 30 3.3.3. mxaris aRmasrulebeli organo _ administracia........................................ 30 3.3.4. mxaris xelisuflebis organoTa uflebamosileba..................................................... 30 3.3.5. mxaris biujetis Semosulobebi............................ 30 .3.4. TviTmmarTveloba TbilisSi...................................... 30 3.4.1. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobisa da marTvis principebi......................... 30 . 3.4.2. Tbilisis xelisuflebis organoebi..................... 30 . 3.4.3. uflebamosilebebi. ................................................. 30 3.4.4. finansebi................................................................. 30 . -4-
  6. 6. 3.5. saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris xelisuflebis organoebis saqmianobaze.................. 30 3.5.1. saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobis ZiriTadi principebi.............................................. 30 . 3.5.2. samarTlebrivi zedamxedveloba........................... 30 . 3.5.3. saxelmwifo organoebis uflebamosileba dargobriv zedamxedvelobaze. .............................. 30 3.5.4. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTveloba.................... 30 3.6. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis reformis SemoTavazebuli modelis Zlieri da susti mxareebi. .......................................... 30 3.6.1. Zlieri mxareebi...................................................... 30 3.6.2. susti mxareebi........................................................ 30danarTi 1. subnacionaluri doneebis raodenobis gansazRvris principebi................. 30danarTi 2. evrosabWos wevri qveynebis, aSS-sa da israelis municipaluri erTeulebis mosaxleobis saSualo odenoba........................... 30danarTi 3. evrosabWos wevri qveynebis, aSS-sa da israelis municipaluri erTeulebis teritoriaTa saSualo zomebi (kv.km.)................ 30 .danarTi 4. evropis qveynebis dedaqalaqebis ubnebis mosaxleobis saSualo raodenoba, qalaqis sabWoebis Semadgenloba da formirebis wesi.................................................... 30 -5-
  7. 7. 1. Sesavali warmodgenili naSromis mizania saqarTvelos admin-istraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis, adgilobrivi TviT­mmarTvelobis organoTa sistemis, centraluri xelisu-flebisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis funqciaTada uflebamosilebaTa gamijvnis da am ukanasknelTaTvisSesabamisi finansuri da qonebrivi bazis gadacemis mod-elis Camoyalibeba. Cven miznad visaxavT saqarTvelosa da misi dedaqa-laqis administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobisa da mar-Tvis iseTi sistemis modelis Camoyalibebas, romelicdafuZnebuli iqneba rogorc saerTaSoriso gamocdile-baze, ise adgilobriv tradiciebze. naSromi Seasrula avtorTa jgufma irakli melaSvi-lis, Tengiz SergelaSvilis, daviT losaberiZis da kon-stantine kandelakis SemadgenlobiT. saqarTvelos admin-istraciul-teritoriuli reformis sxvadasxva modele-bze muSaoba jer kidev gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSidaiwyo, rodesac saqarTveloSi daiwyo adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis institutis formireba. 2004-2005wlebSi zemoaRniSnuli jgufis monawileobiT, saerTa-Soriso donori organizaciebis mxardaWeriT, momzaddaqveynis axali administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobiskoncefcia da reformis uzrunvelyofisaTvis aucileb-el kanonproeqtTa paketi. saqarTvelos parlamentSimoxda am kanonproeqtebis inicireba, sadac gaiara sa-komiteto mosmenebi da parlamentis sesiaze kenWi eyaraalternatiuli winadadebebis saxiT, magram uaryofiliqna. winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens 2004-2005 wlebSiparlamentSi wardgenili koncefciis gadamuSavebul daSevsebul versias, romelic Seiqmna „saqarTvelos ganvi-Tarebis kvleviTi institutis“ dakveTiT. koncefciis gadamuSavebul variantSi gaTvaliswine- -6-
  8. 8. bulia is axali realobebi, romelic Camoyalibda saqa-rTveloSi 2005 wlis Semdeg, maT Soris, im reformebisSedegebi, romlebic ukve gatarda qveyanaSi (mag., iustici-is sistemaSi). amasTan, warmodgenil dokumentSi mocemuliar aris Zalovani struqturebis, jandacvisa da social-uri sistemis decentralizaciis, am sakiTxebSi xelisu-flebis doneTa Soris uflebamosilebis gamijvnis mod-eli. es nawilebi Seivseba mas Semdeg, rac CamoyalibdebaaRniSnuli sferoebis ganviTarebis koncefciebi, gairkve-va maTi reformirebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi. isic undaaRiniSnos, rom koncefcia Seesabameba sazogadoebrivisakonstitucio komisiis mier SemuSavebul `saqarTveloskonstituciis axali redaqciis ganvrcobil koncefcias~(2010 w.). -7-
  9. 9. 2. arsebuli situaciis analizi2.1. xelisuflebis decentralizaciisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arsi2.1.1. ZiriTadi principebi saxelmwifos efeqturi mmarTvelobiTi sistemisSesaqmnelad aucilebel, magram arasakmaris pirobascentraluri xelisuflebis doneze Zalauflebis dan-awilebis principi warmoadgens (igulisxmeba klasikuridanawileba sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da sasamarT-lo xelisuflebis ganStoebebad). ganviTarebuli qvey-nebis sazogadoebebi da politikuri elitebi karga xaniaSeTanxmdnen imaze, rom verc erTi xelisufleba, raoden„gonieri“ da „informirebulic“ ar unda iyos igi, ver Se-Zlebs, erTi centridan gadawyvitos TiToeuli qalaqisaTu soflis mosaxleobis winaSe mdgari konkretuli daspecifikuri problemebi. saxelmwifos mTel teritori-aze, qveynis yvela moqalaqisTvis Tanabari da efeqtianisaarsebo garemos Seqmna mxolod decentralizaciis sa-SualebiT aris SesaZlebeli. decentralizaciis dadebiTi momentebidan unda aRin-iSnos Semdegi: centraluri xelisuflebisgan gansxvavebiT, adgilo- brivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi ufro moqnilni da ufro ganaxlebadni arian, ukeT icnoben adgilo- briv specifikas da saqmianobas ufro naklebi danax- arjebiTa da meti efeqturobiT axorcieleben; Tavad mosaxleoba, mis mier arCeuli warmomadgenlebis meSveobiT, monawileobs Tavisi uSualo sacxovrebe- li garemos formirebSi. am gziT TviTon iRebs pa- suxismgeblobas sakuTari komunaluri Tu sxva saxis problemebis mniSvnelovani nawilis mogvarebaze da -8-
  10. 10. maT gadauwyvetlobas aRar abralebs centralur xe- lisuflebas; sazogadoebis (moqalaqeTa jgufi, ubani, sofeli, Te­ mi, daba, qalaqi, kuTxe, regioni) interesebis dakmayo- fileba TviT mosaxleobis mxridan kontrolis piro- bebSi xorcieldeba. Sesabamisad, ganviTarebul qveynebSi arsebobs say-ovelTao politikuri Tanxmoba mmarTvelobis sistemisZiriTad principze _ saxelmwifos efeqturi mmarTvelo-bis sistemis Camoyalibebis safuZvlad miiCneva subsid-iarobis principi, anu Zalaufleba unda ganxorcieldesmmarTvelobis im doneze, romelic yvelaze ufro axlosaris xalxTan. wamgebiania im uflebamosilebaTa koncentracia cen-traluri xelisuflebis doneze, romelTa aRsrulebacukeTaa SesaZlebeli adgilobriv doneze. meore mxriv, Tugarkveuli uflebamosilebani centralur doneze ufroefeqturad xorcieldeba, maSin maTi ganxorcieleba cen-traluri xelisuflebis organoebma unda aiRon TavisTavze. subsidiarobis principi aris garantia, rom sajaropolitika xelisuflebis yvela doneze iqneba warmate-buli da mis ganxorcielebaSi mosaxleobis farTo fene-bi miiReben monawileobas. Sesabamisad, xelisuflebissxvadasxva doneTa Soris uflebamosilebis ganawilebaefuZneba ramdenime princips: xelisuflebis uflebamosileba aris mxolod saSua­ leba misTvis moqalaqeTa mier dakisrebuli funqci- uri valdebulebebis aRsasruleblad; yvela sakiTxis gadawyveta, romelTa mogvarebac Se­ uZlia Tavad moqalaqes, unda darCes mis ufle- bamosilebaSi da masze pasuxismgebloba ar unda ga- daeces saxelmwifos. xelisuflebas ekisreba mxolod -9-
  11. 11. im sakiTxebis gadawyveta, romelTa mogvarebac moqa- laqes ar SeuZlia; ufro maRal safexurze mdgom xelisuflebas insti- tuciurad eniWeba mxolod is uflebamosilebebi, romelTa ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobac ara aqvs ufro dabal safexurze mdgom saxelisuflebo orga- nos; nebismieri sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi zeda donis xelisu- fleba ereva mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu qveda donis xelisuflebas sakuTari ZalebiT ar SeuZlia proble- mis mogvareba. amitom uflebamosilebaTa gamijvnis dros prioriteti unda mieniWos TviTmmarTvelobas (qalaqi, sofeli/Temi) regionTan (aseTis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi) SedarebiT, xolo centraluri xelisu- fleba agvarebs mxolod im problemas, risi mowes- rigebac ar SeuZlia arc TviTmmarTvelobas da arc regions. decentralizaciis procesi sam ZiriTad komponents_ politikur, administraciul da fiskalur decentral-izacias moicavs. politikuri decentralizacia niSnavs adgilobriv doneze warmomadgenlobiTi organoebis arCevas. maT- Tvis sakuTari uflebamosilebis farglebSi politi- kur gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis uflebis miniWebas; administraciuli decentralizacia niSnavs TviTm- marTvelobis organoebisTvis farTo uflebamosile- baTa gadacemas, maT Soris, saxelmwifo saqmeebis mar- Tvisa da sajaro momsaxurebis sferoSi; fiskaluri decentralizacia uflebamosilebaTa gansaxorcileblad TviTmmarTvelobisTvis aucile- beli finansebis gadacemas gulisxmobs. - 10 -
  12. 12. 2.1.2. decentralizaciis funqciebi da sferoebi demokratiul saxelmwifoebSi adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobis organoebs ori funqcia eniWeba:1. momsaxurebis gaweva _ yoveldRiuri saWiroebis (ad- gilobriv doneze administrireba, komunaluri mom- saxureba, sayofacxovrebo problemebis mogvareba, minimaluri socialuri garantiebis uzrunvelyofa) dakmayofileba bevrad ufro efeqtianad xorciel- deba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis mier. saer- TaSoriso praqtika gviCvenebs, rom swored am gziT miiRweva momsaxurebis gawevis rogorc efeqturobis, ise efeqtianobis (swori saqmis keTeba da saqmis sworad keTeba) maRali xarisxi.2. mosaxleobasTan siaxlove _ centraluri xelisuf­ lebisgan gansxvavebiT, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba yoveldRiur urTierTobaSia moqalaqeebTan da gamox- atavs uSualod maT interesebs. es gansakuTrebiT naT- lad Cans mcire zomis dasaxlebebSi, sadac mosaxleo- bis mniSvnelovani nawili erTmaneTs piradad icnobs da amitom adgilobrivi xelisuflebis qmedeba bevrad gamWvirvalea. Tu centraluri xelisuflebis xelmZ- RvanelebTan yoveldRiuri Sexvedra rigiTi moqalaq- isTvis SeuZlebelia, mas SeuZlia mudmivi kontaqti iqonios mis mierve arCeuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarT- velobis warmomadgenlebTan, kanonis farglebSi gan- axorcielos maTze zedamxedveloba, akontrolos am ukanasknelTa saqmianoba da uSualod CaerTos gadaw- yvetilebis miRebis procesSi. am ori umTavresi funqciis garda, axali demokrati-is qveynebSi decentralizaciisa da adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobis gaZlierebis procesi kidev or damatebiTmizans isaxavs: - 11 -
  13. 13. 1. adgilobrivi politikuri elitis Seqmna _ adgilo- brivi ekonomikuri Tu politikuri klanebis arsebo- ba totalitaruli sistemis memkvidreobaa. swored am klanebis transformacia da maT nacvlad politikuri elitis (am sityvis yvelaze pozitiuri gagebiT) war- moSoba aucilebelia, rogorc politikuri partiebis adgilobrivi kadrebis zrdis (da am gziT politi- kuri pluralizmis gaZlierebis), ise sajaro moxele- Ta kvalificiuri korpusis CamoyalibebisTvis. ro- gorc wesi, qveynis politikuri elita Tu mmarTveli biurokratia Tavis aRmasvlas swored adgilobrivi donidan iwyebs.2. decentralizaciis procesi dezintegraciis winaaRm- deg _ gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom municipalitetebi- saTvis Zalauflebis gadacema eTnikuri, religiuri Tu sxva saxis umciresobaTa kanonieri uflebebis adgilebze dakmayofilebis saSualebad iqca. aman saerTo erovnul interesebs araTu avno, aramed qvey- nebis SigniT integraciuli procesebis gaZlierebas Seuwyo xeli. decentralizaciis procesi TavisTavad uzarmazariTemaa da mTel rig sakiTxebs moicavs: administraciul-teritoriuli mowyoba _ Tu konkre- tulad sad, ra doneebze da ra geografiul garemoSi xorcieldeba TviTmmarTveloba; TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa formirebis (arCevnebi) da saqmianobis (struqtura da regulaciebi) wesi _ Tu rogor xorcieldeba TviTmmarTvelobaze dakisrebu- li movaleobebi; uflebamosilebaTa gamijvna _ uSualod ra funqciebis ganxorcieleba ekisreba TviTmmarTvelobis struq- turebs; - 12 -
  14. 14.  finansuri da qonebrivi sakiTxebi _ Tu ra saSualebiT axorcielebs adgilobrivi xelisufleba Tavis ufle- bamosilebas; saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi zedamxedvelobis formebi _ Tu vin akontrolebs TviTmmarTvelobaTa saqmianobas; gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis monaw- ileoba _ Tu ramdenad adekvaturad pasuxobs TviTm- marTveloba sazogadoebriv saWiroebebs.2.2. administraciul-teritoriuli reformebi da TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi arsebuli mdgomareoba2.2.1. TviTmmarTveloba saqarTveloSi istoriulad (winaistoriul, antikur Tu Sua sauku-neebis periodebSi) saqarTveloSi administraciul-ter-itoriuli dayofis ori donis gamoyofa aris SesaZle-beli. esenia: adgilobrivi (e.w. pirveli anu qveda _ qa-laqi, daba, Temi, sofeli) da Sualeduri (anu regionuli_ mxare, kuTxe, provincia) doneebi. maT aerTianebda erTisaerTo principi _ isini iqmneboda garkveuli erTianiekonomikuri Tu geografiuli pirobebis mqone terito-riebze. ucxoelTa batonobis periodSic calkeul pro-vinciaTa sazRvrebi TiTqmis ucvleli rCeboda. bune-brivia, calkeul administraciul erTeulTa sazRvrebisucvleloba ganpirobebuli iyo ara Camoyalibebulitradiciis urRvevobis surviliT, aramed ekonomikur-geografiuli faqtorebis zegavleniT. dasaxlebul punqtebsa Tu teritoriul erTeulebsgaaCndaT TavianTi mmarTvelobis sistemac. TemebSi da - 13 -
  15. 15. calkeul soflebSi es iyo uxucesTa da mamasaxlisTainstituti, romelmac (garkveuli saxecvlilebebiT) XXsaukunis dasawyisamde iarseba. qalaqisTvis ufro rTulida sistematizebuli mmarTvelobis formebi iyo damaxasi-aTebeli. Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos qalaqTa umravle-sobaSi moqmedebda kargad organizebuli da sistematize-buli biurokratiuli aparati (bizantiisa Tu maxlobeliaRmosavleTis qveynebis msgavsad), Zlierdeboda mesamewodebac, Tumca saqarTveloSi, mcire gamonaklisis gar-da (Tbilisi, XI-XII ss mijna), ar Camoyalibebula sruliTviTmmarTveloba dasavleT evropis komunebis msgavsad. administraciul-teritoriuli erTeulebis zedadonis (mxareebis) cvlilebis procesi kidev ufro metikonservatizmiT xasiaTdeba. Tanamedrove istoriulikuTxeebis umravlesobis sazRvrebi, ZiriTadad, Zv.wT. IIaTaswleulSi Camoyalibda. es teritoriebi saqarTvelossaxelmwifoebriobis arsebobis mTel manZilze xan da-moukidebel politikur gaerTianebebs warmoadgendnen,xanac erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Semadgenel nawi-lebs. ruseTis imperiis mier saqarTvelos aneqsiis Semdeg,1801 wlidan moyolebuli, mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi mox-da qveynis administraciul-teritoriul mowyobaSi. XIXsaukuneSi ganxorcielebuli reformebis Sedegad, aTamdeistoriuli mxaris nacvlad, Seiqmna 20 mazra. mazrebissazRvrebi ZiriTadad emTxveoda istoriuli olqebissazRvrebs. dasaxlebuli punqtebis doneze mniSvnelovanicvlilebebi ar momxdara, Tu ar CavTvliT XIX saukunis40-60-ian wlebSi SedarebiT msxvil qalaqebSi SezRuduliTviTmmarTvelobis SemoRebis faqts (TbilisSi 1840 wlis10 agvistodan, sxva msxvil qalaqebSi _ 1874-dan). saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis arsebobisperiodSi (1918-1921), 1919 wels qveyanaSi pirveli de-mokratiuli municipaluri arCevnebi swored mazrebis - 14 -
  16. 16. bazaze Catarda proporciuli sistemiT. xolo arCeuliorganoebi asrulebdnen rogorc TviTmmarTvelobis, iseadgilobrivi saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis funqciebs. cen-tralur xelisuflebas adgilebze araviTari struqturaar gaaCnda da TviTmmarTvelobis sistemas eyrdnoboda. sabWoTa periodSi (1920-1930-iani wlebi) mazrebissistema gauqmda da saqarTvelo daiyo raionebad. raione-bi zomiT bevrad Camouvardeboda rogorc istoriulmxareebs, ise mazrebs. raionTa raodenoba xSirad icvle-boda. sabWoTa periodis kanonmdebloba ar cnobda ufle-bamosilebaTa mkafiod gamijvnis princips. yvela doniswarmomadgenlobiT da aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas iu-ridiulad erTnairi uflebebi gaaCnda. am garemoebam,totalitaruli da erTpartiuli sistemis kolafsis pe-riodSi, e.w. `kanonTa omis~ saxe miiRo da centralur,regionul Tu adgilobriv xelisuflebebs Soris winaaR-mdegobis gaZlierebas Seuwyo xeli.2.2.2. damoukideblobis periodi sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis momentisTvis saqarTveloSiiyo ori avtonomiuri respublika, 65 raioni da 4 saqa-laqo zona, 13 respublikuri daqvemdebarebis qalaqi da942 sasoflo sabWo (sul 4603 dasaxlebuli punqti, maTSoris, 51 qalaqi da 61 daba). sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg saqarTveloSisazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mTel rig sferoebSi ganxor-cielebuli Zireuli Zvrebis miuxedavad, qveynis TviTm-marTvelobis sistemaSi mniSvnelovani cvlileba ar momx-dara, Tumca, 1991 wels pirveli adgilobrivi arCevnebiCatarda. 1993 wlis oqtombridan qveyanaSi daiwyo saxelmwifosmeTauris rwmunebulisa da samxareo administraciebis - 15 -
  17. 17. institutebis SemoReba. 1993-95 wlebSi qveyana, avtono-miuri respublikebis garda, daiyo cxra de facto mxared,sadac dainiSna saxelmwifos meTauris/prezidentis rw-munebuli. amave periods ganekuTvneba axali tipis admin-istraciuli erTeulis, e.w. specialuri Temebis, Seqmnakonfliqtis zonebSi (eredvis, qurTis da TiRvis Temebiyofili samxreT oseTis, xolo aJaris Temi _ afxazeTisteritoriaze), romlebic Tavisi statusiT garkveul-wilad gauTanabres raionebs. 1995 wels miRebul iqna saqarTvelos konstitu-cia, sadac Riad darCa qveynis teritoriuli mowyobissakiTxi. konstituciis me-2 muxlis me-3 punqtSi aRin-iSna, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi teritoriulimowyoba ganisazRvreba konstituciuri kanoniT, ufle-bamosilebaTa urTierTgamijvnis principis safuZvelze,qveynis mTel teritoriaze saqarTvelos iurisdiqciissrulad aRdgenis Semdeg. 1998 wels adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebiCatarda saqarTvelos 1031 administraciul erTeulSi(971 TviTmmarTvel (sofeli, Temi, daba, qalaqi) da ad-gilobriv mmarTvelobiT (6 qalaqi, romelic ar Sediodaraionis SemadgenlobaSi da raionebi) erTeulSi. gatare-buli cvlilebiT gauqmda e.w. qalaqis zonebi (statusiTgauTanabrdnen raionebs). aseve, gauqmda qalaqebis dayo-fa respublikuri, avtonomiuri respublikuri da adgi-lobrivi mniSvnelobis qalaqebad. 1999-2002 wlebSi ganxorcielda administraciul-teritoriuli cvlilebebi. ZiriTadad, moxda soflebisgamoyofa Temebidan da Seiqmna 27 axali administraciulierTeuli. Sesabamisad, 2002 wlis 2 ivniss arCevnebi Cat-arda 998 TviTmmarTvel erTeulSi. 2001 wels saqarTvelos kanonSi `adgilobrivi TviT-mmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ SesworebebisSedegad, SedarebiT gaimijna funqciebi xelisuflebis - 16 -
  18. 18. doneebsa da ganStoebebs (warmomadgenlobiTi da aRmas-rulebeli) Soris, magram xelisuflebaSi politikurinebis deficitis gamo, sakanonmdeblo xarvezebis sruligamosworeba ver moxerxda. 2005 wlisTvis saqarTvelos teritoriul mowyobaSide facto arsebobda sami done:a) zeda (e.w. regionaluri) done _ 9 regioni, romlebic de facto arsebobda, Tumca, maTi arseboba ar iyo da- kanonebuli; maTTan erTad, SesaZloa, pirobiTad mov- ixsenioT dedaqalaqi _ Tbilisi (romlis statusic regulirdeboda calke kanoniT), aseve, afxazeTisa da aWaris avtonomiuri respublikebi;b) saSualo done _ 60 raioni da eqvsi qalaqi (soxumisa da cxinvalis CaTvliT), romlebic ar Sedioda raionis daqvemdebarebaSi. raionuli done, kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, warmoadgenda saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis struqturas;g) qveda done _ 1004 erTeuli (sofeli, Temi, daba, qa- laqi). es iyo erTaderTi, iuridiulad dakanonebuli TviTmmarTvelobis done. 2006 wels ganxorcielda arsebiTi cvlileba TviT-mmarTvelobis teritoriuli safuZvlebis gansazRvrisprocesSi: adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebisSedegebis oficialurad gamocxadebis dRidan saer-Tod gauqmda qveda done (sofeli, Temi, daba, qalaqi) daerTaderT, municipalur, TviTmmarTvel-teritoriulerTeulad yofili raionebis farglebSi formirebulimunicipaliteti gamocxadda. 2004-2006 wlebSi mTelirigi sakanonmdeblo aqtebis miRebis Semdeg, 2006 wlis5 oqtombers Catarda saqarTvelos istoriaSi rigiTmexuTe (1919, 1991, 1998, 2002 arCevnebis Semdeg) adgi-lobrivi arCevnebi. Sedegad, saqarTveloSi miviReT 69municipaliteti (Tbilisis CaTvliT), xolo 2008 wlis - 17 -
  19. 19. movlenebis Semdeg okupirebul tertoriebze aRmoCnda5 municipaliteti _ eredvi, qurTa, TiRvi, aJara da ax-algori. amJamad saqarTveloSi 64 municipaliteti funq-cionirebs.2.2.3. arsebuli viTarebis analizi saqarTvelo dRes saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis pro-cesSi imyofeba. am procesSi gamoikveTa mravali prob-lema, romelTa mougvareblobam qveynis ganviTarebismniSvnelovani mimarTulebebi, faqtobrivad, CixSi Seiyva-na. gardamaval periodSi qveyanaSi mimdinare cvlilebebiserT-erT ZiriTad mimarTulebas decentralizebuli darealur TviTmmarTvelobaze damyarebuli institutebisCamoyalibeba warmoadgens. Tu erTgvarad SevajamebT ukanaskneli 20 wlis ganma-vlobaSi decentralizaciis sferoSi mimdinare proces-ebs, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom: ver Seiqmna demokratiuli marTvis formebi adgilo- briv doneze; arsebuli marTvis principebi adgilobriv doneze ver uzrunvelyofs socialur-ekonomikur ganviTare- bas, gansakuTrebiT, gadaWarbebuli centralizaciis fonze; qveyanas ar gaaCnia TviTmmarTvelobis reformis grZelvadiani xedva. qveyanaSi sxvadasxva periodSi, sxvadasxva intensivo-biT mimdinare reformebi urTierTwinaaRmdegobiT xas-iaTdeba _ xSirad xdeba erTxel aRebuli kursis cvlacentralizaciisa Tu decentralizaciis mimarTulebiT:Tu SevadarebT 1991, 1998, 2002 da 2006 wlebis modelebs,davinaxavT, rom adgilobrivi xelisuflebis uflebebi - 18 -
  20. 20. xan izrdeboda, xan mcirdeboda. magaliTisTvis: Tu 1998wels raionul dones marTvis realuri berketebi gaaCnda,2002 wlidan misi saqmianoba mxolod formaluri iyo (e.w.asocirebuli sakrebuloebis modeli), xolo 2006 welsraionuli done TviTmmarTvelobis erTaderT doned ga-mocxadda. SeniSvnis saxiT: saqarTvelos zomis evropulqveynebSi, rogorc wesi, 2 subnacionaluri done (regio-nuli da municipaluri) arsebobs (ix. danarTi 1). situacias arTulebs is garemoebac, rom qarTulsazogadoebas jer kidev mkafiod ara aqvs warmodgeniliadgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis roli da funqciebi. `vardebis revoluciis~ Semdeg adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobis sferoSi Tavi iCina ara decentralizaciis,aramed centralizaciis tendenciam. 2005 wels ganxor-cielebulma administraciul-teritoriulma refor-mam TviTmmarTvelobis qveda donis (qalaqebis, dabebis,Temebisa da soflebis doneze arsebuli) gauqmebam mo-saxleoba mniSvnelovnad daaSora mmarTvelobis orga-noebs. amave dros, reformis Sedegad, mkveTrad SeizRudaTviTmmarTvelobaTa uflebamosileba da sakuTari finans-uri baza, ramac adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba, rogorcpolitikuri, ise administraciuli da finansuri kuTxiT,centralur xelisuflebaze srulad damokidebuli gaxa-da. amasTan, Tu sawyis etapze (2005-2007 wlebi), aRniSnuliprocesi araformalur doneze mimdinareobda, 2007 wli-dan ukve sakanonmdeblo normebSic iwyebs asaxvas. xelisuflebis centralizacia kidev ufro gaZlier-da 2009-2010 wlebSi. am periodidan moyolebuli, adgi-lobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis SezRudvasTan erTad, iwyebaara mxolod decentralizaciis, aramed dekoncentraciissapirispiro procesic. moxda mTeli rigi saxelmwifo in-stitutebis (iusticiis saministro, ganaTlebisa da mec-nierebis saministro) teritoriuli organoebis gauqmebaan/da maTi uflebamosilebis Sekveca. - 19 -
  21. 21. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis rolis dakninebaCans yvela im mimarTulebiT, romelic aCvenebs qveyanaSidecentralizaciis ganviTarebis dones: sakanonmdeblo baza _ konstituciis axali redaqciiT formalurad ganmtkicda TviTmmarTvelobis saqmiano- bis Tavisuflebis garantiebi, magram kanonmdeblobis analizi gviCvenebs, rom kanonebi sul ufro da ufro xSirad ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciiT deklarirebul principebs da erTmaneTsac. amave dros, praqtikaSi xelisufleba xelmZRvanelobs Cveulebrivi kanonebi- sa da sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebis, da ara konsti- tuciuri debulebebis, moTxovnebiT. Camouyalibebe- li da Sinaganad winaaRmdegobrivi sakanonmdeblo ba- zis pirobebSi, adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis praqtika daSorebulia kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebs da kanoniT gansazRvruli mmarTvelobiTi urTierTobebis adg- ils araformaluri urTierTobebi da patron-klien- telisturi qselebi ikavebs; TviTmmarTvelobis struqtura _ adgilobrivi xe- lisufleba srulad kontroldeba centraluri xe- lisuflebis mier. miuxedavad imisa, rom adgilebze moqmedebs faqtobrivad monopartiuli (`erTiani na- cionaluri moZraoba~) warmomadgenlobiTi struq- turebi, centri sul ufro da ufro aZlierebs formalur da araformalur kontrols rogorc sax- elmwifo zedamxedvelobis, ise qonebis marTvis, biu- jetebis damtkicebis da sxva mimarTulebebiT, riTac arRvevs saerTaSoriso valdebulebebiT (`adgilo- brivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ evropuli qartia) nakisr subsidiarobis princips; uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba _ saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebiTa da praqtikiT TviTmmarTv- elobaTaTvis gadacemuli uflebebis ganxorcieleba - 20 -
  22. 22. sruladaa damokidebuli centraluri xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebebze, rogorc marTvis, ise saWiro resursebiT uzrunvelyofis mxriv. miuxedavad imisa, rom wlidan wlamde izrdeba adgilebze gansaxor- cielebeli saqmianobis dafinanseba, mcirdeba TviT- mmarTvelobaTa mier damoukidebeli gadawyvetile- bebis miRebis xarisxi. calkeuli programebis dageg- mvisa da maTi sabiujeto uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba centralur xelisuflebaSi miiReba. mcirdeba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis eqskluz- iur uflebamosilebaTa isedac mcire CamonaTvali da xdeba maTi miTviseba centraluri xelisuflebis mier; ekonomikuri safuZvlebi _ qveyanaSi ar ganxorciele- bula fiskaluri decentralizacia. ufro metic, xdeba Semosavlis sul ufro da ufro meti wyaros koncentrireba centraluri xelisuflebis xelSi. mcirdeba adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobaTa sakuTari Semosavlebis odenoba. Wianurdeba da ufro rTul- deba (ara marto praqtikaSi, aramed ukve sakanonmdeb- lo donezec) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis qonebis gadacemis procesi; sazogadoebrivi momsaxureba _ saxelmwifo, qveynis masStabiT, axorcielebs mTel rig msxvil, ZviradRi- rebul infrastruqturul programebs, romelTa nawilis Sesrulebac TviTmmarTvelobebis ufle- bamosilebis sferos ganekuTvneba. TviTmmarTvelo- bebi an saerTod ar arian CarTulni am procesSi, an, faqtobrivad, am momsaxurebis adgilobriv gamtarebs warmoadgenen. dagegmvisa da ganxorcielebis proces- Si, rogorc wesi, ar xdeba adgilobriv Tavisebure- baTa gaTvaliswineba, rac negatiurad aisaxeba Sede- gebis xarisxze da, amave dros, mniSvnelovnad aZvirebs produqtis/momsaxurebis Rirebulebas. kvlav daba- - 21 -
  23. 23. lia sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gawevis xarisxi. sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis sferos ukontrolo, xSirad ki monopolizebuli, komercializacia iwvevs fasebis permanentul zrdas. saxelmwifos mier in- frastruqturaSi investirebuli xarjebi ver iZleva saTanado efeqts; sazogadoebis CarTuloba _ mimdinare cvlilebeb- ma gaarTula TviTmmarTvelobis ganxorcielebisas sazogadoebis CarTvis isedac susti procesi. TviTm- marTvelobis raionul doneze atanam municipaluri organoebi kidev ufro daaSora sazogadoebas. Sede- gad izrdeba sazogadoebis gaucxoeba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisgan. centralizaciis procesis gaZlierebas saqarTveloSiTavisi mizezebi gaaCnia. pirvel yovlisa, gasaTvaliswine-belia is, rom, tradiciulad, arc erTi centraluri xe-lisufleba, gansakuTrebiT, revoluciis gziT mosuli,ar aris decentralizaciis momxre da miiswrafis sakuTarxelSi Zalauflebis maqsimaluri koncentraciisken. bolo wlebSi qveyanaSi TandaTanobiT damZimebu-li politikuri, socialuri Tu ekonomikuri situa-ciis fonze (2007 wlis politikuri krizisi, 2008 wlisagvistos omi ruseTTan, msoflio ekonomikuri krizisiszegavlena da sxv.), centraluri xelisufleba TandaTanzRudavs adgilebze TviT sakuTari, mmarTveli partiiswevri moxeleebis uflebamosilebebs. amJamad Zneli saTq-melia, es adgilobrivi (Tundac saxelisuflebo) elitismimarT undoblobis maCvenebelia, Tu centraluri xe-lisuflebis mier Zalauflebis maqsimaluri koncentra-ciis survils warmoadgens. formalurad, decentralizaciis procesis Seferxebakvlav mis nakleb prioritetulobas ukavSirdeba. ape-lireba xdeba qveynisTvis sxva, ufro mniSvnelovanisakiTxebis gadaWris saWiroebaze. - 22 -
  24. 24. 2.2.4. TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi 2002 wlis 23 maiss saqarTvelo SeuerTda `adgilobri-vi TviTmmarTvelobis evropul qartias~ da 2004 wlis 26oqtombers moaxdina misi ratifikacia (ZalaSi Sevida 2005wlis 1 aprils). parlamentis mier miRebuli rezoluciiT,saqarTvelo qartias SeuerTda daTqmebiT, amasTan, igi arSeerTebia yvela muxls/punqts. kerZod, saqarTvelo arSeerTebia qartiis me-4 muxlis me-6 punqts, me-5 muxls,me-6 muxlis me-2 da me-9 punqtebs, me-10 muxlis me-2 da me-3punqtebs: xelisuflebis adgilobrivi organoebis ufle-bas gaerTianebaze (saerTaSoriso asociaciebis CaTvliT)saerTo interesebis xelSewyobisTvis da msgavs sazoga-doebriv organizaciebTan TanamSromlobisTvis. qartias, rogorc saerTaSoriso aqts, upiratesi iu-ridiuli Zala aqvs qveynis Sida kanonmdeblobis mimarTda konstituciis Semdgom upiratesi uflebiT sarge-blobs. saqarTvelos organuli kanoni `adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ eyrdnoba saqarTvelos kon-stituciasa da evropuli TviTmmarTvelobis qartias,rogorc sabaziso safuZvlebs. kanonmdeblobis mixedviT (ix. kanoni `adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis organoebis saqmianobis saxelmwifozedamxedvelobis Sesaxeb~ da sxv.), yvela axali sakanon-mdeblo iniciativis erT-erTi umTavresi mizani qarTulikanonmdeblobis qartiasTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanaa. amave dros, arsebobs Seusabamobebi saqarTvelos kanon-mdeblobasa da qartias Soris. saqarTvelos normatiuliaqtebiT dadgenili mTeli rigi normebi ewinaaRmdegeba anqartiis calkeul muxlebs, an qartiis suliskveTebas. viTarebas kidev ufro amZimebs is garemoeba, romqveynis marTvis praqtikaSi damkvidrda sakanonmdebloregulaciebisgan gansxvavebuli midgomebi. amdenad, er-Tia qartiis da saqarTvelos erovnuli kanonmdeblobis - 23 -
  25. 25. Sesabamisoba, xolo meore _ Tu ramdenad sruldeba praq-tikaSi qartiis is ZiriTadi moTxovnebi, risi Sesrulebisvaldebulebac saqarTvelos aqvs aRebuli. praqtikaSi`adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ evropuli qa-rtiis umetesi punqtebi irRveva da saerTod dabaliaadgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebSi qartiis gacnobierebisdone. amas isic erTvis, rom, rogorc qveynis SigniT, isesaerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis mxridan ar SeiniSneba de-centralizaciis aucileblobis maincdamainc daJinebulimoTxovna. Sesabamisad, xelisuflebis mier ganxorciele-buli sakanonmdeblo Tu struqturuli cvlilebebimoqmed sistemaSi arsebuli calkeuli (xSirad meorex-arisxovani) xarvezebis aRmofxvras isaxavda miznad daara problemaTa warmomSobi mizezebis safuZvlebis nive-lirebas Zireuli cvlilebebis gziT. zemoTqmuli ar niSnavs, rom saqarTvelos evropelipartniorebi saerTod ar aqceven yuradRebas Cvens qveya-naSi TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi arsebul situacias. ammxriv aRsaniSnavia evropis sabWos rigi rekomendaciebisa(# 1415 (2005) da # 1477 (2006), rezoluciebi da dokumen-ti # 10779 (2006), romlebic asaxaven saqarTveloSi mimdi-nare reformebis (maT Soris, decentralizaciis sferoSi)suraTs da iZlevian Sesabamis rekomendaciebs. am rekomen-daciebis Sesrulebis aucilebloba aRiarebulia `evropissamezoblo politikis~ samoqmedo gegmis mierac.2.3. situacia calkeuli sferoebis mixedviT2.3.1. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyoba 2006 wels ganxorcielebuli gamsxvilebis SedegebsTvalsaCinod asaxavs municipalitetTa mosaxleobis ode-noba. Tu adre arsebuli pirveli donis TviTmmarTvelo-bebSi saSualod 4354 mcxovrebi iyo, raionis (dRevandeli - 24 -
  26. 26. municipalitetis) mosaxleobis saSualo maCvenebeliTbilisis CaTvliT 66235 adamians Seadgens, Tbilisis ga-reSe _ 48380-s. es maSin, roca, rogorc evropis qveynebisabsolutur umravlesobaSi, ise rigi ganviTarebuliqveynis (aSS, iaponia da a.S.) municipalitetebSi saSualod5-dan 25 aTasamde mcxovrebia, xolo evropis qveynebisgasaSualoebuli maCvenebeli 6-7 aTas mcxovrebs Sead-gens. aranakleb araadekvaturad gamoiyureba dReisaTvisarsebuli municipalitetebis teritoriuli sidide. ammaCvenebliT saqarTvelo zogi Crdiloevropuli qveynis(skandinavia, ruseTis federacia) gverdiT dgas, miuxeda-vad imisa, rom qveyanaSi CrdiloeTisaTvis damaxasiaTebe-li arc arqtikuli da arc daWaobebuli didi dausaxle-beli sivrceebi ar arsebobs (ix. danarTebi 2 da 3). TviTmmarTvelobis teritoriul safuZvlad raionisarCevis is argumenti, rom TviTmmarTvelobis 1998 wlismodelma ver gaamarTla, araseriozulad gamoiyureba.TviTmmarTvelobam ver imuSava verc 50-kacian sofelSida verc iseT did qalaqebSi, rogorebicaa foTi, quTaisida Tbilisi. TviTmmarTvelobebma ver gaamarTla ara maTiteritoriuli simciris, aramed qveyanaSi realuri TviTm-marTvelobis ararsebobis gamo. reformis ganxorcielebisas ZiriTadi aqcenti mo-saxleobasTan siaxloveze unda yofiliyo gakeTebuli.gasaTvaliswinebeli iyo isic, rom ar arsebobs marTvisprocesSi mosaxleobis Tanamonawileobisa da, Sesabamis-ad, pasuxismgeblobis ganawilebis tradicia, rac bolo20 wlis politikuri arastabilurobis erT-erTi mTavarimizezia. TviTmmarTvelobis teritoriuli gamsxvileba undamomxdariyo iq, sadac resursebis simciris gamo TviTm-marTvelobis ganxorcieleba SeuZlebeli iqneboda. amas-Tan, TiToeul dasaxlebaSi arCeviTi organoebis Camoya-libeba unda yofiliyo uzrunvelyofili. - 25 -
  27. 27. TviTmmarTvelobis qveda donis (sofeli, Temi, daba,qalaqi) gauqmebisa da TviTmmarTvelobis erTaderTdoned raionis gamocxadebis Sedegad miviReT: adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebze saxelm- wifo zegavlenis gaZliereba _ jer araformalurad, xolo Semdeg sakanonmdeblo donezec adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs SeezRudaT mTeli rigi ufle- bamosilebani da dReisaTvis isini, faqtobrivad, cen- traluri xelisuflebis teritoriuli organoebis funqciebs asruleben; moqalaqeTa umravlesobis ufro meti daSoreba adgil- obrivi TviTmmarTvelobis ganmaxorcielebeli orga- noebidan (gansakuTrebiT, im municipalitetebSi, rom- lebic municipaluri centrisgan daSorebuli bevri mcire dasaxlebisgan Sedgeba) _ Temebisa da calkeuli dasaxlebuli punqtebis doneze TviTmmarTvelobis gauqmebam moqalaqeebi iZulebulni gaxada, sakuTari yoveldRiuri problemebis gadasaWrelad gamsxvile- buli municipalitetebis centrs mimarTon, rac re- gionebSi arsebuli mouwesrigebeli infrastruqtu- ris, geografiuli Taviseburebebisa da gaumarTavi administraciuli meqanizmebis (TviTmmarTvelobaTa uflebebis Sekveca) arsebobis pirobebSi, mTel rig damatebiT problemebs uqmnis moqalaqeebs; saqalaqo da sasoflo tipis dasaxlebebisagan Sem- dgar municipalitetebSi mosaxleobis gansxvave- buli sazogadoebrivi interesebis arseboba. munici- palitetebis umravlesoba warmoadgens qalaqebis (yo- fili raionuli centrebi) da soflebis erTobliobas. ramdenime municipalitetSi erTze meti qalaqis tipis dasaxlebaa. soflisa da qalaqis tipis dasaxlebebSi mosaxleobis saWiroebebi, interesebi da prioritete- bi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba. aseve gansxvavdeba es - 26 -
  28. 28. interesebi Tavad sasoflo dasaxlebasa da sxvadasxva soflebis erTobliobebs Soris, vinaidan arsebul municipalitetebSi bunebrivad Camoyalibebulia sx- vadasxva geografiuli Tu infrastruqturis zonebi; adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa mier ganx- orcielebuli calkeuli saxis momsaxurebis araTana- bari xelmisawvdomoba TviTmmarTvel erTeulSi gaer- Tianebuli sxvadasxva dasaxlebis mosaxleobisTvis _ SezRuduli resursebis arsebobisa da sakuTari, da- moukidebeli Semosavlebis ararsebobis pirobebSi re- gionebSi xSirad xorcieldeba iseTi saxis centrali- zebuli proeqtebi, romelTac araviTari kavSiri ara aqvT realurad arsebul adgilobriv saWiroebebTan; adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis politizaciis xaris­ xis gadaWarbebuli amaRleba _ TviTmmarTvelobaTa winaSe centri, faqtobrivad, ayenebs erTaderT moT­ xovnas _ arCevnebis periodSi nebismieri xerxebiT (amomrCevelTa mosyidva da daSineba, arCevnebis Sede- gebis falsifikacia) uzrunvelyon mmarTveli parti- isTvis xmebis absoluturi umravlesobis mopoveba; materialur-safinanso resursebis moculobisa da real- uri ekonomikuri potencialis araadekvaturoba gamsx- vilebuli TviTmmarTveli erTeulis gazrdil ambiciebT- an da moTxovnilebebTan _ is finansuri re­ ursebi, ro- s melic municipalitetebisTvis centridan gamoiyofa, sakmarisi ar aris gamsxvilebul municipalitetTa adgi- lobrivi saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad; zecentralizaciis pirobebSi mosaxleoba nebismieri problemis mougvareblobas centralur xelisufle- bas abralebs _ es qmnis adgilobrivi socialur-eko- nomikuri problemebis gadauwyvetelobis zedmetad politizirebis saSiSroebas, riTac umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi, SesaZloa, xeli Seewyos sepa- - 27 -
  29. 29. ratistuli tendenciebis gazrdas. administraciuli erTeulebis gamsxvilebis tenden-cia Seexo saqarTvelos dedaqalaqsac. 2000 wlis noember-Si TbilisSi arsebuli 10 raioni meqanikurad dawyvilda5 raionad (isani-samgoris, mTawminda-krwanisis, vake-sa-burTalos, didube-CuRureTisa da gldani-naZaladevisraionebi), romelTac Tbilisis teritoriis gafarToebisSemdeg daemata kidev ori raioni. TiToeuli maTgani, mo-saxleobis raodenobiT, saqarTvelos sididiT meore qa-laqs _ quTaiss gautolda da mosaxleobis raodenobiTbevrad aRemateba saqarTvelos nebismier municipalitets(saSualod 220 aT. mcxovrebi), maSin, roca evropis mcireqveynebis dedaqalaqTa umetesobaSi administraciuli er-Teulis mosaxleoba meryeobs 30 _ 60 aTasi mcxovrebisfarglebSi (ix. danarTi 4). arsebuli cvlilebis negatiuri efeqti ukve aSkaraa.2008 wels TviT xelisuflebisTvisac ki cxadi gaxda axa-li teritoriuli mowyobis iracionaluri (araefeqturi)xasiaTi. aRniSnulis magaliTad gamodgeba `soflis dax-marebis programis~ amoqmedeba _ centralur xelisufle-bas uwevs xarjis gaweva im programebis dasafinanseblad,romelTa ganxorcieleba, wesiT, adgilobrivi TviTmmarT-velobebis eqskluziur uflebamosilebas unda warmoad-gendes. Sedegad, umravles SemTxvevaSi miviReT sabiujetoTanxebis araefeqtianad xarjva, rac iwyeba imiT, rom adgi-lobrivi organos nacvlad centri iRebs gadawyvetilebas,ra saxis programebis ganxorcieleba esaWiroeba ama Tu immunicipalitets. magaliTad, centraluri xelisuflebisgadawyvetilebiT, municipalitetebSi did Tanxebi ixarje-boda Senobebis fasadebis SeRebvasa da sxva proeqtebze,maSin, roca gadawyvetili ar iyo am dasaxlebebSi wyalmo-maragebisa da sxva elementaruli problemebi. 2005-2006 wlebSi ganxorcielebuli qveynis axali ad-ministraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis reforma miznad - 28 -
  30. 30. isaxavda adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis realuriresursebis gadacemas. sinamdvileSi ki:a) TviTmmarTvelobebs realurad ar miuRiaT sakuTari resursebi da kidev ufro damokidebulni gaxdnen centralur xelisuflebaze;b) isini gamsxvilebis Sedegad kidev ufro daSordnen mosaxleobas. am problemis aRmosafxvrelad kanon- mdebelma teritoriuli organoebis rwmunebulTa Stati SemoiRo. es ver CaiTvleba arsebuli sistemis naklovani mxaris (TviTmmarTvelobis saqmianobaSi mosaxleobis CarTulobis ignorireba) gamosworebad. rwmunebulebs irCevs ara mosaxleoba, aramed niSnavs municipalitetis administracia. amitom isini, Ses- abamisi uflebamosilebisa da resursebis gadacemis SemTxvevaSic ki, ver iqnebian adgilobrivi Temebis mosaxleobis nebis gamomxatvelni;g) momavalSi qveyanaSi regionuli donis SemoRebam re- gionebsa da maT SemadgenlobaSi Semaval ramdenime msx- vil municipalitets Soris SeiZleba garkveuli dapiri- spirebis safuZveli Seqmnas, vinaidan zogierTi munici- paliteti (gori, gardabani, marneuli...) adamianuri da sxva resursebiT zog sust regions (mcxeTa-mTianeTi, guria, raWa-leCxumi-qvemo svaneTi) aRemateba;d) arsebulma sistemam kidev ufro gazarda moqalaqisa da sazogadoebis xelisuflebasTan gaucxoeba. Tuki mo- qalaqes ar ekiTxebian, ra unda gakeTdes mis sofelsa Tu qalaqSi da es wydeba misgan Sors _ centralur xelisuflebaSi, moqalaqes, faqtobrivad, ekargeba motivacia, aqtiuri monawileoba miiRos qalaqis, soflis da, saboloo jamSi, qveynis sazogadoebriv- politikur cxovrebaSi, ris gareSec SeuZlebelia sazogadoebrivad aqtiuri moqalaqisa da, zogadad, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibeba. - 29 -
  31. 31. 2.3.2. TviTmmarTvelobis struqtura, arCevnebi da saqmi- anobis wesi 2010 wels, wina wlebis TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis-gan gansxvavebiT, sadac xelisufleba mandatebis garkveulraodenobas opoziciis sasargeblod `Tmobda~, yvelasakrebuloSi didi umravlesoba mmarTvelma partiam _`erTianma nacionalurma moZraobam~ moipova (proporci-uli mandatebis 85% da maJoritaruli mandatebis 92%).dRevandeli TviTmmarTveloba saqarTvelos istoriaSiarsebuli yvela wina adgilobrivi arCevnebis (1919 wli-dan moyolebuli) Sedegad Seqmnil TviTmmarTvelobebTanSedarebiT yvelaze ufro erTpartiulia, Tu ar CavTvliTsabWoTa periodSi moqmed saxalxo deputatTa sabWoebs. aRniSnuli kidev erTxel metyvelebs mmarTveli par-tiis mier adgilobrivi xelisuflebis srul monopoli-zaciaze. iseT pirobebSic ki, roca adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobebi araviTar Zalas ar warmoadgens, central-uri xelisufleba cdilobs, sruli kontroli daawesosmaT struqturebze. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTiorganoa 4 wlis vadiT arCeuli sakrebulo, xolo aRmas-rulebeli organo _ gamgeoba (meria), romlis xelmZR-vanels (gamgebels/mers), sakrebulos biuros mier Catare-buli konkursis Sedegebis mixedviT amtkicebs sakrebulo.sakrebulo tradiciulad, saqarTveloSi adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTi rgoli aRmas-rulebel StosTan SedarebiT susti iyo. im SezRuduluflebamosilebasac ki, rac TviTmmarTvelobas formal-urad Tu realurad gaaCnda, praqtikaSi aRmasrulebeliSto axorcielebda. aRniSnuli tendencia dResac, axalisistemis formirebis Semdegac, ganagrZobs arsebobas, ra- - 30 -
  32. 32. sac mTeli rigi mizezebi ganapirobebs: realuri funqciebis ararseboba _ 1998-2002 wlebSi raionul doneze moqmed sakrebuloebSi bevrad meti interesi iyo warmodgenili (politikuri speqtri, mcire, magram realurad arsebuli uflebebi da Ses- abamisi sakuTari finansuri resursebi), rasac dRevan- del sakrebuloze veRar vityviT. aqtivobis xarisxiT dReisaTvis moqmedi sakrebulo adre arsebul I do- nis (qalaqi, daba, Temi, sofeli) sakrebulos waagavs, romelsac arc realuri funqciebi gaaCnda da arc misi ganxorcielebisTvis saWiro berketebi; araformaluri (da xSirad formaluri) wnexi _ es wnexi, erTi mxriv, aRmasrulebeli Stos _ meriis/gam- geobis, meore mxriv, centraluri xelisuflebis sx- vadasxva institutis mxridan auaresebs sakrebulos damoukideblobas da efeqturi muSaobis xarisxs; erTpartiuli sistema _ municipalitetTa nawil- Si mxolod mmarTveli partiaa warmodgenili, rac aZlierebs kidev erTi, damatebiTi, Sidapartiuli zewolis gaCenis albaTobas. mTel rig municipa­ litetebSi ar arsebobs opoziciuri fraqcia, xolo mmarTveli partiis fraqciaTa garda, ramdenime mu- nicipalitetSi Seqmnilia maJoritarTa fraqcia, ro­ melTa wevrebic imave mmarTveli partiis saxeliT gamodiodnen arCevnebze.gamgeoba/meria TviTmmarTvelobis aRmasrulebeli Stos saqmiano-bisTvis damaxasiaTebelia struqturis xelmZRvane-lis (gamgeblis/meris) dominanturi pozicia, romelicgamyarebulia rogorc tradiciiT, ise kanonmdeblobiTada yoveldRiuri praqtikiT. gamgeoba warmoadgens arakolegialur organos, aramed sxvadasxva struqturisa - 31 -
  33. 33. Tu ganyofilebis menejerTa TaTbirs, sadac gadamwyve-ti roli gamgebels/mers eniWeba. magaliTisTvis: gamgeb-els ufleba aqvs, sabiujeto saxsrebis garkveuli nawilisakrebulos daukiTxavad gankargos, rac zrdis sakrebu-los mxridan yovelgvari kontrolis gareSe TviTmmarT-velobis aRmasrulebeli Stos moqmedebis Tavisuflebas. aseTi midgoma sakmaod Zabavs urTierTobas sakrebu-losa da gamgeobas, aseve, sakrebulosa da regionSi sax-elmwifos rwmunebuls/gubernators Soris. es ukanaskne-li, rogorc wesi, urTierTobaSi upiratesobas aniWebsgamgeobas, rogorc saxelisuflebo vertikalis bunebrivgagrZelebas. formalurad, 2010 wels sakrebulos gaezarda ufle-bamosileba _ sakrebulos Tavmjdomare ukve TviTm-marTveli erTeulis umaRlesi politikuri piria dagamgebeli mis winaSea angariSvaldebuli, Tumca, es wesipraqtikaSi xSirad mxolod formaluri xasiaTis matare-belia. sapirispiro suraTs vxedavT q. TbilisSi _ aq xdebaqalaqis meris uflebebisa da legitimurobis xarisxiszrda (pirdapiri arCevnebi) da dedaqalaqis sakrebulosrolis Semdgomi daknineba.teritoriuli organoebi municipalitetTa gamsxvilebis Semdeg, sazogadoebi-sagan TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa daSorebis sakompen-saciod, kanonmdeblobiT Seiqmna gamgeobis teritoriu-li organoebi. gamgeobis/meriis teritoriuli organosxelmZRvaneli gamgeobis/meriis rwmunebulia. rwmuneb-ulebi dainiSnen yvela yofil pirveli donis sakrebu-loSi (daaxloebiT 1000 erTeuli). am instituciam undamoagvaros municipalitetTan (sakrebulo/gamgeoba) cen-tridan daSorebiT mcxovrebi mosaxleobis urTierToba. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis administraciis terito- - 32 -
  34. 34. riuli erTeulis xelmZRvaneli, romelmac xelisufle-basTan adgilobrivi mosaxleobis interesebis dacvasunda Seuwyos xeli, gamgeobis mier aris daniSnuli dasajaro mosamsaxurea. bunebrivia, rom biurokratiulierarqias daqvemdebarebuli moxeleebi mosaxleobis kiara, swored adgilobrivi xelisuflebis aRmasrulebeliStos interesebs icaven. amasTan, teritoriuli erTeu-lis xelmZRvanelebi iniSnebian mxolod yofili Temebisteritoriebze da ara yvela dasaxlebaSi da daSorebulniarian TemSi arsebuli dasaxlebebis umravlesobas. realurad, rwmunebulebs ar gaaCniaT arc uflebebida arc finansebi aRniSnuli funqciis Sesasruleblad.maTi kavSiric municipalitetebis centrebTan xSirad Za-lze sustia. saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi ki, rwmunebulebi gam-geobis gadawyvetilebebis adgilobriv mcxovrebTaTvisgacnobas axdenen da ara adgilobrivi interesebis lo-birebas TviTmmarTvelobaSi an, miT umetes, garkveulimomsaxurebis gawevas mosaxleobisaTvis.2.3.3. TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosileba TviTmmarTvelobebis uflebamosilebis ganxor-cielebis sferoSi TvalSisacemia centraluri xelisu-flebis sasargeblod subsidiarobis principis ignorire-ba. moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, TviTmmarTvelo-bebs gaaCniaT sakuTari da delegirebuli uflebamosile-bebi, Tumca, praqtikaSi sakmaod xSiria maTi aRreva. Tureformamde TviTmmarTvelobebs formalurad maincgaaCndaT garkveuli uflebamosilebebi, magram ar hqon-daT maTi aRsrulebisTvis saWiro resursebi, 2006 wlisTviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis Semdeg daiwyo am ufle-bamosilebaTa centraluri xelisuflebisTvis gadacemisprocesi, rac sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gawevis gaum-jobesebisa da resursebis mobilizebis motiviT xor-cieldeba. - 33 -
  35. 35. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis formalurad Tuaraformalurad miniWebul uflebamosilebaTa CamonaT-valSi SesaZlebelia 3 jgufis gamoyofa:1. uflebamosilebebi, romlebic, arc Tavisi bunebiT da arc kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, ar warmoadgens adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sferos, magram re- alurad, saxelmwifos politikidan gamomdinare, maTi ganxorcieleba swored TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs evalebaT.2. uflebamosilebebi, romlebic, rogorc Tavisi arsiT, ise kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, ganekuTvneba adgilo- brivi xelisuflebis uflebamosilebas, magram praq- tikaSi, mokle Tu grZelvadiani politikuri intere- sebidan gamomdinare, nawilobriv an srulad aqvs miT- visebuli centralur xelisuflebas.3. uflebamosilebebi, romlebic, Tavisi arsiT, ad- gilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis regulirebis sferos warmoadgens, magram privatizaciis procesSi moxda maTi komercializacia (wyliT, bunebrivi airiT da eleqtroenergiiT mosaxleobis momarageba). adgilo- brivi TviTmmarTvelobebi, bunebrivia, ver erevian komerciuli struqturebis saqmianobaSi, romlebsac saxelmwifosTan aqvT dadebuli xelSekruleba. maT arc tarifebis regulirebaze SeuZliaT zegavlenis moxdena, Tumca, sazogadoebis TvalSi, swored munic- ipalitetebi aRiqmebian maRal tarifze an cud ser- visze pasuxismgeblad.sakuTari uflebamosileba centraluri xelisufleba Tavis kontrols uqvemde-barebs iseT sferoebs, romlebic yvela droSi da yvelaganviTarebul qveyanaSi (TviT sabWoTa periodSic ki) ad- - 34 -
  36. 36. gilobrivi xelisuflebis prerogativas warmoadgenda: adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs CamoerTvaT wyalmo- maragebis sistemebi da maTze kontroli, amave dros, Riad darCa moqmedi sistemebis sakuTrebis sakiTxi. igegmeboda aRniSnul obieqtTa CarTva privatiza- ciis nusxaSi, magram mZime finansur valdebulebaTa (davalianebebi), amortizebuli materialur-teqni- kuri bazisa da metad mcire masStabis gamo msxvil in- vestorTa mozidva ver moxerxda. aman 2008 wlis gan- mavlobaSi saqarTvelos bevr municipalitetSi wyal- momaragebis sferoSi katastrofuli situacia Seqmna. xelisufleba iZulebuli gaxda, kvlav TviTmmarTv- elobebisTvis „daevalebina“ aRniSnuli struqturis dafinanseba, miuxedavad imisa, rom am ukanasknelT aRar gaaCndaT Sesabamisi uflebamosileba; 2010 wlidan TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sakuTar ufle- bamosilebaTa nusxidan amoRebul iqna socialur-eko- nomikuri ganviTarebis prioritetebis damtkicebis uflebamosileba. „sabiujeto kodeqsis“ Tanaxmad, am funqcias, saxelmwifo rwmunebulis administracias- Tan konsultaciiT, axorcielebs TviTmmarTvelobis aRmasrulebeli organo. sakrebulos roli dokumen- tis Sedgenis proceSi formaluria; iseTi uflebamosilebebi, rogoricaa narCenebis mar- Tva (maT Soris, narCenebis utilizacia) da sxva, gasu- lia TviTmmarTvelobaTa kontrolis sferodan; TviTmmarTveli erTeulis uflebamosilebis SezRud- vis pirobebis CamonaTvalSi gaCnda damateba, romlis Tanaxmadac, aikrZala „TviTmmarTveli erTeulis mier sakuTari uflebamosilebebis imgvari gamoyeneba, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios saxelmwifo organoebis, agreTve, organizaciebisa da dawesebulebebis gamarTuli fun- qcionirebis Seferxeba“. es SezRudva, aseTi saxis - 35 -
  37. 37. bundovani definiciisas da normatiuli ganmartebis gareSe, qmnis centraluri xelisuflebis mier adgi- lobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebze damatebiTi, SesaZloa, politikuri, zemoqmedebis berkets. am mxriv saqarTvelo kidev ufro daSorda ara mar-to Zveli demokratiis qveynebs (dasavleT evropa, aSS dasxva), aramed CamorCa dsT-s qveynebsac, maT Soris, Taviskavkasiel mezoblebs. arsebul sistemaSi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis saku-Tari uflebamosilebis nawilis aRsrulebac ki SeuZle-belia, ris magaliTadac kanonmdeblobasa da praqtikaSiarsebuli suraTis dapirispireba gamodgeba. kerZod:1. municipalitetis uflebamosilebas, uzrunvelyos saxanZro usafrTxoeba, daemata „samaSvelo RonisZie- bebis uzrunvelyofa“, magram TviTmmarTveli er- TeulebisTvis saxanZro usafrTxoebis infrastruq- turis gadacema dRemde ar momxdara.2. adgilobrivi samgzavro gadazidvebis uflebamosile- ba „regulirdeba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dad- genili wesiT“, xolo „saavtomobilo transportis Sesaxeb“ da „licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb“ kanonebis Tanaxmad, regularuli samgzavro gadayva- nis nebarTva mxolod saqarTvelos TviTmmarTveli qalaqebisTvis dgindeba.3. sakuTar uflebamosilebas warmoadgens, agreTve, dasaqmebis xelSewyobis municipaluri programebis damtkiceba, magram, q. Tbilisis garda (programebi: „daiwye biznesi q. Tbilisis meriis daxmarebiT“, „ing- lisuris da kompiuteris ufaso kursebi“, „socialurad daucveli mravalSviliani ojaxebis dasaqmebis pro- grama“), es uflebamosileba versad xorcieldeba (Tavad am programebis efeqturoba calke ganxilvis Temaa). - 36 -
  38. 38. 4. municipaluri arqivis Seqmna da momsaxurebis ta- rifebis dadgena kidev erTi sakuTari damatebiTi uflebamosilebaa, Tumca, „erovnuli saarqivo fon- disa da erovnuli arqivis Sesaxeb“ kanonis Tanaxmad, saarqivo fondze pasuxismgebeli kvlav mxolod ius- ticiis saministroa. sakuTari arqivis droebiT Senax- visTvis TviTmmarTvelobebi saqarTvelos erovnul arqivs 2010 wlidan momsaxurebis solidur safasurs uxdian. amasTan, xSiria TviTmmarTvelobis xelSi darCeniluflebamosilebaTa ganxorcielebaSi (keTilmowyoba, ad-gilobrivi gzebi) saxelmwifos Careva da „saxelmwifossaxeliT“ TviTmmarTvelobebis SezRuduli finansebisxarjze calkeuli programebis dafinanseba.delegirebuli uflebamosileba ukeTesi mdgomareoba arc delegirebul ufle-bamosilebaTa ganxorcielebis procesSia. problemasaq dargobrivi kanonmdeblobis (daaxloebiT 50-mdesakanonmdeblo aqti) dauxvewaoba warmoadgens. ro-gorc wesi, es kanonebi winaaRmdegobaSi modis organulikanonis debulebebTan. seriozuli winaaRmdegobebia,erTi mxriv, „aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis statu-sis Sesaxeb“ konstituciur kanons (TviTmmarTvelobisuflebamosilebaTa gamijvna aWaris avtonomiur respub-likaSi), „saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis _ Tbilisis Sesaxeb“kanonsa da, meore mxriv, saqarTvelos konstituciasada „adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb“ organulkanons Soris. maSin, roca centraluri xelisufleba, gansakuTrebiT,winasaarCevno periodSi, sul ufro da ufro aqtiuradereva TviTmmarTvelobaTa sakuTar uflebamosilebaSi(adgilobrivi gzebis dageba, fasadebis SeRebva, xidebis - 37 -
  39. 39. aRdgena da sxv.), yoveldRiur praqtikaSi xSiria munici-palitetebis mier centraluri xelisuflebis ama Tu imuflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis precedenti. 2009 wlis martSi TviTmmarTvel erTeulebs „mieni-WaT“ droebiTi uflebamosileba, daafinanson central-uri xelisuflebis is uflebamosilebani, romlebic arganekuTvneba arc sakuTar da arc delegirebul ufle-bamosilebebs (aRniSnuli uflebamosilebis vada 2013wlamde gagrZelda). Sedegad, municipalitetebSi xde-ba sabiujeto saxsrebis aramiznobrivi xarjva. amasTan,aseTi xarjebis gaweva TiTqmis ucvlelad, erTdrouladda paralelurad xdeba TiTqmis yvela municipalitetSi(policiis ganyofilebebis, saqarTvelos parlamentSiarCeuli maJoritari deputatis biuroebis, jandacvis,zogadi ganaTlebis da a.S. xarjebis dafinanseba), racimaze metyvelebs, rom aRniSnuli aqtivobebi „zemodan“aris nakarnaxevi da sanqcirebuli. es xdeba maSin, roca adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebsdaufinansebeli rCebaT sakuTari eqskluziuri ufle-bamosilebebi. xarjebis udidesi nawili TviTmmarTvelo-bis aparatisa da sxva, erovnuli donis programebis xel-Semwyobi xarjebis dafinansebas xmardeba. amdenad, adgi-lobriv TviTmmarTvelobaTa mier realur ganviTarebazeorientirebuli programebis dafinanseba ar xorcield-eba. adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobaTa umetesobaSi mou-wesrigebelia infrastruqtura, mwiri Tanxebi ixarjebasazogadoebriv RonisZiebebze. mZime suraTia sazogadoebisTvis momsaxurebis gaw-evis sferoSic. momsaxurebis sferos komercializacia amSemTxvevaSi saukeTeso gamosavalia. Tumca, monopolistiprovaiderebis gaZliereba da kvalificiuri kadrebis de-nadoba, fasebis ganuxreli zrdis fonze, momsaxurebisdabali kulturis SenarCunebas uwyobs xels. aseT pirobebSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis fun- - 38 -
  40. 40. qcia adgilobrivi mosaxleobis yoveldRiuri intere-sebis dacva unda iyos, magram amJamad es gadaulaxavamocanas warmoadgens. adgilobriv xelisuflebas kerZokompaniebze zemoqmedebis araviTari berketi ar gaaCnia.municipalitetebs momsaxurebaze (wyalmomarageba dakanalizacia,) tarifis kontrolis uflebac ki CamoerT-vaT.2.3.4. TviTmmarTvelobis ekonomikuri safuZvlebi vinaidan qveyanaSi ar aris Camoyalibebuli ekonomi-kis ganviTarebis mwyobri strategia, mizerulia rogorcTviTmmarTvelobaSi Cadebuli realuri investiciebi, iseTviTmmarTvelobaTa sakuTari Semosavlebi. SezRudu-li finansuri da administraciuli resursebis piro-bebSi TviTmmarTvelobebi survilis SemTxvevaSic ki vermoaxerxeben municipalitetebis ekonomikuri politikisformirebaze realuri gavlenis moxdenas. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis Semosavlebiszrda saqarTveloSi bolos gatarebuli administraci-ul-teritoriuli reformis umTavres mizans warmoad-genda. reformis avtorebi Tanaxmani iyvnen, Seemcire-binaT adgilobrivi demokratiisa da mosaxleobasTansiaxlovis xarisxi, Tu gamsxvilebuli TviTmmarTvelo-bebi miaRwevdnen realur finansur mdgradobas da Se-Zlebdnen efeqturi sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gaw-evas. qveda donis, „susti“ municipalitetebis gauqmebisa daTviTmmarTvelobaTa yofil raionul doneze atanis Sem-deg naTeli gaxda, rom centri ukve axal, gamsxvilebulTviTmmarTvelobaTa uflebamosilebisa da resursebisSemcirebasac iwyebs. - 39 -
  41. 41. cxrili 1. adgilobrivi biujetebis sakuTari sagadasaxado Semosavlebis wili mTlian Sida produqtTan da konsolidirebul biujetTan mimarTebaSi (%) konsolidirebul mSp-Tan wlebi biujetTan mimarTebaSi (%) mimarTebaSi (%) 2003 12,0 30,0 2004 6,1 23,3 2005 5,9 20,1 2006 4,9 14,7 2007 5,1 14,1 2008 2,5 6,0 2009 2,3 6,3 2010 0,8 2,3 mTliani Sida produqtisa da, gansakuTrebiT, saxelm-wifo biujetis zrdis miuxedavad (aRniSnul wlebSi sax-elmwifo biujeti 11-jer da metad gaizarda), mcirdebaadgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sakuTari sagadasaxdoSemosavlebi absolutur maCvenebelSic: 2004 wels _ 596,9mln lari, xolo 2010 wels _ 155,3 mln lari. amasTan, sakuTari sagadasaxado Semosavlebis 66,7%xuT TviTmmarTvel qalaqze modis da es maCvenebeli zr-dis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba. Semosulobebs Soris umTavresia Semosavlebi (1,412mln. lari _ 2010 w.), sadac ikveTeba sagadasaxado da sxvaSemosavlebis wilis Semcirebis uaryofiTi tendencia(24,7% _ 2009 wels, 23,4% _ 2010 wels). TviTmmarTvelo-bebis SemosulobebSi umTavres punqts (88,5%) centridanmiRebuli Tanxebi Seadgens. - 40 -
  42. 42. adgilobrivi biujetebi centris dotaciebze xde-ba damokidebuli. am mxriv saqarTvelo seriozuladCamorCeba rogorc evropul demokratiebSi, ise kavkasiisqveynebSi arsebul maCveneblebs.Semosulobebi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis finansuri da-moukideblobis sailustraciod gamodgeba reformam-deli da reformisSemdgomi situaciebis urTierTSedar-eba. 2002-2003 wlebSi TviTmmarTvelobebi mTlianad annawilobriv iRebdnen 12 saxis adgilobriv da ziar ga-dasaxads. 2004-2005 wlebSi, gadasaxadebis saxeebis Sem-cirebisa da ziari gadasaxadebis gauqmebis Semdeg, maT4 saxis gadasaxadi darCaT; mogvianebiT, darCenili ga-dasaxadebidan yvelaze mniSvnelovani _ saSemosavlo damogebis gadasaxadebi _ centrSi `wavida~. adgilebze, faq-tobrivad, mxolod qonebis gadasaxadi darCa. arasaku-Tari Semosavlis (miznobrivi da specialuri transfere-bi da sxva moziduli saxsrebi) miReba da misi odenobaki mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli centraluri xelisu-flebis politikur gadawyvetilebebze. amasTan, zogjer centraluri xelisufleba TviTm-marTvelobis xarjze gaumarTlebel SeRavaTebs awesebs.adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis gansakuTrebiTmZime iyo qonebis gadasaxadze didi SeRavaTebis daweseba,Tumca, sawyis etapze am politikas mZime Sedegi ar mohyo-lia, vinaidan adgilobrivi biujetebi, ZiriTadad, ziarigadasaxadebis (mogebis, saSemosavlo) xarjze ivseboda.mas mere, rac es gadasaxadebic centralurma xelisu-flebam `waiRo~, adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs Semo-savlis ZiriTad wyarod qonebis Semcirebuli gadasaxa-diRa darCaT, rac adgilobrivi biujetebis saSemosavlonawilis mxolod 9%-s Seadgens; amasTan, misi udidesi - 41 -
  43. 43. wili Tbilisze modis. rac Seexeba adgilobriv mosakreblebs, maTi rolimunicipalitetTa umetesobisTvis nulovania (magaliTad,mosakrebeli saTamaSo biznesidan). kidev erTi problema, rac adgilobrivi biujetebisSemosavlebis simwires ganapirobebs, aris maT teritori-aze arsebuli msxvili (komerciuli Tu saxelmwifo) obi-eqtebis ukontrolo funqcionireba. maTi nawili (porte-bi, rkinigzis kvanZebi da sxv.) araTu ar ixdian adgilo-briv biujetSi qonebis gadasaxads, aramed adgilobrivxelisufalT TavianTi funqcionirebis Sesaxeb araviTarinformacias ar awvdian.gaTanabreba aRniSnuli politikis Sedegad municipalitetebimetwilad centris transferebze arian damokidebul-ni, rac zogierTi municipalitetis Semosavlis udidesnawils _ 2/3-ze mets Seadgens. es, Tavis mxriv, zrdiscentris mxridan maTze zemoqmedebis berketebs. centridan miRebuli Tanxis lomis wili (77,8%) sax-elmwifo transferebia. garkveulwilad, dadebiT gare-moebad unda Sefasdes transferebis moculobis zrda(2010 wels 222,6 mln lariT _ 26%-iT meti 2009 welTanSedarebiT). 2009 wels grantebis 59%-s Seadgenda specialuri,32%-s _ gaTanabrebiTi, 7%-s _ sxva araklasificirebuli,xolo 2%-s _ miznobrivi granti. 2010 wels es maCveneble-bi, Sesabamisad, 41, 48, 10 da 1%-iT ganisazRvra. gaTana-brebiTi grantis wilis zrda da specialuri da mizno-brivi transferebis wilis Semcireba misasalmebelia da,Tu am movlenam tendenciis saxe miiRo, igi dadebiTadSeiZleba aisaxos TviTmmarTvelobaTa biujetebze. gaTanabrebiTi grantis (2010 wlamde ewodeboda `ga-moTanabrebiTi transferi~) sisustes warmoadgens Sez- - 42 -
  44. 44. Ruduli sakanonmdeblo reglamentacia im dros, rocafinansTa saministros, faqtobrivad, SeuzRudavi ufle-bamosileba gaaCnia. adgilobrivi biujetebis Semosulo-bebi mTlianad finansTa saministros nebazea damokide-buli (SemosulobaTa ZiriTadi parametrebis gansazRvra,Semosavlebis yovelkvartaluri gegmebis SemuSaveba, ad-gilobrivi gadasaxadebis administrireba, sxvadasxva xar-jebis subsidireba). Sedegad, maRalia TviTmmarTveloba-Ta biujetebSi SesworebaTa Setanis sixSire: wlis ganma-vlobaSi biujetebSi cvlilebebi 8-10-jer xorcieldebada xSirad biujeti sabiujeto wlis ganmavlobaSi orma-gdeba. yovelive es centralur xelisuflebas saSuale-bas aZlevs, survilis SemTxvevaSi, SeuzRudavad CaeriosTviTmmarTvelobaTa saqmianobaSi.gadasaxdelebi adgilobrivi biujetebis xarjviTi politikisTvisdamaxasiaTebelia centraluri xelisuflebis mxridan amprocesSi CarTulobis da politizacis maRali xarisxi(gansakuTrebiT, saarCevno periodebSi). uflebamosilebaTa sruli (rogorc formaluri, isearaformaluri) gamijvnis ararsebobis pirobebSi adgil-obrivi biujetebi aramiznobrivad ixarjeba. garda amisa,prioritetebis dagegmvisas, rogorc wesi, adgilobriviinteresebis gaTvaliswineba ar xdeba. es SesaZlebelia anZlieri lobistis (rogorc wesi, gavleniani maJoritar-is), an centraluri xelisuflebis mxridan koniunqtu-ruli (rogorc wesi, populisturi) midgomebis pirobebSi(magaliTad, konfliqturi regionebis momijnave terito-riaze pompezuri mSeneblobebis Catareba da a.S.). samwuxarod, es ar aris adgilobrivi biujetebisaramiznobrivi xarjvis erTaderTi SemTxveva _ mniS-vnelovani saxsrebia gamoyofili TviTmmarTvelobis ara-sakuTari uflebamosilebis (policiis ganyofilebebis, - 43 -
  45. 45. zogadi ganaTlebis, jandacvis xarjebi da a.S.) dasafi-nanseblad. is faqti, rom dafinanseba yvelgan erTdrou-lad da msgavsi saqmianobebisTvis xorcieldeba, aCenseWvs, rom davaleba centraluri xelisuflebisgan modisda srulebiTac ar warmoadgens adgilobriv iniciativas.jamSi, yovelwliurad adgilobrivi biujetebis daaxloe-biT 10% aramiznobriv xarjebs Seadgens. TviTmmarTvelobis biujetebis gadasaxdelebisyvelaze didi nawili (55-60%) administraciis Senaxvasada saerTo erovnul uflebamosilebaTa ganxorcielebisdasafinanseblad ixarjeba. marTalia, reformis Sede-gad ganxorcielda adgilobrivi struqturebis optimi-zacia, magram amJamad Semcirebuli struqturebi admin-istrirebisTvis ramdenjerme ufro met Tanxas xarjaven(magaliTisTvis, mxolod 2008 wels daaxloebiT 175 mlnlari), vidre reformamdeli yvela donis adgilobrivistruqtura jamSi xarjavda erTad aRebul administraci-ul da programul nawilebze. saxelmwifo da adgilobriv uflebamosilebaTa dabiujetebis aseTi aRreva zrdis administrirebis xarjebsda saSualebas aZlevs centrs, akontrolos ara martoTavisi, aramed TviTmmarTvelobaTa resursebic. sailustraciod gamodgeba municipalitetebis ar-amiznobrivi xarjebisa da `soflis daxmarebis pro-gramis~ urTierTSedareba. rogorc aRiniSna, centris`TxovniT~ municipalitetebi saxelmwifo institutebissaqmianobas yovelwliurad 100-150 mln. lariT afinan-seben. amave dros, xdeba TviTmmarTvelobisTvis `warT-meuli~ resursebis (gaweuli xarjebis) nawilobriv `ukandabrunebac~ (magaliTad, `soflis daxmarebis~ saxelm-wifo programa: 2008 wels _ 19 mln, 2009 wels _ 21 mln,xolo 2010 wels _ 40 mln lariT ganisazRvra), oRond essaxelmwifos `saCuqars~ warmoadgens da ara TviTmmarT-velobaTa mier sakuTar teritoriebze ganxorcielebul - 44 -
  46. 46. aqtivobebs. kidev erTi problema qveynis masStabiT xarjebisaraTanabari gadanawilebaa. Tbiliss, romelsac, sxvamunicipalitetebTan SedarebiT, erT sul mosaxlezeyvelaze maRali sabiujeto Semosavlebi gaaCnia, met-naklebad yvelaze kargad aqvs mowesrigebuli infra-struqtura da saxelmwifo biujetis umetesi nawilicdedaqalaqSi ixarjeba. dedaqalaqis biujeti daaxloebiT2-jer aRemateba qveynis yvela sxva danarCeni TviTmmarT-velobebis biujetebis jams (avtonomiuri respublikebisgamoklebiT). regionebSi xorcieldeba centraluri biujetidan dasaerTaSoriso organizaciebis grantebidan da kredite-bidan dafinansebuli mniSvnelovani infrastruqturu-li proeqtebi, romlebic xSirad, subsidiarobis prin-cipis Tanaxmad, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis ufle-bamosilebas warmoadgens. adgilobrivi specifikis gauT-valiswinebloba da TviTmmarTvelobebisgan damoukide-blad Catarebuli saqmianoba xSirad araefeqturi daZviradRirebulia. amasTan, Sesrulebuli samuSaos aras-wori menejmenti (magaliTad, axladdagebuli asfaltisamoTxra wylis sistemis reabilitaciis mizniT da a.S.)badebs Tanxebis, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi _ aramiznobrivi,xolo uares SemTxvevaSi _ ukanono xarjvis eWvs.2.3.5. qoneba saqarTveloSi jer kidev ar aris dasrulebuli ad-gilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis qonebis gadacemis2005 wels dawyebuli procesi. adgilobrivi TviTmmarT-velobebis ekonomikuri mdgradobis Camoyalibebas xelsuSlis qonebis gadacemis procesis gaWianureba, qonebisgankargvasTan dakavSirebiT realuri damoukideblobisararseboba da adgilobrivi finansebis ganawilebis - 45 -
  47. 47. sakiTxebSi centraluri xelisuflebis Carevis maRalixarisxi. rogorc wesi, Seferxebis mizezad saxeldeboda sain-formacio bazebis ararseboba da arasrulyofileba, pro-cesis susti menejmenti. amasTan, am procesis SeCerebisrealuri mizezi iyo centralur doneze Zalauflebisada resursebis koncentraciis survili. 2007 wlis gan-mavlobaSi ganxorcielebulma sakanonmdeblo cvlile-bebma aCvena, rom zemoaRniSnuli mizezis garda, arsebobspolitikuri gadawyvetileba, Sekvecos TviTmmarTvelo-baTa ufleba qonebis gasxvisebasTan dakavSirebiT da esprocesi centraluri xelisuflebis kontrols dauqvem-debaros. saxelmwifo TandaTan amcirebs mis sakuTrebaSi ar-sebuli qonebis im kategoriebis nusxas, romelic TviT-mmarTvelobebs unda gadaeces: saZovrebi, adgilobrivimniSvnelobis wylis resursebi da a.S. sakmaod mZime suraTia adgilobrivi qonebis gankargv-asTan dakavSirebiT _ municipalitetebs Tavisi Sexed-ulebisamebr sakuTari qonebis mxolod sargeblobaSigacema SeuZliaT; rac Seexeba gankargvas, 2007 wlidanes ufleba centraluri xelisuflebis, kerZod, prezi-dentis prerogativas warmoadgens (pirdapiri miyidvisformiT gasxvisebis eqskluziuri ufleba). aRniSnulimovlena winaaRmdegobaSi modis saqarTvelos konstitu-ciasTan, organul kanonTan, `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTv-elobis Sesaxeb~ evropul qartiasTan da, zogadad, sa-kuTrebis uflebis fundamentur principebTanac. seriozul problemas qmnis qonebis aRricxvis sakiTx-ic. xSirad ar aris dadgenili realuri sabalanso Rireb-uleba da aseT informacias arc ekonomikisa da mdgradiganviTarebis saministro flobs. yovelive zemoTqmuli gviCvenebs, Tu ra mdgomareo-baa sajaro qonebis gadanawilebis sferoSi. amis dasturia - 46 -
  48. 48. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis arafinansuri aqtivebis klebi-dan (privatizaciidan) miRebuli Semosulobebis maCveneb-lis Sedareba saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebisrealizaciidan miRebul SemosavlebTan: 2009-2010 wlebSiarafinansuri aqtivebis klebiT mobilizebulma Tanxamyvela TviTmmarTvelobis biujetSi 100 mln lari Sead-gina, maSin, roca amave periodSi, am saxiT, saxelmwifobiujetma 307,1 mln lari miiRo.2.3.6. saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba 2007 wels miRebulma kanonma `adgilobrivi TviT-mmarTvelobis organoebis saqmianobis saxelmwifozedamxedvelobis Sesaxeb~ gansazRvra centralur xe-lisuflebasa da adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs SorisurTierTobis formebi da zedamxedvelobis organoebi. kanoniT, arsebobs zedamxedvelobis ori forma:samarTlebrivi zedamxedveloba (rogorc eqskluziuri,ise delegirebuli uflebamosilebis Sesrulebisas) dazedamxedveloba mizanSewonilobis motiviT (delegire-buli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas). dakanonda adre mxolod de facto arsebuli „guberna-toris“ Tanamdeboba. miuxedavad amisa, dRemde ar arismkafiod gansazRvruli, sad gadis, erTi mxriv, guber-natorisa (regionuli done) da, meore mxriv, adgilo-brivi TviTmmarTvelobebis uflebamosilebaTa sazRvari.dReisaTvis, gubernatori, faqtobrivad, ara mxolodzedamxedvelobis funqcias axorcielebs, aramed de factomarTavs TviTmmarTvelobaTa yoveldRiur saqmianobasda formalurad Tu araformalurad ereva adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis mier gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis pro-cesSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom centralizaciisa da gadaWarbe-buli kontrolis zrdis tendencia, romelmac refor- - 47 -
  49. 49. mis dasawyisSive iCina Tavi, Semdgom wlebSic grZeldeba.Zlierdeba municipalitetebze kontrolis meqanizmebi,rac, sakmaod xSirad, politikuri mizniT gamoiyeneba da,amasTan, sruli araTanamimdevrobiT gamoirCeva. `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ organulikanonis Sesworebebi zrdis makontrolebeli organoe-bis ricxvs; amasTan, am ukanasknelT evalebaT, Semowmebiskoordinacia moaxdinon regionSi saxelmwifos rwmuneb-ulTan/gubernatorTan. ar konkretdeba, Tu ra igulisx-meba zogadi terminis _ `koordinaciis~ qveS (es aris kon-sultacia, nebarTvis gacema Tu fors-maJorul situa-ciebSi sagangebo Carevis uflebamosileba). imave kanonSi SesworebebiT gafarTovda safinansoSemowmebis ganmaxorcielebeli saxelmwifo institutebisricxvi, Tumca, kanoni arc am organizaciebis CamonaT-vals iZleva da arc Sesabamisi procedurebis aRweras.aseve, araa miTiTebuli is normatiuli aqtebi, romleb-mac unda gansazRvros aRniSnuli uflebebi da maTi ganx-orcielebis procedurebi. marTalia, TviTmmarTvelo-bis organosTvis aramarTlzomieri kontrolis ganxor-cielebisas miyenebuli zaralis SemTxvevaSi aRniSnuliazaralis anazRaurebis aucilebloba, magram kanoni ariZleva procedurebis zust ganmartebebs. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT arsebul praqtikas, savarau-doa, rom 2010 wels ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebiT gu-bernatoric da sxva saxelmwifo institutebic iRebenmunicipalitetebze politikuri Tu sxva saxis zemoq-medebis damatebiT meqanizmebs rogorc iuridiuli, isearapirdapiri zemoqmedebis gansaxorcieleblad. rogorcwesi, aseTi qmedeba municipalitetTa mxridan loialobisSenarCunebisTvis gamoiyeneba da prevenciis saSualebaswarmoadgens. amasTan, igi araa yovlismomcveli _ `san-do~ TviTmmarTvelobebis mimarT araTu zemoqmedebismeqanizmebi ar gamoiyeneba, aramed maT zedmeti privil- - 48 -
  50. 50. egiebic eniWebaT. dReisaTvis gvaqvs rigi negatiuri Sedegebisa: kanonebis elementaruli normebis darRveva central- uri xelisuflebis moxeleTa mxridan, roca moxele, Tavisi Sexedulebidan gamomdinare, upiratesobas an- iWebs im sakanonmdeblo aqts, romelic xels aZlevs mas da ara im aqts, romelic ierarqiulad ufro maR- la dgas; qveyanaSi masobrivi korufciis mkveTrad Semcirebis fonze, sakmaod Zlierdeba klanizmi sajaro samsax- urSi, korufciisTvis gamoiyeneba ufro faruli formebi (araformaluri zemoqmedeba tenderis Sede- gebze da sxva); tradiciulad, kvlav SenarCunebulia centraluri xe- lisuflebis zedmetad maRali gavlena adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis aRmasrulebel Stoze. gamgeo- bebi/meriebi centraluri xelisuflebis bevri in- stitutisa da xSirad TviT gamgeobebisa da meriebis mxridan moiazreba, rogorc adgilze centraluri xe- lisuflebis interesebis gamtarebeli struqtura; calkeul pirTa pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxis dayene- ba, romelsac xSirad kampaniuri xasiaTi aqvs, Zalze xSirad sazogadoebis mier aRiqmeba, rogorc politi- kuri an pirovnuli xasiaTis angariSsworeba; damoukidebeli sasamarTlos ararsebobis fonze, sax- elmwifo zedamxedvelobis organoTa gadawyvetile- bebi miukerZoebeli instituciis mxridan ar kontr- oldeba. amasTan, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi, rogorc wesi, sasamarTlos sakuTari uflebebis dasacavad iSviaTad mimarTaven, rac, dRe- vandeli erTpartiuli politikuri koniunqturis pi- robebSi, bunebriv movlenad unda CaiTvalos. - 49 -
  51. 51. 3. mmarTvelobis sistemis reformis koncefcia3.1. zogadi nawili3.1.1. SemoTavazebuli modelis arsi saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebis normaluri, stabi-luri ganviTarebisTvis aucilebelia, Seiqmnas qveynismarTvis iseTi modeli, romelic, wina wlebis gamocdile-bidan gamomdinare, minimumamde daiyvans im problemebs,romlebic saqarTveloSi damoukideblobis miRwevis Sem-deg warmoiSva. amasTan, axalma mmarTvelobiTma sistemamunda uzrunvelyos: moqalaqis Tavisufleba; moqalaqis saqmeebSi saxelmwifo institutebis Carevis SesaZlebloba mxolod aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi; saxelmwifos mxridan mosaxleobisTvis momsaxurebis gawevis maqsimalurad maRali xarisxi; mmarTvelobis sistemis yvela donis gamarTuli da efeqtiani saqmianoba. zemoTqmulidan da am dokumentis I nawilSi (`xelisu-flebis decentralizaciisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarT-velobis arsi~) Camoyalibebuli ZiriTadi principebidangamomdinare, gTavazobT ordoniani TviTmmarTvelobismodels:TviTmmarTvelobis pirveli done _ qalaqi, sofeli/Temi, romlis funqciacaa, uzrunvelyos mosaxleobis maqsi- maluri CarTuloba Tavisi uSualo sacxovrebeli garemos marTvisa da formirebis procesSi, uSualod Tavis dasaxlebul punqtSi miawodos moqalaqes mom- saxurebis (servisebis) maqsimaluri raodenoba. - 50 -
  52. 52. TviTmmarTvelobis meore done _ regioni (olqi, mxare) ad- ministraciul-geografiuli da erTiani istoriul- eTnografiuli erTeuli, romelic ganaxorcilebs im uflebamosilebebs, kulturul da socialur-eko- nomikur funqciebs, risi resursebic ar gaaCnia TviT- mmarTvelobis pirvel dones. SemoTavazebuli modelis sqema (saqarTvelos im teri- toriisTvis, romelzec 2012 wlis 1 ianvrisaTvis vr- celdeba saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia): saqarTvelo 11 mxare (regioni) Tbilisi aWara kaxeTi samegrelo guria mTianeTi svaneTi imereTi samcxe-javaxeTi qv.qarTli Tbilisis ubnebi raWa-leCxumi da qv.svaneTi Sida qarTli (daaxloebiT 25) qalaqi; Temi dasaxlebebi: qalaqi (54), daba (43), sofeli (3 523)1.1.2. uflebamosileba da misi ganxorcilebis ZiriTadi principebiuflebamosilebaTa saxeebi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisufle­bis organoebs miniWebuli aqvT eqskluziuri da dele-girebuli uflebamosilebebi. - 51 -
  53. 53.  eqskluziuri uflebamosileba _ adgilobrivi TviTm- marTveli erTeulis an mxaris xelisuflebis organ- oTa uflebamosileba, romelsac igi damoukideblad da sakuTari pasuxismgeblobiT axorcielebs kanon- mdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT. adgilobrivi TviTm- marTveli erTeulis an mxaris xelisuflebis organ- oTa saqmianoba eqskluziur uflebamosilebaTa ganx- orcielebisas regulirdeba sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT, romlebiTac ganisazRvreba saerTo-saxelmwifoebrivi standartebi da wesebi. eqskluziur uflebamosile- basTan dakavSirebuli dava wydeba mxolod sasamarT- lo wesiT, amasTan, mtkicebis tvirTi ekisreba mo- sarCele mxares. delegirebuli uflebamosileba _ adgilobrivi TviT­ mmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris xelisuflebis organo­ ebisTvis xelisuflebis sxva organoTa uflebamo­ silebis gadacema kanoniT dadgenili wesiT. ufle- bamosilebis gadacema xorcieldeba an kanoniT an xelisuflebis organoTa Soris dadebuli xelSek- rulebis safuZvelze. dauSvebelia uflebamosilebis gadacema Sesabamisi finansuri uzrunvelyofis gar- eSe.uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis ZiriTadi principebi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisuflebis organoebiekonomikuri saqmianobis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSire-bul uflebamosilebas axorcieleben sazogadoebrivimomsaxurebis gawevis mizniT mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuanalogiur sferoSi saqmianobas ar axorcieleben same-warmeo subieqtebi. samewarmeo subieqtis mier aseTi saxis momsaxurebisgawevis SemTxvevaSi, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeu-lis xelisuflebis organoebi movaleni arian, Sewyviton - 52 -
  54. 54. aRniSnul sferoSi saqmianoba am saqmianobasTan dakav-Sirebuli qonebis likvidaciis, gayidvis an transforma-ciis gziT.zogadi uflebamosileba, romliTac xorcieldebaadgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis eqskluziuri dadelegirebuli uflebamosilebebi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis/mxaree-bis organoebs eskluziuri da delegirebuli ufle-bamosilebis gansaxorcieleblad gaaCniaT:a) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT da vadebSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mx- aris biujetis proeqtis Sedgenis, ganxilvis, damt- kicebis, masSi cvlilebebisa da damatebebis Setanis, aRsrulebis, kontrolis, angariSgebisa da Sefasebis uflebamosileba;b) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT adgi- lobrivi da ziari gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis SemoRebisa da maTze SeRavaTebis dawesebis ufle- bamosileba;g) kanoniT dadgenili wesiT sxva biujetebisgan, fizi- kuri da iuridiuli pirebisgan sesxis aRebis, adgi- lobrivi fasiani qaRaldebis, latariebis gamoSvebis uflebamosileba;d) adgilobrivi TviTmarTveli erTeulis socialur- ekonomikuri programebis Sedgenis da ganxorcielebis uflebamosileba;e) TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris uflebamosilebis farglebSi gasawevi momsaxureobisTvis tarifebis dadgenis uflebamosileba;v) TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaSi arse- buli qonebis saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadge- - 53 -
  55. 55. nili wesiT flobis, gankargvisa da gasxvisebis ufle- bamosileba;z) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT sawar- moebis, dawesebulebebis, organizaciebis Seqmnis, re- organizaciisa da likvidaciis uflebamosileba;T) saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturu- li proeqtebis ganxorcielebisa da maTSi monawile- obis uflebamosileba;i) sxva TviTmmarTvel erTeulebTan/mxareebTan saku­ Tari uflebamosilebis farglebSi erToblivad gansa­ xorcielebel saqmianobaze xelSekrulebis dadebis uflebamosileba;k) adgilobriv, erovnul, regionul da saerTaSoriso asociaciebSi monawileobis uflebamosileba;l) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT sax- elmwifo Sesyidvebis ganxorcielebis uflebamosile- ba.3.1.3. TviTmmarTvelobis/mxaris qoneba fiskaluri decentralizaciis umTavresi daniSnule-baa TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa uzrunvelyofa Tavian-Ti uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelifinansuri resursebiT. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobamaSinaa efeqturi, roca igi, uflebebsa da pasuxismge-blobasTan erTad, sakmaris resursebsac flobs. yvela TviTmmarTvel erTeuls/mxares gaaCnia saku-Tari qoneba da damoukidebeli biujeti. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTreba da misi Seqmnis safuZvlebi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris qonebis saxeebia: - 54 -
  56. 56. 1. uZravi qoneba;2. moZravi qoneba;3. aramaterialuri aqtivebi. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaa is qone-ba, romelic saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgeniliwesiT Sedis TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris mflob-elobis, sargeblobisa da gankargvis sferoSi. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaSi Sema-vali obieqtebis kategoriaTa nusxa ganisazRvreba saqa-rTvelos kanonmdeblobiT. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTreba iqmneba:a) saqarTvelos prezidentis mier dadgenili wesiT TviT- mmarTveli erTeulisTvis/mxarisTvis saxelmwifo sa- kuTrebaSi myofi obieqtebis gadacemiT;b) TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris mier Tavisi ufleba­ mosilebis farglebSi, kanonmdeblobiT gaTvalis­ i­ w nebuli wesiT, axali obieqtebis SeZeniT an SeqmniT;g) im xdomilebaTa Sedegad, romelTac saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba ukavSirebs samoqalaqo-samarTlebri- vi Sedegebis warmoSobas;d) kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva safuZvlebiT. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaSi Sema-vali qoneba iyofa ZiriTad (ganusxvisebel) da damatebiTqonebad. ZiriTadi (ganusxvisebeli) qoneba warmoadgens TviTm-marTveli erTeulis/mxaris saqmianobis ganxorcielebissafuZvels da igi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis or-ganos mier SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes mxolod misisajaro funqciebisa da uflebamosilebis ganxorcie­lebis mizniT. ZiriTadi (gausxvisebeli)qonebis nusx-as ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros - 55 -
  57. 57. wardginebiT amtkicebs saqarTvelos mTavroba. ZiriTad (ganusxvisebel) adgilobriv qonebas uSualodfloben da am qonebiT sargebloben TviTmmarTveli er-Teulis/mxaris xelisuflebis organoebi. am qonebis gasx-viseba daiSveba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu axali qonebisSeqmnis an SeZenis gamo arsebulma qonebam dakarga Tavisifunqciuri daniSnuleba da TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mx-aris warmomadgenlobiTma organom miiRo Sesabamisi gad-wyvetileba.3.1.4. xelisuflebis sxvadasxva donis saqmianobis finansuri safuZvlebi fiskaluri Semosavlebis gamijvna xelisuflebis do-neTa Soris SesabamisobaSi unda iyos maT Soris ufle-bamosilebis gamijvnasTan. municipalitetebs Soris maqsimalurad unda iqnesdaZleuli fiskalur SesaZleblobaTa uTanasworoba, racunda ganxorcieldes TviTmmarTvelobis doneTa SorisSemosavlebis ganawilebisa da gamoTanabrebiTi politi-kis saSualebiT. sxvadasxva donis biujetebisTvis unda arsebobdesbiujetis SemosavliT da xarjviT nawilebs Soris urT-ierTkavSiri. fiskaluri decentralizaciis prioritet-ulobis gaTvaliswinebiT, es principi dafuZnebulia:a) xelisuflebis Sesabamisi donis uflebamosilebasa da am uflebamosilebis zegavlenaze instituciur da fizikur infrastruqturaze, socialur-ekonomikur garemoze, gadasaxadis gadamxdelze;b) konkretuli gadasaxadis fiskalur-ekonomikur Tavise- burebebsa da mis maregulirebel funqciaze; amasTan, rogorc qonebaze, aseve Semosavlebze dawesebul ga- nakveTTan dakavSirebiT, municipalitetsa da mxares unda hqondeT maTi regulirebis uflebamosileba - 56 -
  58. 58. erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil CarCoSi, raTa TviTmmarTvelobis erTeulebs gaaCndeT SesaZle- bloba, kanoniT dadgenil farglebSi areguliron maT uflebamosilebaSi arsebuli gadasaxadis ganakveTebi.qonebis gadasaxadi municipaluri donis xelisuflebis umTavresi ufle-bamosileba adgilobriv infrastruqturas ukavSirdeba.am uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis xarisxi uSualogavlenas axdens aqtivebis infrastruqturul uzrunve-lyofasa da mis Rirebulebaze. aqedan gamomdinare, aq-tivebze dawesebuli gadasaxadebi (magaliTad, qonebis damiwis gadasaxadebi) srulad miekuTvneba municipaluridonis biujets. municipalitetis teritoriaze arsebulinebismieri qoneba (maT Soris, saxelmwifo qoneba) kanoniTdadgenil farglebSi ibegreba qonebis gadasaxadiT.saSemosavlo da mogebis gadasaxadebi samxareo xelisuflebas mniSvnelovani funqciebigaaCnia mxaris ekonomikuri garemos formirebaSi, maT So-ris, agraruli seqtoris, mcire da saSualo biznesis daSesabamisi infrastruqturis ganviTarebaSi. TviTmmarTvelobisa da mxaris uflebamosilebebigavlenas axdens piradi da korporatiuli Semosavlebiszrdaze; amasTan, saxelmwifo mniSvnelovanwilad uzrun-velyofs fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis saqmianobisT-vis Sesabamis samarTlebriv da infrastruturul bazas.Sesabamisad, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi unda ganawildesmxaresa da TviTmmarTvelobis doneebs Soris, xolo mo-gebis gadasaxadebidan Semosuli Semosavlebi unda gadan-awildes centrsa da mxares Soris. saSemosavlo gadasaxadi: municipalur da regionuldoneTa Soris uflebamosilebis gamijvnidan gamomdin-are, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi regionsa da municipalitets - 57 -
  59. 59. Soris ziari tipis gadasaxadia. Sesabamisad, Cven mierSemoTavazebuli modeliT, saSemosavlo gadasaxadis saga-dasaxado ganakveTis 2/3 unda miimarTos municipalurbiujetSi, 1/3 ki _ samxareo biujetSi (20%-iani ganakve-Tis SemTxvevaSi, 15-5%). amasTan, municipalitetebsa damxareebs unda hqondeT sagadasaxado ganakveTebis regu-lirebis SesaZlebloba, romlis diapazoni unda ganisaz-Rvros Semdegnairad: municipalitetisTvis mikuTvnebuliganakveTis maqsimumi (15%), rogorc gadasaxadis zeda zR-vari da ganakveTis naxevari (7,5 %), rogorc gadasaxadisqveda zRvari; mxarisTvis, Sesabamisad, 5% da 2,5%. saSemosavlo gadasaxadis mTliani ganakveTis Semci-rebis SemTxvevaSi, municipalitetsa da mxares Soris ga-nakveTebis ziarad ganawilebis principi da misi reguli-rebis diapazonebi analogiuri proporciiT Seicvleba anganicdis garkveul koreqtirebas im droisTvis arsebulimdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT. saSemosavlo gadasaxadismiznebisTvis gadasaxadis gadamxdeli piris registraciaxdeba Sesabamis municipalitetSi, misi sacxovrebeli reg-istraciis adgilis mixedviT. saSemosavlo gadasaxadebisgamijvna ki xdeba am municipalitetsa da im mxaris samx-areo biujets Soris, romlis SemadgenlobaSic SedisaRniSnuli municipaliteti. mogebis gadasaxadi: mogebis gadasaxadis sagadasaxa-do baza formirdeba sawarmoTa ekonomikuri saqmiano-bis Sedegad. amasTan, sawarmos materialuri aqtivebiSesaZlebelia fragmentirebuli iyos sxvadasxva mxareSi.Sesabamisad, aucilebelia principi, romliTac moxdebakonkretuli mxarisTvis mogebis gadasaxadis gadamxdelismikuTvneba. am TvalsazrisiT, SesaZlebelia gamoviyenoTprincipi, rom, Tu sawarmos materialuri aqtivebis 50%-ze meti faqtobrivad ganlagebulia mocemuli mxaristeritoriaze, an mniSvnelovani fragmentaciis SemTxveva-Si, am aqtivebis udidesi wili ganlagebulia am mxaris - 58 -
  60. 60. teritriaze, maSin es sawarmo mogebis gadasaxadis gadamx-delad registrirebulia am mxareSi. mis mier gadaxdilimogebis gadasaxadis 50% miemarTeba Sesabamis samxareobiujetSi. es xels Seuwyobs, rom mxareebma izrunon maTteritoriaze xelsayreli biznes-garemos SeqmnisaTvis daufro meti mwarmoebluri aqtivebis mosazidad.arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi centraluri xelisuflebis funqciidan gamomdinare,mizanSewonilia, rom mas, ZiriTadad, mivakuTvnoT ara-pirdapiri gadasaxadebi, importis gadasaxadi, damatebi-Ti Rirebulebis gadasaxadi (dRg) da aqcizi.mosakreblebi, jarimebi da sxva Semosavlebi xelisuflebis doneTa Soris calkeuli mosakreblebilogikur safuZvelze unda gaimijnos. bunebrivi resursebis mosakrebeli _ imisda mixedviT unda iyos diferencirebuli, Tu rogor aris xelisu- flebis doneTa Soris gamijnuli bunebrivi resurse- biT operirebis funqciebi. sanebarTvo tipis mosakreblebi _ xelisuflebis sx- vadasxva doneTa Soris unda gaimijnos sanebarTvo uflebebis gamijvnis Sesabamisad. sajaro sakuTrebaSi arsebuli sawarmoebidan miRebuli Semosavlebi da dividendebi _ im xelisuflebis dones miekuTvneba, vinc am sawarmoSi flobs Sesabamis wils. jarimebidan, sauravebidan da momsaxurebis mosakre- blebidan miRebuli Semosavlebi _ Tu municipaluri an samxareo done axorcielebs delegirebul ufle- bamosilebas, romelic iTvaliswinebs Sesabamisi mo- sakreblebis miRebas, aRniSnuli mosakrebeli (ja- rima, sauravi, safasuri) miemarTeba Sesabamisi mu- - 59 -
  61. 61. nicipalitetis an mxaris biujetSi. SemdgomSi es Semosavlebi gaiTvaliswineba aRniSnuli delegire- buli uflebamosilebisTvis gankuTvnili miznobrivi transferis daangariSebisas.Semosulobebi privatizaciidan saxelmwifo, samxareo an municipalur sakuTrebaSi ar-sebuli qonebis realizaciidan Semosuli Tanxebi sruladCairicxeba biujetSi imis Sesabamisad, Tu vis sakuTrebaswarmoadgens aRniSnuli qoneba. amasTan, Tu delegirebu-li uflebamosilebis farglebSi municipalitetma/mxaremqoneba Seqmna saxelmwifo transferis gamoyenebiT, misimesakuTre xdeba Sesabamisi municipaliteti/mxare.saxelisuflebaTaSoriso grantebi saxelisuflebaTaSoriso transferebi moicavs 4 sax-eobas: gaTanabrebiTi grantebi; miznobrivi transferi delegirebuli uflebamo­ i­ s lebis dafinansebisTvis; kapitaluri transferebi arafinansuri aqtivebis zrdis­ vis; T specialuri/sagangebo transferebi. yvela transferis saxeoba gansxvavebuli Sinaarsi-saa da maT Soris mkafio gamijvna unda moxdes. amasTan,gaTanabrebiTi granti danarCeni sami saxeobisgan imijneba2 ZiriTadi maxasiaTebliT: 1. am grantis gadacema xdebamxolod saxelmwifo biujetidan pirdapir municipalurbiujetebSi; 2. municipaliteti gaTanabrebiTi grantiTmiRebul Semosavlebs damoukideblad, sakuTari Sexed-ulebisamebr iyenebs eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis - 60 -
  62. 62. ganxorcielebisaTvis. dauSvebelia misi gamoyeneba dele-girebuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisaTvis. gaTanabrebiTi granti gaTanabrebiTi granti, Sesabamisi municipalitetebisekonomikuri potencialis gaTvaliswinebiT, gamoiyenebamunicipalitetebs Soris gansxvavebuli finansuri SesaZle-blobebis gamosaTanabreblad. kanoniT dgindeba, rom yovel-wliurad gaTanabrebiTi grantisTvis saxelmwifo biujetSigaTvaliswinebulia saxelmwifo biujetis ara umcires 10%-isa. gaTanabrebiTi grantis ganawileba municipalitetebsSoris xorcieldeba kanoniT dadgenili formuliT. for-mulaSi gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba Semdegi koeficientebi:sabiujeto Semosavlebi, mosaxleoba, infrastruqtura,sasargeblo miwis farTobebi, mTagorianoba, centralurimagistralidan daSoreba, klimaturi pirobebi da ekonomi-kuri potencialis sxva maxasiaTeblebi. miznobrivi transferebi delegirebuli uflebamosilebis dafinansebisTvis xelisuflebis konkretuli donisTvis delegire-buli uflebamosilebis finansuri uzrunvelyofisTvisgamoiyeneba miznobrivi transferi. Sesabamisad, ufle-bamosilebis delegireba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes Semde-gi mimarTulebebiT:1. Tu saxelmwifo xelisufleba uflebamosilebis dele- girebas axdens municipalitetze, am uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi saxelm- wifo biujetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba municipalite- tis biujetSi;2. Tu saxelmwifo xelisufleba uflebamosilebis dele- girebas axdens mxareze, am uflebamosilebis ganxor- - 61 -
  63. 63. cielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi saxelmwifo biu- jetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba samxareo biujetSi;3. Tu mxaris xelisufleba uflebamosilebis delegire- bas axdens municipalitetze, am uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi mxaris biujetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba municipalitetis biujetSi;4. Tu municipalitetis xelisufleba uflebamosilebis delegirebas axdens mxareze, am uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi munici- palitetis biujetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba mxaris biujetSi;5. Tu municipalitetis xelisufleba uflebamosilebis delegirebas axdens sxva municipalitetze, am ufle- bamosilebis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli sax- srebi municipalitetis biujetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba Sesabamisad sxva municipalitetis biujetSi. kapitaluri transferi kapitaluri transferi xorcieldeba, rodesac ara-finansuri aqtivebis gazrdis mizniT xelisuflebis erTiorgano sxva organos gadascems finansur saxsrebs, ro-melic aisaxeba mis biujetSi. aseTi kapitaluri trans-feri SeiZleba ganxorcieldes:a) saxelmwifo xelisuflebidan municipalitetebze an mxareebze;b) mxaridan municipalitetebze;g) erTi municipalitetidan meore municipalitetze;d) municipalitetidan mxareze. kapitaluri transferi SeiZleba iTvaliswinebdes - 62 -

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