Gdri competition laws and institutions
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Gdri competition laws and institutions

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Gdri competition laws and institutions Gdri competition laws and institutions Document Transcript

  • saq arTv el o s ganviT a r e b i s kvl e v i Ti in s t i t u t i kon k u r e n c i i s kan o n e b i da in s t i t u t e b i saerTa S o r i s o pr a q t i k i s mi m o x i l v a 1
  • T b i l i s i 201 2 SinaarsiabreviaturaSesavali ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4nawili I. antimonopoliuri regulirebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebiTavi I konkurenciis kanonebis miznebi, gavrcelebis sfero ----------- 8 da ZiriTadi koncefciebiTavi II konkurenciis kanonebis ZiriTadi debulebebi ---------------------- 222.1 antikonkurenciuli SeTanxmebebi/xelSekrulebebi ----------------------- 222.2 dominirebuli mdgomareoba da misi borotad d gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuliakrZalvebi ------------------------------------------------------------------------292.3 koncentracia (Serwymebi da SeZenebi, gaerTianebebi) ------------------------42nawili II. konkurenciuli politikis aRmasrulebeli organoebis dizainisa da efeqtianobis SesaxebTavi III. konkurenciis saagentoebis (komisiebis, ofisebis) dizaini ---52Tavi IV. konkurenciis saagentoebis (komisiebis, ofisebis) efeqtianobis Sesaxeb------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 59 2
  • daskvnebi da winadadebebi-------------------------------------------------------------------------71gamoyenebuli literatura ------------------------------------------------------------------------72danarTebi----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77danarTi 1. konkurenciis kanonebi da aRmasrulebeli institutebidanarTi 2 konkurenciisa da momxmarebelTa dacvis organoebidanarTi 3 kanonmdeblobis miznebi gamokiTxuli qveynebis mixedviTdanarTi 4-5 mniSvnelovani sabazro Zalauflebis Sefasebis ZiriTadi kriteriumebi(SerCeva moxda mxolod SeTavazebuli kriteriumebidan, Tumca sxva kriteriumebsaciyeneben)danarTi 6 konkurenciis saagentoebis msaxasiTeblebi SerCeuli qveynebis mixedviTdanarTi 7 dominirebis prezumpcia da usafrTxoebis zRvruli normebi abre vi a t u r aADB - aziis ganviTarebis bankiCARICOM - karibis qveynebis gaerTianebaCOMESA – aRmosavleT da dasavleT afrikis saerTo bazariDCFTA – SeTanxmeba Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis SesaxebDOJ- AaSS iusticiis departamentiICN - konkurenciis saerTaSoriso qseli 3
  • EU - evrokavSiriEC - evrokomisiaEBRD - evropis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis banki aziisECN - evropis konkurenciuli qseliFTC – aSS vaWrobis federaluri komisiaFTA – SeTanxmeba Tavisufali vaWrobis SesaxebMERCOSUR – 1991 wlis politikur-ekonomikuri SeTanxmeba argentinas brazilias,urgvais da paragvais SorisOFT - Tavisufali vaWrobis ofisiOECD - ekonomikuri TanamSRomlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciaPCA –SeTanxmeba partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis SesaxebUNCTAD - gaeros vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis komisiaWTO - msoflios savaWro organizaciaWB - msoflio bankiDF Ses a v ali 4
  • antimonopoliuri regulirebis tradiciebis mqone qveynebSic ki gansxvavebuliadamokidebuleba konkurenciis kanonebis miznebisa da maTi miRwevissaSualebebisadmi. miuxedavad amisa, yvela erTsulovania Semdegi principebismimarT: - konkurenciis kanonebi unda iswrafodnen monopoliuri qcevisa da iseTi SeTanxmebebis Tavidan acilebisken, romlebic zians ayenebs momxmarebels. - am kanonebma unda Seqmnan xelSemwyobi pirobebi axali kompaniebis gamosasvlelad bazarze da arsebulTa Soris jansaRi konkurenciis dasacavad - kanonis iZulebiTi aRsrulebis reJimi unda iyos cxadi, prognozirebadi da transparentuli, raTa daarwmunos rogorc investorebi, rom isini daculi iqnebian bazarze damkvidrebuli firmebis antikonkurentuli qcevebisagan da maTi saqmianobac obieqturad iqneba Sefasebuli; aseve moqalaqeebi imaSi, rom daculi iqnebian monopolisti sawarmoebis mxridan mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebisa da diqtatisagan. konkurenciuli kanonmdebloba SesaZloa iyos zedmetad mkacri an loialuri.Sesabamisad, gansxvavebuli iqneba misi praqtikuli efeqtic. orive SemTxvevaSiwagebulia momxmarebeli Semdeg garemoebaTa gamo: a) Tu kanoni zedmetad loialuria, momxmarebels uwevs dausabuTebladgazrdili fasebis gadaxda, radganac konkurenti firmebi dausjelad axorcielebenSerwymas, farul SeTanxmebebs da sabazro Zalebis SemzRudav sxva qmedebebs. 5
  • dominirebuli kompaniebi ki aseve dausjelad ,,aSeneben” sxva kompaniebisaTvisbazarze Sesasvlel barierebs. b) Tu kanoni Zalze mkacria biurokratiis miswrafebam warmoebismoculobebisa da fasebis kontrolisadmi SesaZlebelia gamoiwvios bazarze moqmedisamewarmeo struqturebis iniciativis paralizeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi mosalodnelia,rom warmatebuli firmebi daisajon sruliad damsaxurebulad miRebuli maRali mogebisgamo, an sxva kompaniebisaTvis miyenebuli zianisaTvis. operaciebis vertikaluriintegracia maqsimaluri efeqtianobis donemde ekrZalebaT aradominirebulkompaniebsac ki, romlebic ar floben mniSvnelovan sabazro SesaZleblobebs daSesabamisad, survilic rom hqondeT, naklebad SesaZlebelia, rom isini borotadgamoiyeneben sakuTar sabazro Zaluflebas. es cnobili dilemaa da ekonomikuriTeoria da praqtika gamoyofs antimonopoliuri kanonebidan im komponentebs (e.w.,,indikatorebs”), romelTa gamoyenebiTac SesaZlebelia ganisazRvros Tu ramdenadwarmatebiT SeZles ama Tu im qveynis kanonmdeblebma misigadaWra.kerZod:amasTan, Sinaarsobrivad sworad gaazrebuli da wakiTxuli kanonimxolod pirveli nabijia imis gasagebad Tu rogor imoqmedebs igi saqmian wreebze,momxmareblebze da sazogadoebaze. interesebze mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebulirogor iqneba sakanonmdeblo debulebebis gamoyenebuli antimonopoliuri organoebismier da ganmartebuli mosamarTleebis mier. konkurenciis saerTaSoriso wesebi da principebi da, rac mTavaria,konkurenciis roli ekonomikis ganviTarebasa da sazogadoebis keTildReobisamaRlebaSi, dRis wesrigSi ayenebs konkurenciuli politikis Seqmnisa dagajansaRebis amocanas nebismier qveyanaSi. Sesabamisad qveynebis 6
  • umravlesobaSi konkurenciuli politika ganixileba rogorc ekonomikuri politikisfganuyofeli nawili da reformebis erTerTi ZiriTadi mimarTuleba. aRniSnulzemiuTiTebs mraval qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli da mimdinare reformebi konkurenciissferoSi da konkurenciis kanonisa da politikis srulyofis mizniT ganxorcielebulimaregulirebeli qmedebebi. gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiurda konkurenciis politikis reformebi90-ian wlebSi, rac ukavSirdeba postsocialistur qveynebSi mimdinare saxalxomeurneobis demonopolizaciis, saxelmwifo qonebis privatizebisa da ekonomikisliberalizebis procesebs. saqarTveloSi am sakiTxebis aqtualoba gamowveulia rogorc konkurenciisAaRiarebuli roliT ekonomikis zrdasa da ganviTarebaSi da momxmarebelTakeTildReobis amaRlebaSi, aseve antikonkurenciuli praqtikis gaaqtiurebiT (m.S.sasaqonlo bazrebis monopolizaciis gaZlierebuli tendenciebiTa da karteluriSeTanxmebebis aSkara niSnebiT) da saqarTvelos evrotlantikuri ambiciebiT. yovelivezemoarniSnuli qveynis xelisuflebas akisrebs Sesabamis valdebulebebs da maT Soriszrunvas konkurenciuli politikis iseTi elementebis uzrunvelyofaze, rogoricaa: a)konkurenciis saTanado, cxadi da prognozirebadi wesebis arseboba, b) maT dacvazeefeqturi saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba, g) aRsrulebis sando da gamWvirvale praqtika. saqarTveloSi konkurenciis politikis samarTlebrivi da organizaciuli bazismSenebloba araTanmimdevrulobiT, wyvetilobiTa da winaaRmdegobebiTxasiaTdeboda. iseve rogorc sxva postsocialistur qveynebSi, saqarTveloSikonkurenciuli politika, rogorc ekonomikuri politikis sruliad axali mimarTuleba,garkveuli obieqturi problemebisa da subiqturi winaaRmdegobebis (maT Soris biznesinteresebis mqone gavleniani saxelisuflebo wreebis mxridan) fonze viTardeboda, 7
  • rasac kidev ufro arTulebda 90-ian wlebSi qveyanaSi Seqmnili umZimesi politikuri dasocialur-ekonomikuri viTareba. miuxedavad amisa, antimonopoliuri politikisganviTarebis sawyis etapze iyo garkveuli warmatebebic, rogorc sakanonmdeblobazis aseve instituciuri ganviTarebisa da kanondmeblobis aRsrulebis procesSi.aRniSnulze miuTiTebs, rogorc antimonopoliuri samsaxuris saqmianobis amsaxvelimasalebi, aseve araerTi saerTaSoriso organizaciisa, Tu ucxoeli eqspertis Sefasebac(vrclad es sakiTxebi ganxilulia analitikur mimoxilvaSi: saqarTvelos konkurenciulipolitikis retrospeqtiva -1992-2012 ww) da rCevebic Semdgomi ganviTarebisa dapolitikis efeqtianobis amaRlebisaTvis. sagulisxmoa, rom 2000-iani wlebis dasawyisSinacvlad konkurenciuli politikis ganviTarebisa da saerTaSoriso normebTanmiaxloebisa (rasac saqarTvelos xelisuflebas 1996 wels evrokavSirTan da mis wevrqveynebTan xelmowerili partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis xelSekrulebacavaldebulebda) da antimonopoliuri samsaxuris statusis gaZlirebisa (rasac im drosmoqmedi antikorufciuli sabWoc xazgasmiT miuTiTebda), TandaTanobiT gamoikveTazogadi konkurenciuli kanonmdeblobis dargobrivi niSniT fragmentaciisa da im drosmoqmedi antimonopoliuri samsaxuris dasustebis mcdeloba. dasanania, romvardebis revoluciis Semdeg damokidebuleba konkurenciuli politikisadmi kidev ufrogauaresda. Sesabamisad, dReisaTvis, rodesac araerT postocialistur qveyanaSikonkurenciuli politikis ganvitarebis 20 wlis Sedegebs aanalizeben, saqarTveloSi,konkurenciuli politikis reforma kvlav aqtualuria da SeiZleba iTqvas, rom yvelaferiTavidan iwyeba aseT viTarebaSi, aucileblad mogvaCnia sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis imgvaradgaazreba, rom saTanado politikuri nebis pirobebSi SesaZlebeli iyos saqarTvelos 8
  • konstituciiT (30-e muxliT) garantirebuli konkurencis ganviTareba da momxmarebelTauflebebis uflebebis relizacia SedarebiT naklebi regulirebis tvirTiTa da danaxarjebiT.amasTan, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi da SesabamisisamarTlebrivi normebis dakanoneba mxolod pirveli nabijia konkurenciuli garemosgajansaRebis gzaze da, Tu rogor imoqmedebs kanoni saqmiani wreebis,momxmareblebisa da sazogadoebis interesebze damokidebulia sakanondbelodebulebebis interpretaciaze, ganmartebaze da gamoyenebaze aRmasrulebeliorganoebisa da mosamarTleebis mier. Sesabamisad, dRis wesrigSia ara mxolodkonkurenciis cxadi wesebis dakanoneba, aramed kanonmdeblobis administrirebisada iZulebiTi aRsrulebis efeqtiani sistemis Seqmnis sakiTxic. winamdebare analitikuri mimoxilva miznad isaxavs farTo sazogadoebisinformirebas konkurenciis saerTaSoriso principebis, wesebisa, agreTve sxvadsxvaqveynebis kanonebisa da maTi aRsrulebis aprobirebul meqanizmebze. migvaCnia,rom es masala, sxva faqtorebTan erTad, mniSvnelovnad gaadvilebs konkurenciisSesaxeb kanonmdeblobis ZiriTadi debulebebis formirebas/gaazrebas daSesabamisi aRmasrulebeli institutis dizainis ZiriTadi elementebis gansazRvras.na wili pi r v e l i . antim o n o p o l i u ri re g u li re b issam a rTl e b rivi safuZvl e bi 9
  • T a v i 1. k o n k u r e n c i i s kan o n e b i s mi z a n i , g a v r c e l e b i s sf e r o d a Zi r i T a d i k o n c e f c i e b i saerTaSoriso doneze aRiarebuli biznesis SemzRudavi praqtikis saxelmwifokontrolis (maT Soris msoflios savaWro organizaciisa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebisada TanamSromlobis organizaciisa da gaeros) wesebi da principebi saxelmwifoebsmouwodebs miiRon, srulyon da efeqturad ganaxorcielon Sesabamisi sakanonmdebloaqtebi, daafuZnon kanonmdebloba biznesis Semzudavi praqtikis (mogvianebiT estermini Seicvala antikonkurenciuli biznes praqtikiT) aRkveTisa da efeqturi regulirebisprincipebze, uzrunvelyon aradiskriminaciuli midgoma yvela sawarmosadmi, srulyonkanonis iZulebiTi aRsrulebis RonisZiebebi. analogiuri moTxovnebi da principebigaTvaliswinebulia evrokavSiris sadamfuZneblo xelSekrulebis (axali, lisabonisredaqciiT - xelSekruleba evrokavSiris funqciobis Sesaxeb - TFEU, amoqmedda 2009wlidan), konkurenciuli samarTlis ZiriTadi debulebebis saxiT da evrosabWos (1993)gadawyvetilebaSi e.w. “kopenhagentis kriteriumebis” saxiT, romelsac undaakmayoflebdes gawevrianebis msurveli nebismieri kandidati qveyana. dReisaTvis, msoflios 120-ze met qveyanaSi miRebulia gansxvavebulidasaxelebis, dizainis, Tumca msgavsi struqturuli elementebis (e.w. ZiriTadifunqcionaluri debulebebis) Semcveli kanonebi konkurenciis Sesaxeb (SemdgomSi -kanoni) da aRsrulebis meqanizmebi (ix. danarTi 1) yvela kanoni Seicavs met naklebad zust, zogad, an ufro konkretul, vrcel anlakonur a) zogad debulebebs kanonis mizani/miznebis da amocanebis, gavrcelebissfero/moqmedebis masStabis Sesaxeb da ZiriTadi koncefciebi/definiciebisgansazRvrebebs.; 1
  • b) e.w. ZiriTad debulebebs, romlebSic Camoyalibebulia “konkurenciuli TamaSiswesebi”, maT Sorisaa: ZiriTadi akrZalvebi/akrZaluli qmedebebi da SeTanxmebebi,gamonaklisebi; g) Sesabamisi institutis administraciuli mowyobisa da kanonisadministrirebasTan dakavSirebul debulebebs; d) darRvevaTa prevenciisa daaRkveTis zomebs da RonisZiebebs, (sanqciebis CaTvliT); gasaCivrebisprocedurebs, zaralis anazRaurebis meqanizmebs da sxva sakiTxebs. zogierTikanoni exeba momxmarebelTa dacvisa da sxva maregulireblebTan urTierTobebisgamijvnisa da koordinaciis sakiTxebsac.kon k u r e n c ii s ka n o ni s miza ni (d a amo c a n e b i ): zogadad,konkurenciis kanonis mizania sasaqonlo da momsaxurebis bazrebze konkurenciisganviTareba da dacva. konkurenciis, rogorc procesis (da ara misi romelimekonkretuli monawilis) dacva, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobs antikonkurenciuli efeqtismqone nebismieri praqtikis SeTanxmebis/qmedebis/qcevis prevencias, gamovlenasada aRkveTas. konkurenciis Sesaxeb kanonebis mizani da amocanebigamomdinareoben konkurenciis SemzRudavi praqtikidan da Sesabamisad,dakavSirebulia iseTi qmedebebis gamovlenas, dauSveblobasa da aRkveTasTan,rogoricaa: antikonkurenciuli SeTanxmebebi sawarmoTa Soris, Serwymebi daSeZenebi Tu maT Sedegad mosdevs sabazro Zalauflebis koncentracia, dominirebulimdgomareoba da misi borotad gamoyeneba, rasac Sedegad mosdevs konkurenciisSesusteba da aRkveTa da uaryofiTad moqmedebs vaWrobis ganviTarebaze daekonomikur ganviTarebaze. sakamaTo ar aris, rom sakanonmdeblo debulebebi iseunda iyos formulirebuli, rom emsaxurebodes kanonis mizans da amocanebs, ar 1
  • iZleodes maTi ormagi interpretaciis saSualebas, an qmnides gaugebrobas maTiaRsrulebis procesSi. amasTan, nebismieri saxelmwifo mowodebulia miiRos dagaaumjobesos da efeqturad aRasrulos Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo aqtebi, agreTveaucilebeli samarTlebrivi da administraciuli kontrolis procedurebi ( maT Soristransnacionaluri korporaciebis SemzRudavi praqtikis winaaRmdeg). miuxedavad msgavsi miznebisa, romlebic ukavSirdeba konkurenciismxardaWeras da dacvas, an masTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs, sxvadsxva qveyniskanonebi miznebis gansxvavebuli formulirebebiT xasiaTdebian. damaxasiaTebeliasxvadasxva kombinaciaSi iseTi frazebis gamoyeneba, rogoricaa: konkurenciisganviTareba, waxaliseba da dacva; kapitalisa da ekonomikuri Zalauflebiskoncentraciis kontroli; inovaciebis waxaliseba; sazogadoebis keTildReobisuzrunvelyofa da dacva; momxmarebelTa keTildReobis uzrunvelyofa da interesebisdacva da sxva. UNCTAD mier Catarebuli kvlevis (kvlevaSi monawileobda 33qveyana) SedegebiT, kanonis erTerTi ZiriTadi amocanaa efeqtiani konkurenciisprocesis (rogorc mizanis da saSualebis) uzrunvelyofa (32 qveyanaSi), momxmarebliskeTildReobis uzrunvelyofa (30 qveyanaSi), efeqtianobis amaRleba (20 qveyanaSi),1ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofa (13 qveyana). Sesabamisi debulebebisSinaarsi qveynebis mixedviT warmodgenilia cxrilSi (ix. cxrili 1). konkurenciis Sesaxeb kanonebi msgavsia gamoyenebuli koncefciebis da maTiganmartebebiს TvalsazrisiTac. amasTan, rogorc praqtika adasturebs, ganmartebebissimravle damaxasiaTebelia im qveynebis kanonebisaTvis, sadac konkurenciulipolitika SedarebiT axalia da, Sesabamisad, konkurnciuli kulturac naklebganviTarebulia. Uufro ganviTarebuli qveynebi ki ganmartebebze aqcents ZiriTadad 1
  • meorad kanonmdeblobasa da instruqciebSi amaxvileben. aSS-Si am sakiTxSigansakuTrebuli roli aqvT sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebs. rac Seexeba konceptualurmsgavsebas, es ukanaskneli ganpirobebulia da aixsneba saerTaSoriso praqtikaSidamkvidrebuli (UNCTAD, wesebisa da principebis kompleqsi, OECD da sxvawyaroebi) harmonizaciisa da ganviTarebis ufro maRal stadiaze myofi qveynebisgamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebis tendenciebiT. ama Tu im qveynis konkurenciulipolitikis formirebaze gansakuTrebul gavlenas axdens saerTaSoriso organizaciebisrekomendaciebi da tipiuri normebi, agreTve ama Tu im ekonomikuri Tu politikuriblokisa da gaerTianebis pirobebi wevri/ gawevrianebis msurveli qveynebisaTvis.sailustraciod gamodgeba OECD-WB da UNCTAD-is tipiuri kanonebi konkurenciisSesaxeb, EU Acquis ( wesebi konkurenciis sferoSi) da UNCTAD antikonkurenciulipraqtikis SemzRudavi wesebi da principebi, aseve evrokomisiis instruqciebi,meToduri miTiTebebi da sxva masalebi.ka n o ni s amo c a n e b i - konkurenciis Sesaxeb kanonebis ZiriTadi mizaniakonkurenciis ganviTareba da dacva, xolo amocanebis speqtri sxvadasxvakanonebSi met naklebad gansxvavebulia da qvemoT CamoTTvlilidan erTi anramdenime komponentisagan Sedgeba (ix.cxr. 1):- mom x m a r e b l i s keTild R e o b a- ekon o m i k u r i ef e q t i a n o b i s zr d a ( resursebis optimaluriganawileba da maqsimalurad sasargeblod gamoyeneba, warmoebis efeqtianoba.iseTi garemos Seqmna romelic waxalisebs efetqianobis amaRlebas da sxva); 1
  • - kon k u r e n c i i s pro c e s i ( mraval kanonSi pirdapiraa miTiTebulikonkurenciis procesis SenarCunebis auciloblobaze im qmedebebis SezRudvis gziT,romelic aferxebs bazarze Sesvlasa da keTilsindisiri konkurenciis pirobebisSenarCunebas. swored konkurenciis procesis dacva ganixileba kanonis miznismiRwevis (maT Soris momxareblis dacvisa da keTildReobis amaRlebis) ZiriTadxerxad;- sxv a mo s a z r e b e b i ( mravali kanoni sxva mosazrebebsac Seicavs,romlebic uSualod konkurenciis kanonis sferos ar ganekuTvneba: magaliTad zogierTkanonSi deklarirebulia iseTi amocanebi, rogoricaa keTilsindisieri konkurencia,erovnuli ekonomikis ganviTareba, regionaluri ganviTareba, aqcenti amaTu imdargobrivi politikaze da sxva). aSS uzenaesi sasamarTlos poziciaa, rom antimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobisganxorcielebisas/dacvisas analizis procesSi naklebi yuradReba daeTmossakiTxebs, romelic pirdapir ar exeba konkurencias. da rom analizis sagani unda iyosSezRudvis konkretuli faqti da misi mniSvneloba konkurenciisaTvis da ara is, Turamdenad sasargebloa konkurencia zogadad sazogadoebis interesebis an garkveulidargisaTvisgansxvavebuli midgomebi konkurenciis kanonis miznebTan dakavSirebiT cxrili 1 1
  • qveyana kanonis mizanialJiri Tavisufali konkurenciis organizeba da waxaliseba, ekonomikuri efeqtianobis stimulireba da momxmareblis keTildReobis amaRlebasamxreT Tanabari monawileoba erovnul ekonomikaSi, ekonomikisafrika efeqtianobisa da qmedunarianobis amaRleba, araregulirebad bazrebze momxmareblis Tavisufali arCevanis uzrunvelyofa, potencialis gazrda saerTaSoriso konkurenciisaTvis, konkurentuli ekonomikis xelisSemSleli praqtikis SezRudva, sakuTrebis uflebebis gadacema sazogadoebrivi interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ekonomikis sferoSi konkurenciis monitoringisaTvis damoukidebeli dawesebulebebis Seqmna, am sferoSi qveynis saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis SesrulebaSveicaria ekonomikis damRupveli an socialuri Sedegebis mqone kartelebis an sxva SezRudvebis/qmedebebis Tavidan acileba sabazro ekonomikis interesebisa liberalur principebze damyarebuli midgomebis gaTvaliswinebiTungreTi sasaqonlo bazrebze konkurenciis mxardaWerasTan dakavSirebuli sazogadoebis interesebis dacva, keTilsindisieri saqmiani praqtikisa da momxmarebelTa interesebis dacvadania resursebis efeqtiani gadanawilebis waxaliseba realuri konkurenciis gziT sawarmoTa da momxmarebelTa keTildReobisaTvisukraina ekonomikuriis konkurenciis mxardaWera da dacva, monopolizmis SezRudva, ekonomikuri efeqtianobisa da konkurentul urTierTobebze damyarebuli ekonomikis efeqtiani funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofa 1
  • evrokavSiri Seqmna sistemisa, romelic ar dauSvebs Sida bazarze konkurenciis rRvevasnorvegia konkurenciis waxaliseba da am gziT resursebis efeqtiani gadanawileba, momxmareblis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiTzambia konkurenciis waxaliseba da dacva, monopoliebisa da koncentraciebis regulireba, momxmareblis keTildReobis dacva, warmoebisa da ganawilebis efeqtianobis amaRleba da sxva.CineTi monopoliuri qcevis Tavidan acileba, keTilsindisieri konkurenciis dacva ekonomikuri efeqtianobis amaRleba, momxmareblTa interesebis da sazogadoebrivi interesebis dacva da jansaRi socialisturi ekonomikis ganviTarebaSvecia kanoni miznad isaxavs efeqtiani konkurenciis xelisSemSleli pirobebis likvidacias warmoebisa da ganawilebis sferoSiruseTi ek. sivrcis mTlianoba, saqonlis Tavisufali gadaadgileba, konkurenciis dacva, ekonomikuri saqmianobis Tavisufleba da sasasaqonlo bazrebis efeqtiani funqciobisaTvis pirobebis SeqmnasomxeTi Tavisufali konkurenciis waxaliseba da dacva, Sesabamisi garemos Seqmna mewarmeobis ganviTareba da momxmareblis uflebebis dacvaindoeTi imdenad vrceli formulirebaa, rom citireba zedmetad miviCnieT (q.l.)taivani savaWro operaciebis mowesrigeba, momxmareblis interesebis dacva, ekonomikuri stimuluroba da ayvaveba (Tu aRorZineba?) 1
  • laTinuri antitrastuli zomebis gamoyeneba konstituciiT garantirebuli iseTi amerikis uflebebis dasacavad, rogoricaa Tavisufali mewarmeoba, qonebis qveynebi: socialuri mniSvneloba, momxmarebelTa dacva, ekonomikuri Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebis dauSvebloba da sxv. kolumbia konkurencia konstituciuri uflebaa da saxelmwifom unda miiRos kanonebi ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis SezRudvis sawinaaRmdegod da ibrZolos borotad gamoyenebis nebismieri formis winaaRmdeg panama Tavisufali konkurenciisa da SejibrebiTobis procesis dacva, monopoliuri praqtikis da sxva SezRudvebis aRkveTa da momxmareblis uzenaesi uflebebis dacva peru monopolisturi, makontrolebeli da SemzRudavi praqtikis aRkveTa, romelic exeba konkurenciis Tavisuflebas da sxva. kanada konkurenciis mxardaWera da dacva ekonomikisa da misi unaris stimulirebis mizniT, raTa gaizardos kanadis monawileioba msoflio bazrebze da, rom mcire da saSualo sawarmoebs SeeZloT monawileoba ekonomikaSi da momxmaeblisaTvis konkurenciuli fasebisa da arCevanis uzrunvelyofa da sxva aSS efeqtianobis konkurenciis procesis (rogorc saSualebis da rogorc miznis) uzrunvelyofa, momxmareblis keToldReobis uzrunvlyofa, ekonomikuri efeqtianobis amaRlebawyaro: Modal law on competition (2010), available at: http://www.unctad.org 1
  • rac Seexeba saqarTvelos konkurenciuli kanonmdebelobis ZiriTad mizans,sxvadasxva wlebSi miRebul, gauqmebul da moqmed sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi igigansxvavebulad ganimarteba (ix. cxrili 2) konkurenciis kanonis mizani saqarTveloSi cxrili 2sakanonmdeblo aqtis dasaxeleba kanonis mizanisaxelmwifo sabWos dekreti dekretSi mizani calke gansazRvruli ar aris,“monopoliuri saqmianobis aRkveTisa Tumca gamokveTilia is amocanebi rasacda konkurenciis ganviTarebis unda emsaxurebodes antimonopoliuriSesaxeb” (1992) organo. kerZod: me-13 muxlis Tanaxmad, ZiriTadi amocanebia: “mewarmeobis mxardaWera da sasaqonlo bazrebze konkurenciis ganviTarebisaTvis pirobebis Seqmna; monopolizmis, bazarze dominirebuli mdgomareobis borotad 1
  • gamoyenebis tavidan acilebisa da SezRudvis, arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciis aRmofxvris RonisZiebaTa ganxorcieleba; antimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobis dacvis saxelmwifo kontroli.”saqarTvelos kanoni monopoliuri „ am kanonis mizania saqarTveloSisaqmianobisa da konkurenciis samewarmeo saqmianobis xelSewyobisa daSesaxeb (1996) konkurentuli garemos SeqmnisaTvis organizaciul-samarTlebrivi bazis Seqmna da momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacva (muxli 1. p1)“.saqarTvelos kanoni „ Tavisufali ” - fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebisaTvis, maTivaWrobisa da konkurenciis organizaciuli-samarTlebrivi da sakuTrebisSesaxeb“(2005) formis miuxedavad, saqarTveloSi Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciisaTvis barierebis moxsna, kerZod: a)ekonomikuri agentebis konkurenciisaTvis xelis arSeSla; b)bazarze Sexvlis administraciuli barierebis aRkveTa da bazarze ekonomikuri agentebis Tavisufali daSvebisaTvis xelis arSeSla; g) saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi xelisuflebis organoebis mxridan diskriminaciuli barierebis arsebobis aRkveTa da maTi 1
  • Seqmnis dauSvebloba;d) SezRuduli konkurenciis pirobebSiregulirebad ekonomikur sferoebSisazogadoebis sasicocxlo da ekonomikuriinteresebis dacva.” 2
  • saqarTvelos kanonis proeqti”Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis მუხლი 2.Sesaxeb” (2012 wlis 29 martis “ამ კანონისmdgomareobiT) მიზანია საქართვ ელოში თავისუ ფალი ვაჭრობ ისა და კონკურ ენციის უზრუნ ველყოფ ა, კერძოდ : ა) თავისუ ფალი მეწარმე ობისა და კონკურ ენციის განვითა რების ხელშეწ ყობა; ბ) ბაზრის ლიბერა ლიზაცი ის ხელშეწ ყობის მიზნით , სახელმწ იფო ორგანო ს ან/და ადგილ 2
  • konkurenciis Sesaxeb kanonebis ZiriTadi struqturuli elementebia: zogadinawili (mizani, definiciebi, kanonis gavrcelebis sfero), ZiriTadi funqcionaluridebulebebi (antikonkurenciuli SeTanxmebebis, monopoliuri mdgomareobis borotadgamoyenebis dauSvebloba, Serwymebi da SeZenebi, maTTan dakavSirebulinotifikaciis sistemebi da sagamoZiebo procedurebi. zogier kanonSi am CamonaTvalsemateba debulebebi seqtorul maregulireblebTan urTierTobebis reglamentirebasTan,momxmarebelTa dacvasTan dakavSirebiT) da debulebebi kanonisadministrirebasTan dakavSirebiT. es ukanaskneli moicavs administraciuli organos(miuxedavad dasaxelebisa: saagento, komisia, ofisi da sxva) Seqmnisa da funqciobisZiriTad mareglamentirebel normebs, romlebic exeba iseT sakiTxebs rogoricaa:organos dizaini, mandati, Tanamdebobaze daniSnvis da gaTavisuflebis procedurebi(zogierT SemTxvevaSi sakvalifikacio moTxovnebic), iZulebiTi aRsrulebismeqanizmebs (sanqciebi da sxva) gadawyvetilebebis gasaCivrebis procedurebs dasxva sakiTxebs. bazris monawileTa da TviT konkurenciisaTvis mniSvnelovania rogorc kanonisZiriTadi debulebebis aseve miznebis, gamoyenebis sferoebisa da gamonaklisebisswori gaazreba da cxadad Camoyalibeba, raTa administrirebis procesi ar iyosmoulodneli da araprognozirebadi sazogadoebisaTvis. gasaTvalisiwinebelia, rom racufro axalia sistema (mag. indoeTi, barbadosi, nikaragua, iamaika, indoeTi da sxva)miT ufro vrcel da detalur ganmartebebs gvTavazobs kanoni ama Tu im definiciasTandakavSirebiT. zogierT SemTxvevaSi erTidaigive termins sxvadasxva datvirTvac 2
  • gaaCnia. am mxriv sainteresoa samarTlebrivi ganmartebebi da konkurenciasTandakavSirebuli koncefciebi. yvela kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb gansazRvravs s u b i q t e b i s wr e s ,romlebzec vrceldeba kanoniT dawesebuli normebi, kanonis moqmedebiso bi e q t u r sfe ro s - akrZaluli qmedebebisa da gamonaklisebis saxiT dakanonis gavrcelebis te ri t o riu l area l s masStabs moqmedebisa.AamasTan, rekomendebulia, rom subieqtebis gansazRrisas CamoiTvalos arakonkretuli adresatebi, aramed maxasiaTeblebi Tu visze da ra SemTxvevaSi SeiZlebagavrceldes kanonis debulebebi. magaliTad: kanoTa umravlesoba subiqtebis wresgansazRvravs, rogorc: nebismieri samarTlebrivi formisa da sakuTrebis tipissawarmo, romemlic eweva komerciul saqmianobas (zogierTi qveyana kanonismiznebisaTvis am ganmartebaSi aqcevs saxelmwifo da adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis organoebsac da fizikur pirebsac). e v r o p a S i gavrcelebuliameurne subieqtis koncefcia, romelic ganimarteba, rogorc ekonomikuri saqminobismonawle - iuridiuli statusisa da dafinansebis xerxebis/wyaroebis miuxedavad;in d o n e z i a S i m/subieqti gulisxmobs yvela iuridiul da fizikur pirs, romelic qveynisteritoriaze axorcielebs ekonomikur saqmianobas ( mniSvneloba ara aqvsdamoukideblad Tu xelSekrulebis safuZvelze); in d o e T i s kanonSi sawarmogansazRvrulia, rogorc piri an samTavrobo uwyeba romelic, amaTu im formiTdakavSirebulia saqonelwarmoebisa da brunvis, momsaxurebis, investirebis,dazRvevis da sxva mravali saxis saqmianobasTan (Zalian vrceli CamonaTvalia!)garda saxelmwifos suverenuli funqciebis(maT Soris Tavdacva, atomuri energetika,savaluti reJimi) ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebuli saqmianobisa; u k r a i n a S i – 2
  • meurne subieqti gansazRvrulia, rogorc piri ( maT Soris saxelmwifo da adgilobrivimmarTvelobis organoebi), romelic saqmianobs warmoebis an realizaciisa daSeZenis sferoSi an axorcielebs sxva saxis sameurneo saqmianobas; s o m x e T i skanoni vrceldeba meurne subieqtebisa da xelisuflebis organoebis mizanmimarTulqmedebebze, romelTac SeuZliaT gamoiwvion konkurenciis Sesusteba, SezRudvada aRmofxvra, agreTve arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciis faqtebze, garda kanoniTgansazRvruli qmedebebisa da sferoebisa; kor ei s respublikaSi - kanonivrceldeba sawarmoebze, daqiravebul muSebzec da Tanadebobis pirebzec, romlebicmoqmedeben sawarmos saxeliT. gamonaklisebi gansazRvreba amave kanoniT. kanonis gamoyenebisaTvis mniSvnelovania dominirebuli mdgomareobis,dominirebuli mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis, horizontaluri da vertikaluriSeTanxmebebis, karteluri SeTanxmebebis, sabazro Zalauflebis da misikoncentraciis, Sesabamisi bazris, sasaqonlo da geografiuli bazris da sxvakoncefciebi. sakanonmdeblo debulebebis gamoyenebis safuZvelia Sesabamisi bazrisgansazRvra. Sesabamisi bazris gansazRvris meTodikaSi ki yvelaze mniSvnelovaniadakonkretdes saqoneli/momsaxureba, rac warmoadgens konkurenciis sagans daganisazRvros areali/sfero, sadac adgili aqvs metoqeobas. safuZveli sasaqonlobazris gansazRvrisa aris urTierTCanacvlebadi saqonlis koncefcia. sxvadasxvaqveynis kanonmdebloba Sesabamis bazars gansazRvravs, rogorc sasaqonlo anteritoriuli bazars, rogorc areals, sadac meurne subieqtebi konkurireben garkveuliperiodis ganmavlobaSi da garkveuli saqonlis mowodebasa da momsaxurebisaSi. 2
  • ka n o ni s g amo y e n e b i s s f e r o / i giv e gav r c e l e b i sa r e a l i / m a s S t a b i: UNCTADis tipiuri kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb dasarekomendacio principebi gansazRvravs, rom kanoni gamoiyenebodes yveladargis, SeTanxmebebisa da subieqtebis mimarT, romelTac kavSiri aqvT saqonlisada momsaxurebis komerciul gacvlasTan,. Tumca, zogierT SemTxvevaSi garkveulipolitikuri samarTlebrivi da sxva miznebi/mizezebi gamoiyeneba arealis SesazRudad(maT Soris ,ganskuTrebuli jgufebis interesebis lobireba). UNCTAD-is monacemebiT,ukanaskneli 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi miRebuli kanonebis umravlesoba sakmaodzogadi iyo da maTi dakonkreteba, rogorc wesi, droTa ganmavlobaSi xdeboda,praqtikis gaTvaliswinebiT. cnobilia, rom 70-ian wlebSi kanadis kanonmdebloba arvrceldeboda bankebze dazRvevaze, aviakompaniebze. aSS-Si wlebis ganmavlobaSikanonis moqmedeba ar vrceldeboda ramdenime seqtorze (dazRveva, transporti,profesiuli beisboli, energetika), nawilobriv aseve iyo dazRveva – evrokavSirSi. ammomentis gamoyenebas xSirad (Tumca sul sxva miznebiT/ motivebiT) cdilobendainteresebuli pirebi da/an maTi lobistebi, gansakuTrebiT gardamaval daganviTarebad qveynebSi (vTqvaT, jer biznesi ganviTardes da SemdegavamoqmedoT kanoni; rom amerikaSi kanonmdebloba monopoliebissawinaaRmdegod Seiqmna da sxva. am logikiT jer unda Seiqmnas monopolizebulibazrebi da mere daiwyos zrunva konkurenciuli garemos gajansaRebaze?!). cxadia, saerTaSoriso praqtikis gaTvaliswinebiT, misaRebia dasabuTebuligamonaklisebis daweseba garkveuli seqtorebisaTvis da ara ama Tu im piris an pirTajgufisaTvis. Tumca, rogorc praqtika adasturebs, konkurenciisaTvis aranakleb saSiSiamisi wesebis ignorireba ekonomikis demonopolizebisa da liberalizebis sawyis etapze 2
  • (rodesac xdeba saxelmwifo monopoliebis Canacvleba kerZo monopoliebiT dasaxelisuflebo wreebi cdiloben ama Tu im formiT SeinarCunon gavlena maTizedamxedvelobis arelidan gasul saqmianobaze; qveyanaSi yalibdebanomenklaturuli biznesi; Cveulebrivi movlenaa diskriminaciuli da aragamWvirvalesaprivatizebo procesebi da tenderebi da sxv). kanonma konkurenciis Sesaxeb unda uzrunvelyos antikonkurenciuliqmedebebis prevencia da aRkveTa da am mizniT Seqmnas saTanado meqanizmebiDkonkurenciis wesebisa da principebis aradiskriminaciuli da TanmimdevruligamoyenebisaTvis. Sesabamisad, yvela kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb Seicavsekonomikuri agentebis garkveuli saxis SeTanxmebebisa da qmedebebis amkrZalavnormebs da iTvaliswinebs maTi iZulebiTi aRsrulebis RonisZiebebsac. imavdroulad,TiTqmis yvela qveynis konkurenciul kanonmdeblobaSi vxvdebiT gamonaklisebisganmsazRvrel debulebebs (TviT kanonSi an kanonqvemdebare aqtebSi). cnobiliajgufuri da kerZo gamonaklisebi. jgufurAgamonaklisebs ganekuTvneba inteleqtualurisakuTreba da saavtoro uflebebi gamoyenebis sferoebi, Tumca am ukanaskneliTsargebloba xSirad badebs konkurenciuli problemebs, da Sesabamisad midgomebinelnela icvleba (mag. aSS, espaneTi da gaerTianebuli samefo cdiloben gansazRvroninteleqtualuri sakuTrebis adgili konkurenciasTan mimarTebaSi) da arc Tu iSviaTadmrewvelobis garkveuli seqtorebi (mag. israelSi – gamonaklisSi eqcevaSeTanxmebebi, romelic exeba soflis meurneobis produqcias, saerTaSoriso sazRvaoda sahaero gadazidvebs, gadazidvebis bazris yvela monawile am qveynis rezidenti,an saerTaSoriso asociaciis wevrebi arian). .zogierTi qveyanaSi konkurenciis kanonismoTxovnebi ar vrceldeba saeqspoto kartelze samamulo ekonomikis dacvis 2
  • motiviT; gamonaklisTa Soris xSirad gvxvdeba soflis meorneobis mTeli dargebi an/dagarkveuli produqcia, Sromis bazari, transporti da regulirebadi dargebi, ufro kvalificiuriformulirebiTebiT ki am dargebis infrastruqturuli segmentebi, romlebic naturalurimonopoliis niSnebiT xasiaTdebian (zogierT qveyanaSi aseTi dargebi mTlianadgamosulia konkurenciuli regulirebis sferodan) da, romlebzec vrceldeba eqs anteregulaciis principebi sxva kanonebis Sesabamisad. amasTan, regulirebis sakiTxebSisaerTaSoriso doneze aRiarebuli araerTi eqspertebi xazgasmiT miuTiTebs zogadikonkurenciis wesebis yvela dargSi SeuzRudavad gamoyenebis sargeblianobaze daaucileblobaze (Jacobs, 2000). sazogadod konkurenciis kanonebis gavrcelebis areali ganisazRvreba ramdenimeniSniT: kanonis gamoyenebis sferos mniSvnelovani aspeqtebia: subiqturi sfero, anuvisze vrceldeba kanoni; sagnobrivi sfero, anu ra saxis saqmianobis regulirdebakanoniT; teritoriuli sfero, ra teritoriaze moqmedebs kanoni. zogierTi qveynis kanonivrceldeba mxolod konkretuli qveynis teritoriaze, zogierTi nebismier antikonkurenciuliqmedebaze, miuxedavad imisa sad imyofeba subieqti, mTavaria ra gavlena aqvsmas qveynis teritoriaze konkurenciis procesebze. mesame SemTxvevaa kanoniseqstrateritoriuli gamoyeneba (sagnobrivi gamoyeneba – faqti sxvagan xdeba,magram axdens gavlenas qveyanaSi – aSS, evropa, germania da singapuri,romelmac es principi daakanona qveynis gareT ganxorcielebul qmedebebzec anqveynis gareT myofi mxarebis mier ganxorcielebul qmedebebze. amasTan,gasaTvalisiwinebelia, rom rodesac saubaria konkurenciis dacvis regionalur 2
  • reJimebze, ibadeba kiTxva sad mTavrdeba nacionaluri da sad iwyeba regionulireJimi? Tavi 2. ko n k u r e n c i i s kan o n e b i s Zi r i T a d i d e b u l e b e b i konkurenciis Sesaxeb sakanonmdeblo aqtebis ZiriTadi debulebebikoncentrirebulia firmaTaSoris SeTanxmebebze, dominirebuli kompaniebissaqmianobaze, Serwymebze da sxva organizaciul struqturul cvlilebebze. ( TugaviTvaliswinebT centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebis ekonomikisstruqturas, savsebiT bunebrivia, rom am qveynebis kanonmdebloba ufro metad( vidre amerikuli), koncentrirebulia dominirebuli firmebis qcevis kontrolze, racgarkveulwilad aixsneba am qveynebis ekonomikis zemonopolizebuli warsuliT).Ggarda amisa, zogierTi qveynis kanonSi mniSvnelovani adgili eTmobaarakeTilsimdisieri konkurenciis calkeuli formebis amkrZalav debulebebs (analogiurimidgoma iyo saqarTvelos 1996 wlis kanonSi, muxli 9).2.1 anti k o n k u r e n c i u l i S e T a n x m e b e b i / x e l S e k r u l e b e b i aRiarebulia, rom horizontaluri da vertikaluri SeTanxmebebi sruliadgansxvavebuli movlenebia da kanoni, romelic mkveTrad ar mijnavs maT srulyofassaWiroebs. aucilebelia, rom kanonSi mkveTrad gamijnos upirobod antikonkurentuliSeTanxmebebi, romelTa ukanonod aRiarebisaTvis saWiroa mxolod faqtisdafiqsireba da SeTanxmebebi, romelTa kanonierebis dadgena specialistebisdamatebiT Zalisxmevas saWiroebs, raTa adgili ar hqondes antikonkurentuli qcevebis 2
  • gamarTlebisaTvis argumentebis dausabuTebel da dausrulebel Ziebas mewarmeTamxridan an/da aRmasrulebelTa zedmet aqtivobas da resursebis umiznod xarjvas iqsadac dominirebuli firmebis aSkaad normalur qcevasTan gvaqvs saqme. Ees sakiTxigansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens axlad formirebadi sabazro ekonomikisaTvisSesabamisad mizanSewonilia rom calsaxad gansazRvruliyo da dakanonebuliyomkacri wesebi konkurenciis SemzRudavi SeTanxmebebis mimarT; xelSemkvrelipirobebi Tu masSi monawileoben mcire firmebi saziano araa sazogadoebisaTvis.Sesabamisad, SeTanxmebebi romelSic ar monawileoben dominirebuli firmebi arunda warmoadgendes antimonopoliuri kontrolis sagans. ekonomikiri agentebis SeTanxmebebze msjelobisas aucilebelia gaimijnoshorizontaluri (SeTanxmeba warmoebisa da ganawilebis erT doneze moqmed, anukonkurent firmebs Soris) da vertikaluri SeTanxmebebis (SeTanxmeba warmoebisada ganawilebis sxvadasxva doneze moqmed firmebs Soris) kategoriebi. kanonTa erTnawilSi antikonkurenciul SeTanxmebebში მოიაზრება orive saxis SeTanxmebebi,ზogierT qveynebSi ki kosta rika, samxreT afrika, indonezia da sxva calcalkeformuლirebebi aqvT horizontalur da vertikalur SeTanxmebebTan dakavSirebiT,aseve დომინირებული მდგომარეობის ბოროტად გამოყენებთან დაკავშირებითdebulebebis gamoyeneba SeiZleba vertikalur SeTanxmebebTan dakavSirebiთrodesac eRTi mxare dominirebul mdgomareobaSia. zogierTi qveyana ubralodkrZalavs antikonkurenciul SეTanxmebebs da gadawyvetilebis miRebasaRmasrulebels utovebs. aseTi midgoma erTis mxriv gamarთlebulia -moqnilobiskuთxiT, თumca garkveul SemTxvevebSi, gansakuთrebiT axal sistemaSi, qmnisgaurkvevlobis moments da umjobesia garkveulad iyos Camoyalibebuli romeli saxis 2
  • SeTanxmebebi iTvleba ukanonod. garkveuli qveynebis kanonebi akrZalvebTanerTad akrZaluli qmedebeბis konkretuli kategoriebis ჩamonaTvalsac gvთavazoben. amasTan, gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis sagania horizontaluri SeTanxmebebisis kategoria, romelic cnobilia karteluri SeTanxmebebis saxeliT (maT Sorisaa: fasebisfiqsireba, produqciis moculobis SezRudva winaswari SeTanxmebiT, teritoriebisdayofa da bazrebis an momxmarebelTa sxva niSniT ganawileba da jgufuri boikotigayidvaze an SeZenaze (e.w. “bid rigging” - mraval qveyanaSi mkacrad isjeba). mravali qveyana kartelur SeTanxmebebs Tvlis upirobodkanonsawinaarmdegod da maTi ukanonod aRiareba ar moiTxovs damatebiTkvlevas, gansxvavebiT sxva saxis SeTanxmebebisagan, romelTa antikonkurenciuliefeqti kvlevis sagania. mraval qveyanaSi karteluri SeTanxmebebi kriminalsganekuTvneba, maSin rodesac sxva saxis hozizontaluri SeTanxmebebi isjebamxolod administraciuli wesiT. gansakuTrebiT mkacria midgoma koluziur tenderebismimarT, radgan es uSualod exeba saxelmwifo Sesyidvebs da vnebs sazogadoebrivinteresebs. karteluri garigebebisagan gansxvavebiT horizontaluri SeTanxmebis sxvasaxeobebi (maT Soris erToblivi marketingi, reklama, erToblivi SeZena, erToblivisawarmo, informaciuli TanamSromloba, kvleva da ganviTareba da sxva mravalqveyanaSi gonivrulobis wesiT ganxilvis sagania. aSS-s antimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobiT (Sermanis kanonis pirveli nawiliT,romelic exeba antikonkurentul SeTanxmebebs), akrZalulia nebismieri kontraqti,piroba an molaparakeba, romelic mimarTulia vaWrobis an komerciuli saqmianobisSezRudvaze Statebs Soris”. miuxedavad aseTi formulirebisa konkurentebs Soris 3
  • SeTanxmebis mravali saxe saWiroebs dawvrilebiT iuridiul ganxilvas imisdasadgenad aRemateba Tu ara konkurenciis SezRudviT sazogadoebiskeTildReobisaTvis miyenebuli zarali im upiratesobebs rac SeiZleba mohyves amSezRudvebs. amasTan, arseboben konkurentebs Soris SeTanxmebebis iseTiformebi, romlebic iTvleba upirobod sazianod da dauSvebelia nebismieri gadaxramaT iuridiul SefasebaSi. magaliTad: SeTanxmeba fasebze, bazris dayofa,momxmareblis mimagreba gansazRvrul momwodeblebze winaswarixelSekrulebebiT. SeTanxmebebis es saxeobebi iTvleba upirobod ukanonod.erTaderTi rac saWiroa maT ukanonod cnobisaTvis aris maTi arsebobis faqtisdadastureba. aSS-Si miRebuli gansxvaveba SeTanxmebebs Soris, romlebicmiCneulia upirobod ukanonod ufro gasagebi gaxdeba Sermanis kanonTandakavSirebuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebis gacnobiT. am gansxvavebismniSvneloba azriT swored imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mewarmeebs mieTiTebaTmaTi zogierTi mosalodneli qmedebebis kanonsawinaaRmdego xasiaTze, agreTveimazec, rom amiT iqmneba administraciuli da sasamarTlos xarjebis ekonomiisSesaZlebloba, imdenad ramdenadac bevr SemTxvevaSi gamoricxulia ekonomikuriefeqtis winaswari Sefasebis aucilebloba (pitmani, 1992). rac Seexeba vertikalur STanxmebebs, mravali specialisti Tvlis rom maTiumravlesoba eqvemdebareba mizanSewonilobis wesiT ganxilvas, miuxedavad imisa,rom zogierTi maTgani (maT Soris sacalo fasis dadgena mimwodeblisagan,eqskluziuri garigebebi (rodesac firma ver irCevs myidvels an gamyidvels), eqskluziuriSeTanxmebebi sadistribucio teritoriebTan dakavSirebiT, xelSemkvreli 3
  • SeTanxmebebi (rodesac sqonlis SeZena SesaZlebelia mxolod damatebiTpirobiT/saqonlis SeZeniT) garkveul problemebs uqmnis konkurenciul process.g amo n a k l i s e b i / a v t o r i z a c i amravali iurisdiqcia awesebs individualur da jgufur gamonaklisebs kanoniT dadgeniliakrZalvebidan (mag. Ggamonaklisia xelSekruleba, romlis mizania kvleva daganviTareba). individualur gamonaklisebis avtorizaciisaTvis aucilebelia specialurimimarTva Sesabamisi faqtebiTa da argumentebiT xelSekrulebasTan dakavSirebiT.Sesabamisad, mravali qveynis kanonmdebloba iTvalisiwinebs e.w. notifikaciisprocedurebs (Setyobinebis formebs, maTi wardgenisa da ganxilvis vadebs da sxvasakiTxebs). rogorc praqtika gviCvenebs, umravlesoba aplikaciebisa dadebiTigadawyvetilebiT mTavrdeba. am faqtoris da aplikaciebis /Setyobinebebis ganxilvisprocesis Sromatevadobis gaTvaliswinebiT evrokavSirma gaauqma savaldebulonotifikaciis rejimi da moaxdina seriozuli reforma Serwymebis regulirebis sferoSi(evrosabWos direqtiva 139/2004, mario monti, axali regiulaciebis Sesaxeb). aSS kanonmdebloba ar cnobs gamonaklisebs da Sesabamisad arc notifikaciisreJims exeba. Tumca sasamarTlos araerTxel miuRia gadawyvetilebagamonaklisebTan dakavSirebiT. rac Seexeba individualur gamonaklisebs maTi gansazRvris ZiriTadi kriteriumiasargeblianoba sazogadoebisaTvis. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa evrokavSirismidgoma. (TFEU 101/3 muxli). garda amisa, aRiarebulia, rom garigebebi mciresabazro wilis mqone firmebs Soris konkurenciisaTvis safrTxis Semcveli ar aris daSesabamisad mraval qveyanaSi (m.S. evrokavSirsa da mis wevr qveynebSi) 3
  • dawesebulia e.w. De minimis wesebi, romlis Tanaxmadac umniSvnelo garigebebiskategoriaSi eqceva SeTanxmebebi/xelSekrulebebi mxareTa Soris Tu maTi erToblivisabazro wili 10-15 procents ar aRemateba (gaaCnia SeTanxmebis saxes daqveyanas). gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom arc evrokavSirSi da arc OECD qveynebSi,gamonaklisebi kanoniT dawesebuli akrZalvebidan ar vrceleba kartelurSeTanxmebebze. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, yuradRebas iqcevs “TavisufalivaWrobisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb” saqarTvelos kanonis proeqti, romelic 29Tebervals meore mosmeniT miiRo saqarTvelos parlamentma. proeqtiTgaTvaliswinebulia mravali jgufuri da kerZo gamonaklisi. amasTan, mravali qveynismsgavsad, saqarTvelos kanonproeqtic iTvaliswinebs konkurenciis umniSvnelodSemzRudav garigebebs, Tumca proeqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli zRvruli normebi ZalianmaRalia da ar Seesabameba saerTaSoriso praqtikas (vrclad es sakiTxi, ixileT:q.lafaCi ”arsebiTi SeniSvnebi “Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb”saqarTvelos kanonproeqtze”). garda imisa, rom proeqti gansakuTrebiT ”guluxvia”gamonaklisebTan dakavSirebiT, ar iTvaliswinebs zemoxsenebul daTqmas, romlisTanaxmadac gamonaklisebi ar vrceldeba karteluri SeTanxmebebis kategoriaze. racam proeqtis seriozuli naklia. rogorc aRvniSneT, zogierTi kanoni gamonaklisebs avrcelebs mcire dasaSualo firmebis SeTanxmebebze, Tu isini arsebiT gavlenas ar axdenenkonkurenciaze da xels uwyoben maT efeqtian TanamSromlobas (Tumca aseTmidgomas ar iziarebs zogierTi mkvlevari. mag. ixilavs ra aRmosavleT da centralurievropis postsocialisturi qveynebis kanonebis Sesabamis debulebebs, pitmani Tvlis 3
  • rom zogierTi kanonis formulirebiT yvelaze aSkara fasebze garigebac ki SesaZloaSedges, im imediT, rom mxareebi SeZleben antimonopoliuri organoebisdarwmunebas, rom es faqti ar iwvevs konkurenciis SezRudvas). cnobilia e.w ‘kriziskartelebis’ da sxvaTa avtorizaciis (gamonaklisad aRiarebis) SemTxvevebic, Tumcagarkveul garemoebebSi. mag.: iaponiisa da germaniis antikarteluri kanonmdeblobiTdaSvebuli iyo e.w. racionaluri da antikrizis kartelebi mxareTa moTxovnisSesabamisad. mogvianebiT orive qveyanam gaauqma es gamonaklisebi(Sesabamisad 1999 da 2005 wlebSi). aRsaniSnavia, rom im qveynebSic ki, sadacaseTi gamonaklisebi dRemde daSvebulia isini, TiTqmis, ar gamoiyeneba (unctad,2010).Se t y o bin e bi s r e J imi – rogorc SeTanxmebebis, aseve SerwymebisadministrirebisaTvis mravali qveyana awesebs Setyobinebis rejims da specialurmoTxovnebs mxareTa mimarT, maT Soris SeTanxmebis mxareTa saregistraciomonacemebis, damfuZneblebisa da SeTanxmebis saxeobisa da sxva detalebisSesaxeb informaciis wardgenis Taobaze. konkurenciis organo ixilavs da garkveuligaremoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT dasaSvebad an ukanonod miiCnevs garigebas daSesabamis daskvnas ugzavnis ganmcxadeblebs (administraciuli werilis,rekomendaciis an sxva formiT). am sisitemas gaaCnia, rogorc dadebiTi aseveuaryofiTi momentebi. kargi magaliTia evrokavSirSi 1962 wlidan moqmedi sistema(romelic Seicvla), aTasobiT Setyobineba da Sesabamisi xarjebi. eqspertebis azriT,instiucionaluri ganviTarebis /Camoyalibebis pirvel etapze es sistema SesaZloasasargebloc ki iyos monacemTa bazis Sesaqmnelad. garda amisa, rig SemTxvevaSi,am sistemis gamoyenebiT cnobili xdeba iseTi antikonkurenciuli qmedebebis 3
  • Sesaxeb, romelzedac samsaxurs warmodgenac ar eqneboda. axal, jer kidevCamouyalibebel sistemebSi, sadac kanonmdeblobis ZiriTadi koncefciebisazogadoebisaTvis naklebad cnobilia, notifikaciis (Setyobinebis) sistemas SeuZliadadebiTi rolis Sesruleba konkurenciis kulturis formirebaSic. rac Seexebanaklovanebebs: aseTi reJimi SesaZloa aRmoCndes kontrproduqtiuli konkurenciissaagentosaTvis resursebis gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT da Seasustos Zalebi sxvaaranakleb mniSvnelovan mimarTulebebze. miT umetes, rom xSirad Setyobinebebissimravlis miuxedavad maTi detalurad ganxilva mainc SeuZlebelia. miuxedavad gansxvavebuli midgomebisa, rogorc savaldebulo asevenebayoflobiTi Setyobinebis SemTxvevaSi, kanoni aucileblad unda iTvaliswinebdesSetyobinebis ganxilvis vadebs. amasTan, gasaTvalsiwinebelia, rom nebarTvaSesaZloa eqvemdebarebodes gamoTxovas axali garemoebebis gamovlenis an sxvadasabuTebul SemTxvevebSi. firmaTaSoris SeTanxmebebis regulirebasTan dakavSirebiT, sainteresoaukanasknel wlebSi evrokavSiris qveynebSi damkvidrebuli e.w.Serbilebis/Semwynareblobis programa. programa iTvaliswinebs antikonkurenciulSeTanxmebebsa da garigebebSi monawile pirisaTvis sasjelis Semsubuqebas, anpiris srulad gaTavisuflebas sasjelisgan, im SemTxvevaSi Tu es ukanaskneli amxelsSeTanxmebis monawileebs da iTanamSromlebs faqtis gamoZiebis procesSi. (mag.poloneTis konkurenciisa da momxmarebelTa dacvis ofisis wliuri angariSisTanaxmad, 2010 wels am programiT sargeblobis 8 SemTxveva dafiqsirda. maTSoris erTerTi sayofacxovrebo saRebavebis distributorebis monawileobiT. firma,romelmac amxila karteli, am da sxva garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT saerTod 3
  • gaTavisuflda sasjelisagan, maSin rodesac danarcen or kompanias daekisra jarima,Sesabamisad 39 mln da 9 milioni polonuri zlotis odenobiT).22 dominir e b u l i md g o m a r e o b a da mi s i bor o t a dgam oy e n e b i s dau S v e b l o b a kontrolis ganxorcieleba dominirebuli mdgomareobis mqone firmebissaqmianobaze maT mier mdgomareobis SesaZlo borotad gamoyenebis Tavidanacilebisa da aRkveTis mizniT antimonopoliuri regulirebis erTerTi ZiriTadimimarTulebaa. A yvela kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb, Seicavs rogorc dominirebisganmsazRvrel kriteriumebs, aseve CamonaTvals im qmedebebisa, romlebickvalificirdeba, rogorc mdgomareobis borotad gamoyeneba. zogierT qveyanaSi amsakiTxebs calke kanoniT aregulireben. zogadad, ekonomikur Teoriasa da praqtikaSi gavrcelebuli mosazrebebiT (daara romelime konkretuli kanonis Tanaxmad), ekonomikuri agenti iTvlebadominirebuli mdgomareobis mqoned Tu mas SeuZlia bazarze zemoqmedebakonkurentebisagan damoukideblad. cnobilia koleqtiuri dominirebis cnebac. magevrokavSirSi (keisebi nestle, perie). konkurenciuli kanonmdeblobiT ikrZaleba aradominirebuli mdgomareoba (xSirad monopoliuri mdgomareoba da dominirebulimdgomareoba erTi da nigive mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba), aramed misi borotadgamoyeneba. Sesabamisad, meti sicxadisaTvis nebismieri dainteresebuli pirisTvismniSvnelovania dazusteba Tu ra iTvleba borotad gamoyenebad. mravali kanoni maTSoris UNCTAD modeluri/tipiuri EUkanoni (muxlis 4/2) gvTavazobs akrZalulqmedebebaTa CamonaTvals (Tumca ara amomwuravs). 3
  • dominirebuli mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis sawinaaRmdego zomebigaTvaliswinebulia TiTqmis yvela qveynis antimonopoliur kanonmdeblobaSi.aRsaniSnavia, rom am problemas ukavSirdeba AaSS-s pirveli antimonopoliurikanonic, ,,Sermanis aqti’’ (1890) miRebac, romlis meore seqciis Tanaxmad bazrismonopolizeba iTvleba ukanonod, xolo konkretuli mewarmeebis saqmianobisgarkveuli saxeebi (maT Soris SeTanxmeba fasebis erToblivad dawesebaze dabazrebis dayofaze konkurentebs Soris) mimarTuli bazris monopolizebaze iTvlebadanaSaulad. A1914 wels miRebuli iqna ,,kleitonis aqti’’ (romelmac ukanonodgamoacxadda safaso diskriminacia, anu saqonlis miyidva sxvadasxvamomxmareblebisaTvis gansxvavebuli fasiT) da kanoni ,,federaluri savaWro komisiisSesaxeb”, romelic iTvaliswinebda am komisis Seqmnas da misTvis antimonopoliurikanonebis ganxorcielebis uflebamosilebebis dakisrebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom TuSermanis aqti ewinaaRmdegeboda arsebul monopoliebs, kleitonis aqti ukanonodacxadebs maTi nebismieri formiT warmoqmnas. aSS-s antimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobis debulebebis umravlesoba, romlebicexeba monopolizacias (aSS-s kanonmdeblobaSi monopolizacia dominirebulimdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba) koncentrirebuliaZiriTadad ori kategoriis akrZalul qcevebze, rogoricaa: 1. dominirebuli mdgomareobis eqspluatacia (rac gamoixateba monopoliurifasebis dawesebaSi, momxmarebelTaTvis dausabuTebeli pirobebis SeTavazebasada sxva qmedebebSi) 3
  • 2. TviT dominirebuli mdgomareobis SenarCuneba da ganmtkiceba, racgamoixateba bazarze axali monawileTaTvis bazarze Sesasvleli barierebis SeqmnaSida ganmtkicebaSi, konurenciis ganviTarebisaTvis xelSemSleli pirobebis SeqmnaSi. aSS-s antimonopoliuri regulirebis praqtikis analizi gviCvenebs, rom Sermanisaqtis Sesabamisad antimonopoliuri kanonmdebloba ufro aqtiurad gamoiyenebadarRevaTa meore kategoriis anuU im qmedebebis mimarT, romelic aferxebs bazarzekonkurenciis ganviTarebas, rac kidev erTxel mianiSnebs, rom sazogadoebisaTvissaSiSad iTvleba ara mdgomareoba, aramed mdgomareobiT borotad sargebloba. (ix.rasel pitmani, ,,antimonopoliuri politika da kanonmdebloba amerikis SeerTebuliStatebSi”). amasTan, dominirebuli firmebis qcevis kontrolTan dakavSirebiT aSS-TvisdamaxasiaTebelia midgoma, rom antimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobis gamoyenebissafuZveli unda iyos principi, rom firmis qcevas bazarze ganapirobebs pirvel rigSidargis struqtura, Tumc dRemde sadiskusioa - ra unda iyos antimonopoliurigamoZiebis sagani qceva Tu bazris struqtura. gavrcelebuli mosazrebebiT,monopolisturi bazris mqone dargSi bunebrivia firmebis qcevac iqneba monopolisturi.gansxvavebuli mosazrebaa, rom TviT monopolizebuli dargic ki SesaZloa iyosteqnologiurad progresuli da awarmoebdes maRali xarisxis produqciasmomxmareblisaTvis misaRebi fasiT. amitom, azri ara aqvs antimonopoliurikanonmdeblobis gamoyenebas warmatebiT funqcionirebadi, Tundac monopoliurimdgomareobis mqone firmebis mimarT, Tu isini xelovnurad ar aferxebenkonkurenciis ganviTarebas. 3
  • dominirebuli mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis akrZalvebs iTvaliswinebsevrogaerTianebis sadamfuZneblo xelSekrulebis 82-e muxli (axali, lisabonis redaqciiTevrokavSiris funqciobis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis 102-e muxli), romlis TanaxmadacikrZaleba evrogaerTianebis saerTo bazarze dominirebuli mdgomareobis borotadgamoyeneba, Tu amgvarma qmedebam SesaZloa mniSvnelovnad SezRudosvaWroba wevr saxelmwifoebs Soris. amave muxlis Tanaxmad dominirebis borotadgamoyenebad iTvleba iseTi qmedebebis Cadena, rogoricaa: arasamarTlani fasebis(monopoliurad maRali, romelic arsebiTad gansxvavdeba sawarmos mier gaweulidanaxarjebisagan, an mtaceblurad dabali fasis daweseba, romlis mizania bazridankonkurentebis gaZeveba), an vaWrobis arasamarTliani pirobebis daweseba;warmoebis bazrebis, an teqnikuri ganviTarebis SezRudva; savaWro partniorebisdiskriminacia da sxva qmedebebi. xelSekrulebiT agreTve gaTvaliswinebulia, rom ammuxlis debulebebis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia mxolod ori pirobis, sawarmosdominirebisa da mis mier mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis faqtis erTdrouladarsebobis SemTxvevaSi. Ggarda amisa, am muxlis debulebebis gamoyenebisaTvisaucilebelia, rom geografiuli bazari moicavdes minimum erTi qveynis mTlian teritorias.ufro konkretulad: evrogaerTianebis xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad (TFEU muxli 102):”1. akrZalulia erTi an meti ekonomikuri agentis mier dominirebuli mdgomareobisborotad gamoyeneba saerTo bazarze an mis mniSvnelovan nawilze rogorcSeusabamo saerTo bazarTan Tu mas SeuZlia imoqmedos saerTo bazarze.2) monopoliuri mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebad CaiTvleba:a) pirdapir an arapirdapir arasamarTliani gasayidi an SesaZeni fasebis an vaWrobissxva romelime arasamarTliani pirobis daweseba; 3
  • b) momxmareblis sazianod warmoebis, bazrebis an teqnikuri ganviTarebisSezRudva;g) savaWro partniorebTan araTanabari pirobebis gamoyeneba erTgvarovanigarigebebis SemTxvevaSi, riTac maT ayenebs araTanabar pirobebSi konkurenciisTvalsazrisiTd) xelSekrulebis dadebas uqvemdebarebs sxva mxareebis mier damatebiTipirobebis aRebas, romelic Tavisi bunebiT an komerciuli daniSnulebiT ar ukavSirdebaxelSekrulebis sagans;e)xelyofs sxva ekonomikuri agentebis konkurenciul SesaZleblobebs ise romgavlenas axdens konkurenciazev) iTxovs gansxvavebul angariSsworebas da sxva saqmian pirobebs rac iarsebebdakonkurenciis SemTxvevaSiz) uars ambobs dauSvas sxva ekonomikuri agentebi mis kuTvnil qselSi an sxvainsfrastruqturul saSualebebSi (qselis paraleluri gamoyeneba) SesabamisianazRaurebis sanacvlod, garda im SemTxvevebisa , roca dominirebuli ekonomikuriagenti daamtkicebs, rom funqciuri Tu sxva mizezebis gamo qselis (an infrastruqturissaSalebebis) paraleluri gamoyeneba SeuZlebelia”. dominirebuli mdgomareobis borotad gamoyeneba erTerTi yvelazewinaaRmdegobrivi sakiTxia konkurenciis kanonTan mimarTebaSi. sakamaToa,rogorc is Tu ra iTvleba mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebad, aseve misigansazRvris kriteriumebic. pasuxi damokidebulia konkurenciuli regulirebis miznebze(keTildReoba, efeqtianoba, konkurenciis procesis dacva) da agreTve imazec Tu ra 4
  • Rirebulebebi iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli konkurenciis analizis procesSi (mag.momxmarebelTa mdgomareoba, Tu ekonomikuri efeqtianoba). zogadad – dominireba niSnavs mniSvnelovan gavlenas. ekonomikuri Sinaarsiki bazarze sawarmos dominirebuli mdgomareobisa gamoixateba mis unarSidam o u k i d e b l a d da a w e s o s kon k u r e n c i u l i fa s e b T a nSedar e biT ma R a l i fa s i da xa n g r Z l i v a d Seina r C u n o s igi .Ddominirebuli mdgomareobis borotad gamoyeneba SesaZloa gamoixatebodes iseTqmedebebSi, rogoricaa: warmoebis Semcireba da fasebis aweva konkurentebisa damomxmarebelTa reaqciis gauTvaliswineblad, xarisxisa da asortimentis daqveiTeba/Semcireba, uari inovaciebze da sxva. zogierTi kanoni ar gansazRvravs dominirebiskriteriumebs da konkurenciis organos aniWebs uflebas analizis safuZvelzedaadginos igi. qveynebis umravlesobaSi dominirebis gansazRvris kriteriumebi, iseverogorc dominirebis prezumpciis ganmsazRvreli norma kanoniTve ganisazRvreba.Tumca aRiarebulia, rom mniSvnelovani sabazro wili SesaZloa iyos mxolod erTerTida ara erTaderTi kriteriumi dominirebis gansazRvrisa. Sesabamisad, kanonTaumravlesoba miuTiTebs, rom dominirebuli mdgomareobis dadgenis procesSigaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes sxva faqtorebic, rogoricaa bazarze Sesasvleli barierebi,faqtiuri da potenciuri konkurentebi, myidvelis gavlena, mniSvnelovani wilisxangrZlivad floba, masStabis ekonomia, sanedleulo wyaroebTan da pirveladgadamuSavebasTan xelmisawvdomoba, vertikaluri integraciis xarisxi, bazrisganviTarebis maCveneblebi, sawarmosa da misi konkurentebis finansuri resursebi(potenciali) da sxva mravali. mraval sistemaSi gaTvaliswinebulia e.w. dominirebisada Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebis prezumpciuli, zRvruli normebi. maT Soris e.w. 4
  • safe harbours saxiT, rac imas niSnavs, rom zRvrul normaze mcire sabazro wilis flobisSemTxvevaSi kompaniis mier mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis sakiTxi arcixileba (ix. cxrili 2), ufro maRali wilis SemTxvevaSi ki mdgomareobis borotadgamoyenebis faqtis arseboba dgindeba zemoTCamoTvlili faqtorebisgaTvaliswinebiT. iseTi sistemebic arsebobs, sadac zRvruli wili sakmarisiadominantad cnobisaTvis da sawinaaRmdegos mtkicebis tvirTi ekisreba sawarmos,rac profesiul wreebSi kanonis naklad iTvleba. cxadia, zRvruli normebis arseboba(sxva faqtorebTan erTad) aadvilebs Sesabamisi normebis gamoyenebas, Tumca impirobiT, rom ar moxdeba maTTvis zedmeti mniSvnelobis miniWeba, rac gamoiwvevsan zedmetad mkacr aRsrulebas an piriqiT. dominirebasTan dakavSirebuli faqtebisanalizisaTvis aseve mniSvnelovani faqtorebia konkurencia, bazarze Sesasvlelad daimportis moculoba. cxadia, Tu ramdenime firma cdilobs bazarze SeRwevas, da esprocesi xelovnurad ar izRudeba, nebismier ukve damkvidrebul firmas gauWirdebamdgomareobis xangrZlivad SenarCumneba da, miT umetes, xangrZlivadgamoyeneba. amasTan, rac ufro viwroa Sesabamisi bazris ganmarteba miT ufroadvilia poziciis mopoveba/gamyareba/SenarCuneba bazarze. gasaTvaliswinebeliaisic, rom akrZalul qmedebaTa CamonaTvali zogierT kanonSi Zalian vrcelia, Tumcaamomwuravi ar aris. garda amisa zogierTi eqsperti miiCnevs, rom rigi kanonebisaSeicavs saSiS formulirebebsac, romelTa pirdapirma gamoyenebam SesaZloagamoiwvios bazarze sruliad kanonierad moqmedi dominanti firmebis ukanonodSeviwroebac. mag. cnobilia keisi saqarTvelos antimonopoliuri samsaxurispraqtikidan, rodesac erTerTi sadazRvevo kompania, mxolod imitom gamocxaddadominantad da iyo mcdeloba misi monitoringis reJimSi moqcevisa, rom mas 4
  • erTaderTs hqonda dazRveuli gemi! (anu gemebis dazRveva ganxilul iyo calkebazrad). cxadia kompaniam es faqti gaaprotesda da savsebiT samarTlianadac.analogiuri faqtebi cudad aisaxeba konkurenciis damcavi organos avtoritetze.analogiur debulebebs orpir maxvils uwodebs Tavis SromebSi rasel pitmani (Pittman,1997). aseve kritikulad afasebs dsT qveynebis kanonebis zogierT akrZalvebsiunktadis eqsperti natalia iaCeistova (YYacheistova, 2000). analogiuri poziciaagamoxatuli statiaSi: ”saqarTvelos antimonopoliuri kanonis ZiriTadi debulebebisSefaseba rasel pitmanis testiT” (q.lafaCi, 2001, 2002). gamokvlevebiT (ICN, 2010)dasturdeba, rom dominirebasTan dakavSirebul saqmeTa ganxilvis procesSikonkurenciis saagentoebis umravlesoba iTvaliswinebs zemoTCamoTvlilifaqtorebidan yvelas an umravlesobas (danarTi 4,5). aRsaniSnavia, rom evrokomisia firmis sabazro Zalauflebis Sefasebisasiyenebs yvela qvemoT CamoTvlil kriteriums: sabazro wili, konkurentebismdgomareoba bazarze, bazarze Sesasvleli an warmoebis gafarToebis barierebi,masStabis an qseluri efeqtebi, myidvelis sabazro Zalaufleba, sanedleulo bazebisfaqtorebis xelmisawvdomoba/vertikauri integracia, sabazro mdgomareobisstabiluroba, bazris ganviTarebis done, mniSvnelovani aqtivebisadmi wvdoma,firmisa da misi konkurentebis finansuri resursebi, fasebis maRali done, firmismogeba. analogiuri midgomebi aqvT ukrainas, britaneTs, SvedeTs, Sveicarias,ruseTs, rumineTs, latvias, axal zelandias, bulgareTs, safrangeTs. aSS, espaneTi,singapuri, germania, indoeTi, CexeTi (es ukanaskneli, iseve rogorc meqsika, naklebyuradRebas amaxvilebs Zalauflebis xangrZlivobaze da bazris ganviTarebis xarisxze)naklebad an saerTod ar amaxvilebs yuradRebas bolo or maCvenebelze. firmis 4
  • resursebs, finansur mdomareobas da mogebas ar iTvaliswinebs israeli, iamaika,irlandia, italia, aSS (garda israelisa es jgufi aseve ignorirebas ukeTebs fasebismaRal donesac). sayuradReboa, rom amerikuli midgomebiT sazogadod sawarmo, romelickanonierad inarCunebs dominirebul mdgomareobas uflebamosilia daawesosnebismieri fasi sakuTar produqciaze da momsaxurebaze da miiRos nebismierimogeba, rac Tavis mxriv Taviseburi stimuli xdeba bazarze axali monawileebisSesasvlelad da xels uwyobs konkurenciis ganviTarebas da Sesabamisadsazogadoebis keTildReobis amaRlebas. zemoaRniSnulis da sxva faqtorebisgaTvaliswinebiT, Tavisufali bazris pirobebSi dausabuTeblad migvaCniasawarmoTaTvis (Tu isini ar warmoadgenen bunebrivi monopoliebis subieqtebs an arawarmoeben saqonels/momsaxurebas, romelTa tarifebic eqvemdebarebasaxelmwifo regulirebas, an romelTa SeZenac savaldebulo an sasicocxlodaucilebelia) fasebis regulirebis ama Tu im formis, maT Soris rentabelobis zRvrulinormis daweseba. praqtika adasturebs, rom dominirebis gansazRvrisas erTerTi yvelazemniSvnelovan kriteriumad aRiarebulia bazarze Sesasvleli barierebi(blokireba/Seferxeba bazarze), romlebic kvalificirdeba rogorc: s t r u q t u r u l iba ri e r e b i (romelic dakavSirebulia dargis maxasiaTeblebaTan: teqnologia,warmoebis xarjebi, moTxovnileba) dast ra t e giu li b a r i e r e b i (romlebic sxvadsxva formiT iqmneba TviT moqmedifirmebis mier. bazarze damkvidrebul firmebs SeuZliaT gaaZlieron struqturulibarierebi, an daemuqrnon bazarze axal Semsvlelebs (mag. gaaZlieron sawarmoo 4
  • simZlavreebi saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi e.w. fasebis omis gamosacxadeblad, izrunoninfrastruqturuli obieqtebTan sxvebisTvis misadgomebis garTulebaze da sxva). sakanonmdeblo barierebi (tarifebi, qvotebi, normatiuli aqtebi eqskluziuruflebebTan dakavSirebiT, rac saboloo jamSi aZlierebs ama Tu im subieqtismdgomareobas sakanonmdeblo doneze) da sxva saxis adinistraciuli winaRobebi (racarc Tu iSviaTad lobisturi saqmianobis Sedegia). administraciuli barierebi sakmaodgavrcelebulia postsocialisturi qveynebis praqtikaSi. swored am problemisgamoZaxilad unda CaiTvalos is faqti, rom postkomunisturi kanonebis umravlesoba,maT Soris yofili sabWoTa kavSiris TiTqmis yvela qveynis pirveli Taobis kanoniSeicavs specialur debulebebs da awesebs pirdapir akrZalvebs saxelmwifoxelisuflebis antikonkurenciul qmedebebze. analogiur debulebebs SeicavdasaqarTvelos saxelmwifo sabWos 1992 wlis dekreti “monopoliuri saqmianobisSezRudvisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb” (muxli 7), saqarTvelos kanoni (1996)“monopoliuri saqmianobisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb” (muxli 10) da saqarTveloskanoni (2005) “Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb”. Tumca esukanaskneli naklebad SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb. dominirebuli mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis tipiuri SemTxvevebia:a) mt a c e b l u r i f a s e b i, anu fa s e bi s TviTRi r e b u l e b a z edab a l i fa si s d aw e s e b a ba z r i d a n kon k u r e n t i s gaZ e v e bi smizniT.rac ufro diversificirebuli pozicia aqvs sawarmos da rac ufro Zlieria igi finansurad miTufro metad SeuZlia mas am midgomiT sargebloba. Tumca, hqonda Tu ara adgili amqmedebas aucilebelia dadgindes analiziT. zogierT sistemaSi cdiloben dadgenasramdenad didia albaTobaa dakarguli Tanxebis ukan amoRebisa momavalSi, 4
  • konkurentis gandevnis Semdeg. SesaZloa, rom aseTi politika momxmareblisaTvisdroebiT sasargebloc ki aRmoCndes. sxva sistema ki saerTod ar iTvaliswinebs amsaSiSi albaTobis faqtors da Tvlis, rom aseTi qmedeba ukanonod unda CaiTvalosTu mxare ver asabuTebs fasis kavSirs TviTRirebulebasTan. garda mtacebluri fasisa,cnobilia SemTxvebic, rodesac saqonlis an momsaxurebis SeZena xdeba mxolodkonkurentis SeCerebis/ Camocilebis mizniT. (paraleli SeiZleba gavavloTsaprivatizacio obieqtis, an konkurenti sawarmos aqtivebis SeZenasTan ara misiSemdgomi gamoyenebis, aramed misi gaCerebisa da Sesabamisi bazris segmentisdakavebis mizniT. swored amitom rogorc konkurenciis aseve adgilobrivi warmoebisdacvisa da ganviTarebis mizniT, saprivatizebo da sainvesticio proeqtebisantimonopoliuri eqspertizis procesSi aucilebelia yuradRebis gamaxvileba im faqtze,rom gaTvaliswinebuli iyos sxva pirobebTgan erTad profilis SenarCuneba. sxvaESemTxvevaa ar mihyido konkurents aucilebeli masalebi saqmianobisaTvis. dabali fasebi sasargebloa momxmareblisaTvis. Sesabamisad rigigansakuTrebiT ganviTarebuli qveynis (maT Soris aSS) uwyebebi sakmaod frTxiladudgebian am sakiTxs da faqtis kvalificirebisas pirvel rigSi bazris struqturasiTvaliswineben. rig SemTxvevebSi arc maRali fasis daweseba ganixilebamdgomareobis Sefasebisa da qmedebis kvalifikaciis ZiriTad kriteriumad.gan s x v a v e b u l i midg ome bi: evrokomisia miiCnevs ukanonod mxolodganzraxul mtaceblur fasebs konkurentebis Seviwroebisa da bazarze mdgomareobisganmtkicebis mizniT, rac zians ayenebs momxmareblebs da keisebis ganxilvasiwyebs mxolod Sesabamisi mtkicebulebebis arsebobisas. CineTis kanoni,TviTRirebulebaze dabal fasad gayidvas krZalavs. imavdroulad iTvaliswinebs 4
  • SemTxvevebs, rodesac aseTi praqtika ar CaiTvleba ukanaonod, mag sawarmosdaxurva, sezonuri fasdaklebebi da sxva. monRoleTis kanoni ukrZalavsmonopolistebs produqciis gayidvas TviTRirebulebaze dabal fasad konkurentebisgandevnis mizniT; brazilia krZalavs dasabuTebis gareSeE saqonlisTviTRirebulebaze dabal fasad gayidvas. kolumbia mtaceblur fasebs ixilavs, rogorcmdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebas. sainterseoa amerikuli midgoma. aSS-s umaRlesma sasamarTlom daaskvna,rom aseTi faqtis dasadgenad aucilebelia ori piroba, TviT dabali fasis arseboba dameore, rom arsebobs saSiSi albaToba e.w fasebSi investiciis ukan dabrunebisa.Sesabamisad, aucilebelia ganasxvavo konkurenciisaTvis xelSemwyobi dabali fasiantikonkurenciuli mtacebluri fasisagan, radganac fasebis Semcireba xSirad sruliadsamarTliani miznebisaTvis, mag. saqmiani operaciebis gafarToebisaTvisgamoyeneba, rac TviT konkurenciis arsia” (ix. )b) di s k r imin a c i u l i fa si s an vaW r o bi s gan s x v a v e b u l ipi r o b e b i s g amo y e n e b a – aseTi faqtebi ar gamoirCeva antikonkurenciuliefeqtiT, Tumca ekonomikuri dasabuTebais gareSe mraval qveyanaSi kvalificirdeba,rogorc diskriminacia. mag. SeRavaTi mudmivi klientebisaTvis SesaZloa iyosmiCneuli dausabuTeblad da imavdroulad, SeRavaTi didi moculobis garigebazeCaiTvalos kanonierad (masStabis ekonomikis gamo); an SesaZloa aixsnas imiT,rom sxvadasxva garigeba daido sxvadasxva sabazro pirobebSi, an klienti ufrokargad vaWrobda da sxva. aseve SeRavaTebi mudmivi klientebisaTvis SesaZloaganxilul iqnes rogorc momxmareblis sakeTildReo qmedeba, Tumca 4
  • konkurencisaTvis sazianoc aRmoCndes Tu gamoiyenebuli iqneba mxolod msxviliklientebis sasargeblod. safaso diskriminaciis erTerTi gamovlinebaa saqonlis EerTnairfasad gayidva, rodesac miwodebis xarjebis gansxvavebulia. aseTive akrZalvebidiskriminaciaze vrceldeba momsaxurebisa da gayidvis pirobebzec.g) ga d a s a y i di (x e l a x l a ga s a y i di) fa s e bi s dad g e n agansxvavebuli midgomebi: brazilia ukrZalavs dominant kompaniebs fasis an sxvagansxvavebuli pirobebis dadgenas distributorebisa da sacalo movaWreebisaTvismesame pirebTan mimarTebaSi. evropaSi es sakiTxi ganixileba, rogorc vertikaluriSeTanxmebebis antikonkurenciuli elementi. SvedeTSi maqsimalur fasze SezRudvaar wesdeba, minimalurTan dakavSirebiT ki kanoni iTvaliswinebs garkveulqmedebebs Tu igi mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens konkurenciaze. kanadaiTvalisiwinebda sisxlis samarTlis sasjels gadasayidi fasebis SenarCunebaze. 2009wlidan Seicvala midgoma da gaTvalisiwinebulia mxolod administraciuli sanqciebi,isic im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sasamarTlo daadgens, rom es faqti uaryofiT gavlenasaxdens konkurenciaze (ara mxolod dominantebis aramed sxva kompaniebismimarTac). aSS-Si Sermanis kanoniT minimaluri fasis dadgena iTvleba upirobodukanono qmedebad (Tu werilobiTi Tanxmobaa distributorTan), rac Seexebamaqsimaluri fasis dadgenas es sakiTxi ixileba gonivrulobis principiT.d) ga rig e b a z e dau s a b u T e b e l i ua ri – ukanonod iTvlebagansakuTrebiT, maSin rodesac dominanti flobs iseT saSualebebs, romelTagamoyenebac sasicocxlod mniSvnelovania konkurentisaTvis. analogiuri sakiTxixSirad ixileba rogorc vertikaluri antikonkurenciuli SeTanxmebeba. kanonTa 4
  • umravlesobaSi analogiuri midgomaa eqskluziur da SerCeviT ganawilebasTandakavSirebuli sakiTxebisadmi. cnobilia, rom sabazro zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebis problemagansakuTrebiT aqtualuria liberalizebul seqtorebSi, sainteresoa am mxrivtelekomunikaciebis sfero. sakamaTo ar aris, rom telekompaniis bazrebisliberalizaciam ( dargSi kerZo investiciebis Sesvlam) gaafarTova axali produqtebis damomsaxurebis arCevani, Seamcira fasebi da gaaumjobesa momsaxurebis xarisxi.rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, miuxedavad gaumjobesebuli maregulirebeli modelisa darigi dargobrivi parametrebisa, bazris monawileTa azriT, am sferoSi kvlav aqtualuriasabazo Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebis problema bazarze damkvidrebuli (an axalida jerjerobiT ualternativo ) kompaniebis mier, rac gamoixateba iseT qmedebebSirogoricaa a) bazarze dominirebuli kompaniis mflobelobaSi arsebul qselebTandaSvebis garTuleba, b) gadajvaredinebuli subsidireba da momxmareblis erTikategoriis xarjebis meore kategoriis momxmareblisaTvis dakisreba c) mewarmesubieqtebis aratanabar pirobebSi Cayeneba d) momxmarebleli arCevanis xelovnuliSezrudva, e) fasiT diskriminacia da sxva, rac, rogorc Cans aramarto qarTulirealobaa, aramed damaxasiaTebelia am sferos (iseve rogorc sxva liberalizebuliseqtorebisaTis) ganviTarebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT gardamaval qveynebSi, racdastureba konkretuli keisebiT sxvadasxva qveynebis praqtikidan.e) g a y i d v e b i d ama t e b i T i pi r o b e b i s S e T a v a z e b i T - ixileba saqonlisgayidvis gansxvavebuli sqemebi: 1) (a + b) erTad, calke „a“ da calke „b“, da TuerTerTs meoresTan erTad iyidi SeRavaTiT isargebleb; 2) „a“-s ver iSeiZen, Tu ar 4
  • iyide „b“-c. aseTi midgoma xSirad gamoiyeneba im saqonlis saralizaciod, romelsachyavs ufro aqtiuri konkurenti da mis mier, radgan visac dominirebuli mdgomareobaukavia moTxovnadi saqonlis bazarze mas advilad SuZlia Tavs moaxviosmomxmarebels damatebiTi sagnis Sesyidva. cxadia, aseTi praqtika sazianoamomxmareblisaTvis da agreTve vnebs konkurencias. iurisdiqciebis umravlsebaSikonkurenciis organo ixilavs Sesabamis qmedebebs da paketuri SeTavazebisSemTxvevaSi iRebs garkveul zomebs Tu dominanti firma ar daasabuTebs Tavisiqmedebis marTlzomierebas. amerikaSi Tavsmoxveuli pirobebi ganixileba, rogorcqmedeba, rodesac erTi mxare yidis amaTu im saqonels mxolod im pirobiT Tu meoremxare damatebiT SeiZens sxva saqonels an momsaxurebas. an ukiduresSemTxvevaSi dasTanxmdeba, rom ar iyidis am saqonels sxva pirisagan.( ganawilebiTi ekonomikis pirobebSi deficituri saqonlis Tavis fasad SeZenis erTerTipiroba xSirad iyo sxva saqonlis gasaRebac, rasac momxmarebeli xSiradsiamovnebiT Tanxmdeboda, Tumca igives ver vityviT sabazro urTierTobebze (mag.konkretuli sadazRvevo kompaniis sadazRvevo polisis SeZena samanqano kreditisaucileblei piroba iyo wlebis ganmavlobaSi, anlaogiuri SemTxvevebi iyo sxvaqveynebSic, Tumca saqarTvelosagan gansxvavebiT, Tundac ukrainasa dabelorusSi, isini ar darCenilan Sesabamisi stuqturebis reagirebis gareSe; SeTanxmeba xelSemkvreli pirobebis Sesaxeb CaiTvleba ukanonod mxolodmaSin, rodesac gamyidveli sargeblobs erTi saqonlis sabazro kontroliT da aiZulebsgamyidvelebs romlebic ar eTanxmebian SeiZinon sxva saqonelic. pasuxismgeblobaiZulebiTi asortimentisaTvis Sermanis kanonis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad dgeba maSin,Tu: sakiTxi exeba or gansxvavebul sagans da mopasuxe ar utovebs klients sxva 5
  • gzas, garda imisa, rom iZulebiT iyidos Tavsmoxveuli sqoneli raTa SeiZinos misTvissasurveli saqoneli. xaverdovani revoluciebis Semdeg centraluri da aRmosavleT evropisqveynebis reformatorebi da swavlulebi dadgnen sakamaTo amocanis winaSe,Esxva kanonebs Soris miRebul iqna konkurenciis Sesaxeb kanonebic (ungreTi,poloneTi, CexeTi, litva) da gaaqtiurda teqnikuri daxmareba US, EU da EC mxridan.imavdroulad, gansakuTrebiT pirvel etapze, aSS- Si gamoikveTa gansxvavebulipoziciebic konkurenciis kanonebis mniSvnelobas, mizanSewonilobasa dadanergvasTan dakavSirebiT (Codec,1992). zogierTi kritikosi miiCnevda, rom sabazroekonomika unda iyos orientirebuli nebadarTul da ara amkrZalav qmedebebze,mogebis maqsimizaciaze da sawarmoTa Tavisuflebaze samTavroboCarevebisagan. Tumca, rogorc praqtika adasturebs sabazro Zalebis Tavisuflebisgaranti swored konkurenciis damcavi normebia (PPittman,2004) . gamoiTqvaSeSfoTeba (Codec,1992, 1998), rom aseTi kanonebi da, miT umetes maTi Zalianmkacrad aRsruleba, Seicavs safrTxes konkurenciuli qcevis waxalisebisa dabazrebis gafarToebisaTvis. kritikosebi kamaTobdenen, rom dominirebuli mdgomareobis borotadgamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli debulebebi (monopolizacia - Sermanis kanonimixedviT) centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi Seasruleben e.w. „troascxenis“ rols warmatebul sawarmoebSi. Cikagos skolis zemoxsenebuliwarmomadgeneli ganviTarebadi qveynebis antitrastTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnavda,rom “ antitrastuli saagentoebi SezRudulad unda moiqcnen iZulebiT aRsrulebaSispecifikuri perse illegal debulebebisa da fasebis fiqsaciasa da sxva debulebebTan 5
  • dakvSirebiT“. rasakvirvelia aSS aRmasruleblebica da teqnikuri daxmarebisgamwevnic SeSfoTebulni arian am debulebebis zrvargadasuli aRsrulebiT werdapitmani. rac Seexeba realobas: „axla rodesac CEE yvela qveyanas aqvs konkurenciiskanonebi da amTi aRsrulebis 10 welze meti praqtika, mizanSewonilia am praqtikisgaanalizeba da Sefaseba, xom ar moqmedeben antitrastuli organoebi fasebismakontroleblisa da ara konkurenciis ganviTarebisaTvis xelSmwyobisa da damcvelisrolSi, xom ar iyo maTi qmedebebi warmosaxviTi da mimarTuli mxolod didi sabazrowilis mqone kompaniebis mimarT. werda pitmani statiaSi ,,Abuse of DominanceProvisions in Central and East European Competition Laws: Have Fears of OverEnforcement Been Born Out?“. amave statiaSi avtori aanalizebs 1996 da 2001 wlebSidominirebuli mdgomareobis porotad gamoynebis 110 SemTxvevas (romelTaudidesi nawili - 62 poloneTze modis) da daaskvnis, rom aRsrulebis sferoSi aqtivoba(cxadia, rodesac misi safuZvelia saTanadod dasabuTebuli kanodarRveva da aramxolod firmis sabazro Zalaufleba), sruliadac ar aisaxeba negatiurad mTliani Sidaproduqtis zrdis tempebze da ar aferxebs ekonomikur zrdas qveynis ekonomikismasStabiT. sailustraciod mohyavs poloneTi, romelic Tu ganxilul saqmeTaraodenobis mixedviT vimsjelebT, yvelaze meti antimonopoliuri aqtivobiTgamoirCeoda, Tumca, amas qveynis ganviTarebis tempebi ar Seuferxebia. rogorcpraqtika gviCvenebs, saziano SeiZleba iyos ara zogadad kargad gaazrebulisakanonmdbelo debulebebi, aramed maTi araswori interpretacia, an zedmetadmkacri aRsruleba, rac dRis wesrigSi ayenebs aRsrulebis meqanizmebis srulyofisa daam procesSi biznesisadmi keTilganwyobis aucileblobas (OECD,2007). 5
  • rogorc avtori aRniSnavs: monopoliuri mdgomareobis borotadgamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli debulebebis aRsrulebis praqtikis analizi (romelicganxorcielda 11 qveyanis magaliTze) cxadhyofs, rom moCvenebiTi(an damaluli)eSmakebis materializeba ar moxda. (PPittman,2004) konkurenciis kanonebis “tolerantoba” ki swored imaSi mdgomareobs rom isiniar iTvaliswineben Carevas sawarmos saqminobaSi, vidre TviT es ukanasknelni argadawyveten sakuTari qmedebebiT xeli SeuSalon bazarze sxva sawarmoebisSesvlas, damkvidrebasa da Tavisufal saqmianobas.2. 3 kon c e n t r a c i a (Ser w y m e bi da Se Z e n e b i ,ga e rTi a n e b e b i ) Serwymebis kontroli miznad isaxavs Tavidan aicilos SeZenis an sxvastruqturuli kombinaciebiis gziT iseTi sawarmoebis warmoqmna romelTac eqnebaTstimulebic da SesaZleblobac sabazro Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebisa. rogorc praqtika adasturebs, Serwymebis didi umravlesoba prokonkurenciulia.Tumca, maT Soris arian konkurenciisaTvis safrTxis Semcveli da SemzRudavixasiaTis da miznebis SemTxvevebic. yvela kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb SeicavsSerwymebTan dakavSirebul debulebebs, Tumca maTi Sinarsi da gamoyenebis/aRsrulebis formebi mraval SemTxvevaSi gansxvavebulia. Sesabamisad, 5
  • gansxvavebulia damokidebulebac horizontaluri, vertikaluri da konglomeratuliSerwymebis mimarT. Serwymebis analizis mniSvnelovani elementebia: struqturuli da qceviTifaqtorebi, mxareTa sabazro wili, zRvruli normebi, im kriteriumebis arseboba,romliTac ganisazRvreba unda aikrZalos garigeba Tu CaiTvalos gamonaklisad,proceduruli sakiTxebi, maT Soris notifikaciis sistemebi (savaldebulo danebayoflobiTi), post faqtum intervenciebi, sanqciebi da sxva. amasTan, rogorcsaerTaSoriso pratqikis analizi gviCvenebs Tanamedrove Serwymebis kontrolissistemebSi msgavseba ufro metia vidre gansxvaveba. rac mniSvnelovanwiladSedegia imisa, rom ukanasknel wlebSi mravalma qveyanam garkveuli damatebebiSeitana Serwymebis kontrolTan dakavSirebul debulebebSi da am procesebSiaSkarad SeiniSneba saerTo orientirebisadmi swrafva. termini “koncentracia” – xSirad Serwymis/gaerTianebis sinonimadgamoiyeneba da ganimarteba rogorc sxva sawarmoze kontrolis mopovebaSerwymis, SeZenis an sxva gziT. koncentraciis done /xarisxi ki gamoiyenebasasaqonlo bazrebze konkurentuli garemos Sefasebis ZiriTad raodenobrivkriteriumad. sabazro Zalauflebis koncentrciis raodenobrivi SefasebisaTvisgamoiyeneba ori maCvenebeli: koncentraciis koeficienti (CR), romelic ganisazRvrebarogorc bazarze moqmedi kompaniebis sabazro wilis jami (mag. CR CR3, CR4, CR8,CR10) da herfindal hirSmanis indeqsi (HHI), romliTac iangariSeba, bazarzemoqmedi kompaniebis sabazro wilebis kvadratebis jami. Aam koeficientebismniSvnelobebis mixedviT Sesabamisi bazari kvalificirdeba, rogorc:- maRali koncentraciis – CR3 >70%, xolo HHI > 2000 5
  • - saSualo koncentraciis – 45 < CR3 < naklebia 70%, 1000 < HHI <2000 - susti koncentraciis – CR3 < 45%, xolo HHI < 1000 maRali. koncentracia niSnavs sabazro Zalauflebis Tavmoyras mcire raodenobis monawileTa xelSi, rac gansakuTrebul problemebs qmnis im SemTxvevaSi Tu bazarze Sesasvleli maRali barierebia. sabazro koncentraciis doqtrina farTod gamoiyeneba Zalauflebis indikatoris rolSi. zogadad, koncentraciis zrda maRali sabazro barierebis pirobebSi sakmaod saSiSia monopolizaciis TvalsazrisiT da qmnis pirobebs mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebisaTvis. Serwyma – korporaciuli samarTlis terminia da gulisxmobs ori sawarmosgaerTianebas, romlis Sedegadac erTerTi maTgani wyvets arsebobas. Serwymisgageba konkurenciis kanonmdeblobaSi ufro vrcelia da gulisxmobs SeZenas,STanTqmas, erToblivi sawarmos Seqmnas, kontrolis mopovebas, an Tundac erTi daigive pirebs sxvadasxva kompaniebis direqtoratSi. SeZena/ STanTqma – SeZena niSnavs sawarmos mTlianad SeZenas, anmsxvili wilebis SeZenis gziT (an Tundac nawil-nawil minoritaruli wilebis SeZenasdroTa ganmavlobaSi im raodenobiT, rac uzrunvelyofs kontrolis mopovebas samiznesawarmoze) gavlenis/kontrolis mopovebas. mraval qveyanaSi sawarmoSimniSvnelovani wilebis SeZena eqvemdebareba Setyobinebas (notifikacias) Tu igiwilis SemZens kontrolis saSualebas aZlevs gamyidveli sawarmos bazarze.Setyobinebebis msgavsi sistema sxva sferoSic aris gaTvalisiwinebuli. mag. fasianiqaRaldebis Sesaxeb bazris kanonmdeblobiT, maT Soris saqarTveloSic,mniSvnelovani wilis (kapitalis bazarze sxvasxva qveyanaSi mniSvnelovanSenaZenad iTvleba da eqvemdebareba Setyobinebas sawarmos aqciebis 5-10% 5
  • -SeZena). amasTan, amave kanonmdeblobiT, sawarmos wilis SeZena, miuxedavadmisi odenobisa, eqvemdebareba Setyobinebas Tu SemZeni mmarTveli organoswevria. sawarmoo xazis an sxva struqturuli erTeulis SeZena agreTve kvalificirdeba,rogorc ESerwyma. STanTqma, anu mtruli Serwyma, gulisxmobs samizne kompaniisSeZenas misi survilis gareSe. gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevaa erToblivi sawarmo, romelic iqmneba garkveulikonkretuli miznis/proeqtis gansaxorcieleblad da rogorc wesi, miznad isaxavs amaTu im sasargeblo funqciebis ganxorcielebas an sinergiis realizebas (aliansebiaviaciaSi, telekomunikaciaSi da sxva). cxadia, Tu erToblivi sawarmos mizania axalifunqciis an Zvelis ukeTesad ganxorcieleba igi prokonkurenciulia. Tumca, SesaZloaam procesma gamoiwvios sabazro Zalauflebis iseTi koncentraciac, rac safrTxesuqmnis konkurencias da biznesis mxareTa integraciis xarisxis gaTvaliswinebiTSesaZloa warmoadgendes SeniRbul formas fasebis fiqsaciisa. Sesabamisad,erToblivi sawarmos Seqmnis calkeuli SemTxvevebi SesaZloa ganxilul iqnes, rogorckonkurenciulic da antikonkurenciulic. gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevaa erTi da igive pirTa monawileoba konkurentisawarmoebis mmarTvel organoebSi. rodesac erTi da igive piri ramdenime sawarmosdireqtoratis wevria, an rodesac ramdenime sawarmos direqtori imavdroulad sxva erTsawarmos direqtoratSia. aseT SemTxvevaSi iqmneba noyieri niadagi imisaTvis, rominvesticiebTan, warmoebasTan, da sxva sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli saerTostrategiebis Sedegi iyos bazris ganawileba, an konkurenciis sxva formiT SezRudva.vertikaluri aliansis TvalsazrisiT, es iyos kavSiri momwodebelsa da momxmarebelsSoris, rac xels uSlis maT konkurenciul arealSi saqmianobas. analogiuri faqtebi 5
  • xSirad qmnis problemebs korporaciul marTvaSi da wilobrivi fasiani qaRaldebismflobelTa (gansakuTrebiT mcire aqcionerTa) uflebebis realizebaSi. Sesabamisad.maTi Tavidan acilebis garkveul meqanizmebi gaTvaliswinebulia mravali qveyniskorporaciuli samarTalSi, maT Soris saqarTvelos kanonSi “mewarmeTa Sesaxeb”(muxli konkurenciis akrZalvis Sesaxeb) da fasiani qaRaldebis kanonmdeblobaSic. gan s x v a v e b u l i midg ome bi: braziliaSi, CineTSi, evrokavSirSiSesabamisi aqtebiT regulirdeba. aSS moicavs aqtivebis, an xmis uflebis mqoneaqciebis SeZenas regulirebasac (regulirdeba hard skot rodinos aqtiT , 1976). A aSS Serwymebis regulireba efuZneba princips, rom konkurencia aucilebelia,imisaTvis rom momxmareblebma gamoiyenon/isargeblon sabazro ekonomikissikeTeebiT. amasTan mravali Serwyma/SeZena prokonkurentulia da mTavarigamowvevaa antikonkurentuli garigebebis gamovlena. Serwymebis ganxilva xdebaZiriTadad kleitonis aqtTan SesabamisobaSi. es kanoni krZalavs Serwymebs daSeZenebs Tu maTi efeqti SesaZloa iyos konkurencviis SezRudva and monopoliiswarmoqmna (Cramer, 1996) cnobilia SemTxvevebi, rodesac patara qveynebis analitikosebi da konkurenciissaagentoebi Serwymebis kontrols ar miiCneven mizanSewonilad. maTi azriT aseTimidgoma xels uSlis sawarmoebis im zomamde konsolidacias, rac aucilebeliasaerTaSoriso bazarze maTi konkurentunarianobas misaRwevad. es Tema uSualokavSirSia “erovnuli Cempionebis” TemasTan da, rogorc praqtika da Teoriaadasturebs, aseTi midgoma naklebad ganapirobebs warmatebebs saerTaSorisobazrebze da xSirad mxolod adgilobrivi bazrebis monopolizebiT (an poziciebisSenarCunebiT) mTavrdeba. arsebobs sxva mosazrebebic, romlis Tanaxmadac 5
  • liberalizebis masStabebTan erTad es Tema ufro aqtualuri xdeba da Sesabamisadunda iyos aqtiuri ganxilvis sagani. (magaliTebi) ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, Serwymebi SesaZloa iyos h o r i z o n t a l u r i ,ve r t i k a l u r i d a k o n g l o m e r a t u l i . konkurenciuli efeqtis TvalsazrisiT ufrosaSiSad iTvleba horizontauri Serwymebi, anu Serwymebi warmoebisa daganawilebis erTsa da imave doneze moqmed konkurent/potenciur konkurent firmebsSoris da rogorc wesi iwvevs bazris monawileTa raodenobis Semcirebas,koncentraciis zrdas da qmnis sabazro Zalauflebis zrdisa da am ukanasknelis borotadgamoyenebis SesaZleblobasa. garda amisa, gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqtic rom bazrismonawileTa raodenobis SemcirebasTan erTad ufro advili xdeba darCenilmonawileTa saqmianobis koordinaciac rac Tavis mxriv noyier niadags qmniskarteluri SeTanxmebebisaTvis. rac Seexeba v e r t i k a l u r i S e r w ym e b s , isini potenciurad SesaZloasasargebloc ki iyos sinerjiis TvalsazrisiT da momxmareblisaTvis. Tumca nklebadtransparentul pirobebSi vertikalurma Serwymebma SesaZloa gamoiwvion warmoebaganawilebis xazis koordinacia, konkurentebis Seviwroeba da barierebis gaZlierebaaxali konkurentebisaTvis erT an ramdenime funqcionalur doneze. (ungreTis keisi) kon g l o m e r a t u l i S e r w ym a sazogadod ar cvlis Sesabamisi bazrebisstruqturas Tumca garkveul SemTxvevebSi SesaZloa iseTi Zalaufleba mianiWosmxares, romelic mas miscems calkeul bazarze konkurenciis aRkveTissaSualebasac (magaliTebi) antikonkurenciuli Sewymebis kontrolis mizniT sxvadasxva qveyana iyenebswinaswari savaldebulo Setyobinebis, eqs post savaldebulo Setyobinebis an 5
  • nebayoflobiTi Setyobinebis rejimebs. miuxedavad Setyobinebis moqmedi sistemisakonkurenciis organo uflebamosilia gamoiZios Serwyma da dasabuTebis SeTxvevaSimoiTxovos sasamarTlos mier Sesabamisi zomebis gatareba, maT Soris:konkurenciis sawinaaRmdego efeqtis aRmofxvra. proceduruli efeqtianobisTvalsazrisiT TiTqmis yvela qveyana zRudavs Setyobinebas daqvemdebarebulitransaqciebis odenobas garkveuli ekonomkuri garemoebebiT da kriteriumebiT. maTSorisaa: Setyobinebis zRvruli maCveneblebi, geografia, mxareTa aqtivebisRirebuleba an brunva, erToblivi sabazro wili. mag. avstraliis kanoni iTxovs winaswarSetyobinebas Serwymis Taobaze Tu transaqcia urTierCanacvlebadi produqciismwarmoeblebs exeba da maTi erToblivi sabazro wili 20 % aRemateba;gaerTianebuli samefoSi ki winaswar Setyobinebas eqvemdebareba Serwyma Tusamizne kompaniis brunva 70 milion funtsterlings aRemateba an mxareTa erTobliviwili 25 % da metia; Setyobineba savaldebuloa evrokavSirSi Tu garigebis mxareTabrunva (msoflio masStabiT) aRemateba 5 miliards; Tu mxareTa (calcalke) brunvaaRemateba 250 milion evros, garda im SemTxvevisa Tu erTerTi mxaris brunvis 2/3modis mxolod erTi qveynis bazarze. samxreT afrikaSi Setyobineba savaldebuloamxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqme exeba msxvil da saSualo Serwymebs.zRvruli normebi ki aqtivebisa da brunvis maCveneblebis mixedviT yovelwliuraddgindeba. SvedeTis kanonmdeblobiT Setyobineba aucilebelia, Tu eroblivi brunvaaRmateba 1 miliard Svedur krons, ori mxare mainc TiToeulis brunva iyo 200 milioni.StatebSi gamoiyeneba ramdenime kriteriumi: Tu Serwyma gavlenas exeba amerikisvaWrobas, Tu Rirebuleba aqtivebis an aqciebisa, romelic iqneba SeZeniliAaRemateba garkveul zRvars (romelic yovelwliurad dgindeba (62,5 milionze meti, 5
  • 2010 wlis mixedviT) da TviT mxareTa wliur gayidvebs (yvela maTgani yovelwliuraddgindeba). SerwymasTan dakavSirebuli konkretuli keisis konkurenciuli efeqtisanalizisaTvis gamoiyeneba iseTi kiTxvebi, rogoricaa: - ramdenad Seamcirebs es garigeba konkurencias, - gamoiwvevs Tu ara dominirebuli mdgomareobis warmoamqnas da - ra daemarTeba konkurencias – SeizRudeba, aRmoifxvreba Tu Tavidan iqneba acilebulisxvadasxva kanoni Seicavs Sesabamisobis testis gansxvavebul formulirebas. magaSS: kleitonis kanoni krZalavs SeZenebs, romelic arsebiTad Seasustebskonkurencias da gamoiwvevs sasaqonlo bazris monopolizebas. sainteresoa ammxriv horizontaluri Serwymebis meToduri miTiTebebis gacnoba (Horizontal MergerGuidelines, 2010). evrokavSiri krZalavs Serwymebs, romelic mniSvnelovnadSeasustebs konkurencias saerTo bazarze an mis mniSvnelovan nawilSi, an qmnis,an aZlierebs monopoliur mdgomareobas. cxadia, yvela SemTxvevaSi daskvnaefuZneba bazris analizis Sedegebs (EC merger regulation139/2004 ). Serwymebis monitoringTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs konsensusi, romsaagentoebma ise unda warmarTon es procesi, rom dainteresebul mxareebma argadaifiqron Serwymebi da imavdroulad SesaZlebeli iyos potenciuradantikonkurenciuli efeqtis garigebebis gamovlena da Tavidan acileba. mravaliqveyana sakiTxs udgeba sajaro interesebis gaTvalisiwinebiT da cdilobsSerwymebze kontrolis sistemis saWiroebis uaryofas da am midgomisaxsnas/gamarTlebas nacionaluri Cempionebis, dasaqmebis, industriuli ganviTarebis 6
  • mcire biznesis mxardaWeris da sxva motivebiT. Tumca, garda imisa, rom maTimniSvnelobis miuxedavad es sakiTxebi ekonomikuri politikis sxva sferodana, rogorcpraqtika adasturebs nacionaluri Cempionebis Tema xSirad mTavrdeba ara maTisaerTaSoriso konkurentunarianobis amaRlebiT, aramed emsaxureba mxolodqveynis Sida bazarze monopoliuri mdgomareobis SenarCuneba/ganmtkicebasa dagamoyenebas. rac Seexeba antikonkurenciuli Serwymebis sawinaaRmdegozomebs, zogierTi qveyana iTxovs sawarmos restruqturizacias, zogierTi akisrebssanqciebs. struqturuli zomebis gatareba advilia winaswari Setyobinebis Ddros. piriqiTki status qvos aRdgena gacilebiT problemuria. qceviTi zomebi naklebad efeqturia.magaliTad, evrokomisiaSi notifikaciis ganxilvas SesaZloa mowyves SEmdegiqmedeba: a) analizi ramdenad eqvemdebareba koncentraciis konkretuli aqtiregulirebas, b) exeba Tu ara saerTo bazars, g) aRZravs Tu ara es qmedeba eWvsantikonkurenciuli efeqtis Taobaze. notifikacis wardgenidan 3 kviris ganmavlobaSi. gaTvalisiwnebulia jarima araswori da aradrouli informaciis wardgenisaTviswliuri brunvis erTi procentis@ odenobiT; wliuri brunvis 10% mde Tu garigebaewinaaRmdegeba/ar Seesabameba regulaciebs da mxareebi ar emorCilebiankomisiis moTxovnas; dRiuri brunvis 5 % odenobiT darRvevis TiToeul dReze.analogiuri jarimis odenoba aSS-Si Seadgens 16000 dolars darRvevis yovel dReze. rac Seexeba qveynis sazRvrebs gareT registrirebuli firmebis antransnacionalur Serwymebs, romlebic nacionalur bazrebze axdenen gavlenas anpirdapiri gayidvebis an subsidiarebis meSveobiT: is faqti, rom sxvadasxva qveyanaiyenebs sxvadsxva testebsa da midgomebs, miT umetes gansxvavebul sabazopirobebSi, gansxvavebul daskvnebs badebs erTi da igive procesTan dakavSirebiTa. 6
  • garda amisa, gansxvavebuli sakanonmdbelo moTxovnebi da, arc Tu iSviaTadkvlevebis dublireba mniSvnelovnad zrdis administrirebis xarjebs. am da sxvaproblemebis gadawyveta SesaZlebelia saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis farglebSi. cnobili amerikeli eqsperti rusel pitmani miiCnevs, rom Serwymebis winaswariSetyobinebis meqanizmi udidesi gamogonebaa Tanamedrove konkurenciiskanonebis aRsrulebaSi. kerZod, es sistema Tu igi kargad aris gaazrebuli (ise rogorcaSS-Si da evrokavSirSia): - saSualebas iZleva winaswar Sefasdes Serwymis konkurenciuli efeqtebi daTavidan iqnas acilebuli xarjebi, rasac adgili eqneboda Serwymis post faqtumganxilvisa da uaryofiT daskvnis SemTxvevaSi; - astimulirebs SerwymiT dainteresebul mxareebs informaciis drouladwardgenaze; - aiZulebs administraciul organoebs procedurebiT dadgenil vadebSi ganixilonaplikaciebi da sxva. rasel pitmani statiaSi ,,centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebisantimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobis zogierTi gansakuTrebuli debulebebi” (1992) SvidikiTxvisagan Semdgari testiT afsebs Cexoslovakiis federaciuli respublikis, poloneTis,ungreTisa da ruseTis federaciis pirveli Taobis antimonopoliuri kanonebs. xuTi wlisSemdeg igive avtoris statiaSi ,, ‘’(1997) kiTxvari ganvrcobilia da Sefasebuliazemoxsenebuli qveynebisa da rumineTis kanonebi konkurenciis Sesaxeb maTSiSetanili cvlilebebisa da damatebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. e.w. pitmanis testi araerTxel 6
  • iqna gamoyenebuli sxvadsxva qveynebis maT Soris saqarTvelos konkurenciiskanonis SefasebisaTvis (Lapachi, 2001). es kiTxvebia:1. mkveTrad gansxvavebulia Tu ara kanonis damokidebuleba horizontaluri davertikaluri SeTanxmebebis mimarT2. ganixilavs Tu ara kanoni aSkarad kartelur SeTanxmebebs, rogorc upirobod(TavisTavad) kanonsawinaaRmdego movlenas3. zRudavs Tu ara kanoni vertikalur SeTanxmebebs im kompaniebs Soris,romlebsac ar gaaCniaT mniSvnelovani sabazro SesaZleblobebi4. icavs Tu ara kanoni bazris potenciur monawileebs bazarze damkvidrebulikompaniebis konkurenciis SemzRudavi qmedebebisagan5. iTvleba Tu ara konkurentisaTvis zianis miyeneba upirobodkanonsawinaaRmdegod6. ,,domonirebuli” kompaniebis saqmianobis SemzRudavi debulebebiT Zaliangaadvilebuli xom ar aris ama Tu im kompaniis mikuTvneba dominirebulTakategoriisaTvis7. iTvaliswinebs Tu ara kanoni dominirebuli kopaniebis mier dawesebuli fasebiskontrols8. rogori moTxovnebia dawesebuli Serwymebis da gaerTianebebis Setyobinebaze9. rogoria dagegmili Serwymebis analizis SezRudvebi da Caurevlobis Sedegebi?10. ra kriteriumebiT xdeba mosalodneli Serwymebis Sefaseba? 6
  • zemoxsenebul kiTxvebze pasuxebis mixedviT SesaZlebelia Sefasdesramdenad sasargeblo iqneba konkurenciis ganviTarebisa da zogadad sazogadoebiskeTildReobisavis am kanonebis ganxorcieleba antimonopoliuri regulirebis tradiciebisarmqone qveynebisaTvis. garda amisa, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom amaTu imqveyanaSi biznesis dawyebamde warmoebis SesaZleblobebis Sefasebis mizniTnebismieri investori cdilobs winaswar Seiswavlos arsebuli sakanonmdeblo baza,raTa gaarkvios xom ar iqneba misi qveynisTvis savsebiT misaRebi ( kanonierebisTvalsazrisiT) esa Tu is qmedeba kanonsawinaaRmdego am qveyanaSi daSesabamisad kanoni romelic xels uwyobs jansaRi konkurenciis ganviTarebasadacvas imavdroulad aRiqmeba, rogorc investiciebis mozidvis winapiroba. statiisavtoris azriT, testis Sedegebi Taviseburi orientiri iqneba, rogorc samTavrobodawesebulebebisaTvis, romelTac ekisrebaT pasuxismgebloba antimonopoliurikanonmdeblobis ganxorcielebaze, agreTve sasamarTlo xelisuflebiswarmomadgenlebisaTvis. saTanado Teoriuli analizis Sedegad zemoaRniSnul kiTxvebze pasuxebismixedviT pitmani akeTebs daskvnas, rom:- kanoni, romelic Tundac eWvs qveS ayenebs dominirebuli firmis warmatebulstrategias mxolod misi sabazro mdgomareobis gamo aSkarad xels uSlis bazrisganviTarebas.- horizontaluri da vertikaluri SeTanxmebebi sruliad gansxvavebuli movlenebia daSesabamisad kanoni, romelic mkveTrad ar miJnavs maT srulyofas saWiroebs 6
  • - aucilebelia rom kanonSi mkveTrad gaimijnos upirobod antikonkurentuliSeTanxmebebi romelTa ukanonod aRiarebisaTvis saWiroa mxolod faqtis dafiqsirebada SeTanxmebebi, romelTa kanonierebis dadgena specialistebis damatebiTZalisxmevas saWiroebs, raTa adgili ar hqondes antikonkurentuli qcevebisgamarTlebisaTvis argumentebis dausabuTebel da dausrulebel Ziebas mewarmeTamxridan an/da aRmasrulebelTa zedmet aqtivobas da resursebis umiznod xarjvas iqsadac dominirebuli firmebis aSkaad normalur qcevasTan gvaqvs saqme. E essakiTxi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens axlad formirebadi sabazroekonomikisaTvis Sesabamisad mizanSewonilia rom calsaxad gansazRvruliyo dadakanonebuliyo mkacri wesebi konkurenciis SemzRudavi SeTanxmebebisa daSeTanxmebuli qmedebebis mimarT. - mkvlevarTa azriT, xelSemkvreli pirobebi Tu masSi monawileoben mcire firmebi saziano araa sazogadoebisaTvis. Sesabamisad, SeTanxmebebi romelSic ar monawileoben dominirebuli firmebi ar unda warmoadgendes antimonopoliuri kontrolis sagans, radganac - dominirebuli firmebis SeTanxmebuli qmedebebis SemTxvevaSi kanoni aucileblad unda iTvaliswinebdes mxolod maTi antikonkurentuli formebis Tavidan acilebas. - Tu kanoni dominirebas mxolod erTi kriteriumiT, calsaxad mxolod sabazro wiliT gansazRvravs igi aSkarad seriozuli naklis mqonea da sxva. dRes, rodesac saqarTveloSi kvlav dRis wesrigSia konkurenciis cxadi da,aRsrulebis TvalsazrisiT, prognozirebadi wesebis Seqmna (da es procesi ukve 6
  • meramdened Tavidan iwyeba!) migvaCnia, rom es kiTxvebi SesaZloa gamoyenebuliqnes, rogorc indikatorebi kanonmdeblobis Seqmnisa da srulyofis procesSi.na wili II: aRm a s r u l e b e li in s t i t u t e b i s di z a i n i s a daef e q t i a n o b i s Se s a x e bT a v i III . k o n k u r e n c i i s or g a n o e b i s di z a i n i sazogadod cnobilia, rom Tavisufali sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi bazrismonawileni TavisTavad ar arian daculi antikonkurentuli qmedebebisagan.antimonopoliur regulirebas, konkurenciisa da momxmarebelTa dacvas QqveynebisumravlesobaSi axorcieleben sxva saxelmwifo uwyebebisagan damoukidebelimakontrolebel/maregulirebeli organoebi komisiebis, saagentoebis, biuroebis, ufroiSviaTad ki ekonomikuri profilis saministroebis Sesabamisi struqturuli qvedanayofisan saqveuwyebo struqturebis saxiT. gaeros vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis komisiis modeluri kanonis mixedviT,kanoni unda iTvaliswinebdes rogorc administraciuli struqturis Seqmnisa dasaqmianobis samarTlebriv CarCos: struqturas, dafinsebis wyaroebs daTanamdebobis pirTa sakvalifikacio moTxovnebs, daniSnvisa da gaTavisuflebisprocedurebs, imunitetisa da sxva sakiTxebs. saerTaSoriso praqtika konkurenciuli regulirebis sferoSi gvTavazobsmravalferovnebas struqturuli modelebisa, iseve rogorc gansxvavebul mandatskonkurenciis organoebisa. qveynebis umravlesobaSi funqciebis ganawilebismixedviT Semdegi modelebi an maTi garkveuli variaciebi gamoiyeneba: 6
  • - orsafexuriani sasamarTlos modeli. am SemTxvevaSi administraciuli organo ikvlevsdanaSaulis niSnebs da sakiTxs aRZravs saerTo sasamarTloSi misi Semdegomisaapelacio sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobiT;- orsafexuriani instituciuri modeli – administraciuli organo ikvlevs sakiTxs da SeaqvssarCeli specializebul sasamarTloSi Semdgomi apelaciis uflebiT ufro zemdgom, igiveprofilis sasamarTloSi, an zogadi profilis saaapelacio sasamarTloSi- integrirebuli modeli administraciuli organo uflebamosilia rogorc gamoZiebaze asevesanqcionirebaze, ise, rom asrulebs sasamarTlos funqciasac. gadawyvetilebisspecializebul an zogad sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis uflebiT (unctad. modal law.2010 ) praqtikaSi farTod gamoiyeneba am modelebis variaciebi. yvela models Tavisiupiratesi da naklovani mxareebi gaaCnia. konkurenciis politkaze pasuxismgebeliadministraciuli organoebi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdebian uflebamosilebebisspeqtriTac. kerZod, zogierT qveyanaSi (peru, kolumbia, axali zelandia) erTuwyebaSi Tavmoyrilia ramdenime organos funqcia (mag. SemzRudavi biznespraqtikis kontroli, momxmarebelTa dacva, sareklamo saqmianobis kontroli dakorporaciuli samarTali), rac garkveuli azriT, uzrunvelyofs Tanmimdevruli politikisgatarebas, gacilebiT naklebi danaxarjebiT da naklebi riskiT biznesis mxridan gavlenismoxdenisa. AaSS federaluri vaWrobis komisia, poloneTis konkurenciisa damomxmarebelTa dacvis ofisi momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvisa da antimonopoliuriregulirebaze uflebamisilebis erT uwyebaSi Tavmoyris TvalsaCino magaliTia. CineTida aSS imiTac gamoirCeva, rom ramdenime dawesebuleba axorcielebs ama Tu imfunqcias, an dublirebas aqvs adgili kanongamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT. amTvalsazrisiT saintereso magaliTia aSS antitrast departamenti da federaluri vaWrobis 6
  • komisia. erT mxriv, adgili aqvs garkveul sirTules da dublirebas. meores mxriv,dublireba ama Tu im sferoSi SesaZloa aRmoCndes ufro mkacri aRsrulebis garantida gaarTulos daintreresebul pirTa zemoqmedeba kanonis aRsrulebis procesze.ama Tu im Tu modeli arCevans ganapirobebs konkretuli qveynis saxelmwifoebrivimodeli, socialuri, ekonomikuri da politikuri da sxva faqtorebi. aRsanisnavia, romukanasknel wlebSi SeiniSneba tendenciebi erTiani (kombinirebuli) modelebisgamoyenebisa. rogorc praqtika gviCvenebs, araerT qveyanaSi konkurenciis sakiTxebzeuflebamosileba miniWebuli aqvs ama Tu im saministros SemadgenlobaSi arsebulspecialur departaments (aseTi modeli iyo gamoyenebuli saqarTveloSic 1992-1997wlebSi). miuxedavad zemoaRniSnulisa farTovdeba konsensunsi konkurenciissakiTxebze pasuxismgebeli damoukidebeli organoebis sasargeblod. uwyebrividamoukideblobis sakiTxi gaTvaliswinebulia saerTaSoriso organizaciebisrekomendaciebSic da modelur kanonebSic (naxevrad an srulad damoukidebelisaxelmwifo uwyeba sasamarTlo da administraciuli uflebamosilebebiT, maT SorisgamoZiebis/gamokvlevebis, sanqciis gamoyenebis uflebiT. cxadia am ukanaskneligadawyvetilebebis gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobebiT). axali uwyebebis umravlesoba gardamaval qveynebSi cdilobs moipovos racSeiZleba meti administraciuli damoukidebloba, romelsac safuZvlad uZevs samiprincipi; gadawyvetilebis miRebis Tavisufleba, biujeti da sakadro damoukidebloba. gansxvavebuli sakanonmdeblo midgomebi – institucionaluri konfiguracia ცხრილი 3 6
  • qveyana or s a f e x u r i a n i sa s a m a r Tlo si s t e m aavstralia komisia momxmarebelTa da konkurenciis sakiTxebze pasuxismgebelia darRvevebis gamokvlevaze da uflebamosilia sakiTxi aRZras federalur sasamarTloSi darRvevaSi SemCnel pirTa mimarT gadawyvetilebas iRebs federaluri sasamarTloiamaika keTilsindisieri konkurenciis komisia ikvlevs sakiTxs da Semdeg gadascems uzenaes sasamarTlos, romelsac gamoaqvs gadawyvetileba jarimis dakisrebis Taobaze or s a f e x u r i a n i in s t i t u c i o n a l u r i mo d e lisamxreT afrika sami organo funqciobs: konkurenciis komisia, sasamarTle konkurenciis sakiTxebze, saapelacio sasamarTlo konkurenciis sakiTxebze konkurenciis komisia uflebamosilia kanonsawinaaRmdego qcevebis da qmedebebis gamoZiebasa da gamokvlevaze. sasamarTlo uflebamosilia ganixilos nebismier sakiTxi kanoniT akrZalul qmedebebTan dakavSirebiT da miiRos Sesabamisi gadawyvetileba, maT Soris gadasinjos komisiis gadawyvetilebebi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba SesaZloa gasaCivrdes konkurenciis sakiTxebis saapelacio sasamarTloSi o r s a f e x u r i a n i in s t i t u c i o n a l u r i mo d e li 6
  • Cile erovnuli ekonomikuri prokuratura ixilavs darRvevebs konkurenciis sferoSi da aRZravs sakiTxs Tavisufali konkurenciis dacvis sasamarTloSi (an sxva sasamarTloSi), romelic warmoadgens damukidebel konkurenciis sakiTxebze specializebul sasamarTlos da axorcielebs uflebamosilebas umaRlesi sasamarTlos zedamxedvelobiT in t e g r i r e b u l i m o d e l ievrokavSiri ixilavs da iRebs samarTlebriv gadawyvetilebebs Serwymebze da sxva antikonkurenciuli efeqtis mqone praqtikaze, romelic exeba wevr qveynebs Soris vaWrobasCineTi kanoni iTvaliswinebs, rom saxelmwifo sabWo qmnis antimon. Komisias, romelic Tavis mxriv pasuxismgebelia antimonopoliuri politikis organizebaze, xelmZRvanelobaze. igive sabWo amtkicebs Semadgenlobas da saqmianobis wess. es saagento pasuxismgebelia kanonis gamoyenebza. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi analogiuri saagentoebi iqmneba provinciebsa, avtonomiur regionebsa da centralur qalaqebSi. sxvadasxva qveyanaSi gansxvavebulia dasaqmebulTa raodenobac da misigansazRvrisadmi midgomac. es ukanaskneli zogierT qveyanaSi sakanonmdebloaqtebiTve dgindeba ( alJiri, argentina, bulgareTi, brazilia, kosta rika, ruseTi, malta,meqsika, panama, peru, portugalia, koreis respublika da sxva), zogierTi kanonisaerTod ar exeba (Sveicariis, indoeTis) kadrebis ricxovnobas, avstraliaSi ki essakiTxi mTavrobis an Sesabamisi saministros prerogativaa. 7
  • gansxvavebulia pasuxismgebel pirTa Tanamdebobaze daniSnvisprocedurebic. Dda sakvalifikacio moTxovnebic. mraval qveyanaSi uwyebisxelmZRvaneli/ komisiis Tavmjdomare da wevrebi iniSnebian umaRlesi politikuriinstanciis mier (mag. prezidenti, parlamenti an EerToblivad), zogan mTavrobisxelmZRvanelis mier. qveynebis umravlesobaSi gadawyvetileba eqvemdebarebagamoqveynebas oficialur gamocemaSi. zogierT qveyanaSi konkurenciis organosstruqtura da saqmianobis wesebi ganisazRvreba kanoniT, sxva SemTxvevaSi kiaseTi detalebi Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze struqturis doneze wydeba. rac Seeexeba sakavalifikacio moTxovnebs: aRiarebulia, rom efeqtianiaRsrulebisaTvis saWiroa saTanado sakvlifikacio unar Cvevebis mTeli speqtri. pirvelrigSi ekonomikisa da samarTlis sferos codna, saxelmwifo marTvis garkveuligamocdileba, da garkveuli dargobrivi codna. gundi unda axdendes saTanadosaeqsperto codnis demonstrirebas. zogierTi qveyanaSi es moTxovnebisakanonmdeblo aqtebiT dgindeba (mag braziliaSi auclelbelia maRali kvalifikacia daumwikvlo reputacia, pakistanSi garda codnisa da profesiuli aRiarebisa kandidatebsmoeTxovebaT minimum 10 wlis staJi garkveul sferoebSi muSaobisa da sxva).konkurenciis saagentoebis maxasiaTeblebi OECD zogierTi qveynisaTvis 2000 wlismdgomareobiT da analogiuri monacemebi zogierTi postsocialisturi qveynisaTviswarmodgenilia danarTebSi 5,6. rig qveynebSi kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulia interesTa konfliqtebis sakiTxic(indoeTi, germania, ungreTi, italia, meqsika). CvenTvis cnobili yvela kanonigamoricxavs sxva Semosavalze / mogebaze orientirebul/anazRaurebad 7
  • saqmianobaSi monawileobas, garda kanoniT gansazRvrulisa. arc erTi qveyana arkrZalavs paralelur samecniero pedagogiur saqmianobas. Tanamdebobaze yofnis vadebi gansxvavdeba qveynidan qveyanaSi. Mmag:italiaSi 7, ungreTSi 6, somxeTSi, indoneziaSi 5, argentinaSi 4, braziliaSi 2,SveicariaSi uvadod, meqsikaSi 10 wliT ganisazRvreba. mraval qveyanaSigaTvaliswinebulia Tanamdebobaze meore vadiT daniSnvac, Tumca mxolod erTxel(es ZiriTadad exeba komisiur/kolegiur organoebs). umravles SemTxvevaSi kanoni gansazRvravs ganTavisuflebis procedurebsac,rac administraciuli organos stabilurobis da damoukideblobis mniSvnelovani garantia.mxolod vadis gasvlis Semdeg an sxva kanoniT gansazRvrul SemTxvevbSi, mag.janmrTelobis mdgomareoba (serbia, samxreT afrika, iaponia), bankrotoba ( malavi,malta, singapuri, iaponia), garkveul vadaze xangrZlivi Svebuleba - avstralia,movaleobis arasaTanadod Sesruleba (meqsika) disciplinaruli gadacdoma (ungreTi)da sxva. mravali qveynis kanonmdeblobaSi gaTvaliswinebulia pasuxismgebel pirTaimunitetic (mag. pakistanSi TviT organo da misi NTanamdebobis pirebi sruliimunitetiT sargebloben nebismieri sarCelis da samarTlebrivi devnis winaaRmdeg).Tumca, gavrcelebuli mosazrebiT, imunitetma xeli ar unda SeuSalos sasamarTloganxilvebs da sarCelis aRZvras uflebamosilebis gadametebis an sxva ukanonoqmedebebis SemTxvevaSi. konkurenciis saagentoebis dizainTan dakavSirebiT CvenTvis gansakuTrebiTsainteresoa evrokavSiris wevr qveynebSi gamoyenebuli modelebi. 2011 wlismdgomareobiT evrokavSiris wevri qveynebis konkurenciuli organoebis 7
  • maxasiaTeblebi asaxulia danarTSi 7. (analitikuri cxrili momzadebulia uSualodwevri qveynebis sagentoebis wyaroebze dayrdnobiT). yofili sabWoTa kavSirisa damcire ekonomikis mqone qveynebis analogiuri struqturebis maxasiaTeblebic. saqarTvelosaTvis optimaluri parametrebi gaTvaliswinebulia konkurenciisSesaxeb Cvens mier momzadebul kanonproeqtis Sesabami debulebebSi.Tavi IV . kon k u r e n c i i s saa g e n t o e b i s (ko mi s i e b i s ,ofi s e b i s ) ef e q t i a n o b i s Se s a x e b Tanmimdevruli antimonopoliuri politika sabazro reformebis erTerT ZiriTadmimaRtulebad da sazogadoebis ketildReobis aicilebel pirobad aRiqmeba rogorcganvitarebuli aseve gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebSi. postsocialistur qveynebSisaxalxo meurneobis demonopolizaciisa da ekonomikis liberalizaciis procesebTanerTad ekonomikuri politikis erTerT ZiriTad mimarTulebad ganisazRvraantimonopoliuri regulirebis, konkurenciuli politikisa da momxmarebelTa dacvissamarTlebrivi da organizaciuli bazis ganviTareba. Sesabamisi organoebis statusisada uwyebrivi damoukideblobis, rogorc konkurentuli politikis efeqtianobis aucilebeli(Tumc arasakmarisi) piroba yovelTvis idga saerTaSoriso organizaciebisa daeqspertTa yuradRebis centrSi. Akonkurenciisa da momxmarebelTa dacvazesaxelwifo kontrolis ganmaxorcielebli organoebis damoukideblobis sasargeblodmiuTiTeben antimonopoliuri regulirebisa da momxmarebelTa dacvis TeoriuliwinamZRvrebi da sayovelTaod aRiarebuli principebi, iseve rogorc Sesabamisikanonebis gamoyenebis sferoebi da mraval qveynebSi (maT Soris post socialistiuri 7
  • evropisa da dsT-s qveynebis umravlesobaSi) aprobirebuli institucionaluri mowyobismodelebi (ix. danarTi 1, 2). dReisaTvis rogorc aRmosavleTi da centraluri evropispostsocialistur, aseve yofili ssrk qveynebSi Seqmnilia da funqcioben iuridiulad(zogan uwyebrivadac) damoukidebeli antimonopoliuri organoebi gansxvavebulisaxelebiT, Tumca msgavsi funqciebiT. mag: ruseTSi – federaluri antimonopoliurisamsaxuri (yofili antimonopoliuri politikisa da mewarmeobis mxardaWerissaministro), ukrainaSi antimonopoliuri komiteti, uzbekeTSi demonopolizaciisa dakonkurenciis ganviTarebis saxlmwifo komiteti, estoneTSi _ konkurenciis saagento(2008 wels Seicvala), litvaSi - konkurenciis sabWo, latviaSi konkurenciis sabWo,yazaxeTSi bunebrivi monopoliebis, konkurenciis dacvisa da mcire biznesismxardaWeris saagento, yirgizeTSi – antimonopoliuri politikis saxelmwifo komiteti,somxeTSi - ekonomikuri konkurenciis dacvis saxelmwifo komisia (2001 wlamdefunqciobda departamenti ekonomikis saministros struqturaSi), azerbaijanSisaxelmwifo antimonopoliuri komiteti (2007 wlamde funqciobda ekonomikuriganviTarebis saministros antimonopoliuri politikis departamenti), belorusiaSi _mewarmeobisa da investicebis saministro, moldaveTSi - ekonomikisa da reformebissaministro, saqarTveloSi – ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministrosTanarsebuli Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis saagento (2004 wlamde ekonomikis,vaWrobisa da mrewvelobis saministrosTan arsebuli saxelwifo antimonopoliurisamsaxuri, romelic 1997-2000 wlebSi warmoadgenda kanoniT Seqmnil sajarosamarTlis iuridiuli pirs, 2001 wlidan gardaiqmna saqveuwyebo dawesebulebad,Semdeg isev sajaro samarTlis iuridiul pirad, 2004 wels ki saerTod gauqmda da misnacvlad Seiqmna Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis saagentod. 2010 wlidan 7
  • saagento formalurad uwyebrivad damoukidebel saagentod, Tumca misiuflebamosilebebi igive 2005 wlis kanoniT ganisazRvreba). wlebis ganmavlobaSisaqarTvelos antimonopoliuri organo asocirdeboda ekonomikis saministrosTan,romelsac garkveul wlebSi dargobrivi funqciebic gaaCnda (mrewvelobis, vaWrobis,ekonomikis saministro) da Sesabamisad, aSkara iyo interesTa SeuTavseboloba,razedac xSirad miuTiTebdnen, rogorc saerTaSoriso organizaciebiswarmomadgenlebi da damoukidebeli eqspertebi, aseve im periodSi moqmediantikorufciuli sabWo. Tumca, Sesabamisi dadgenilebis pasuxad miviReT arainstituciurad gaZlierebuli damoukidebeli samsaxuri, aramed aseve saministrosdaqvemdebarebaSi myofi antimonopoliuri samsaxurisa da fasebis inspeqciisgaerTianeba, miuxedavad maTi konceptualuri SeuTavseblobisa (zogierTi eqspertisSefasebiT am reformis ZiriTadi Sedegi iyo fasebis inspeqciis „gadarCena“). igive SeiZleba iTqvas postsocialistur evropazec, sadac yvela qveyanaSi gardasloveniisa (konkurenciis dacvis ofisi ekonomikuri urTierTobebisa da ganviTarebissaministroSi) da makedoniisa (monopoliebis saagento - ekonomikis saministroSi),funqcioben uwyebrivad damoukidebeli organoebi, kerZod: slovakeTSi -antimonopoliuri ofisi, poloneTSi _ konkurenciisa da momxmarebelTa dacvis ofisi,ungreTSi - ekonomikuri konkurenciis ofisi, bulgareTSi – konkurenciis dacvis komisia,rumineTSi – konkurenciis sabWo da , CexeTSi – konkurenciis dacvis ofisi da sxva. konkurenciis damcavi organoebis gansxvavebuli dizainis miuxedavad, isinimTeli rigi saerTo maxasiaTeblebiT gamoirCevian. Camoyalibebulia garkveulikriteriumebic ras unda pasuxobdes efeqtiani sajaro maregulirebeli uwyebakonkurenciis sferoSi. maT Sorisaa: damoukidebloba, angariSvaldebuleba, 7
  • transparentuloba, mandatis Sesabamisi dafinanseba da saTanado adamianuriresursebiT ( ganaTlebuli, saTando profesiuli wvrTna gavlili da arakorumpirebuli)uzrunvelyofa, gasaCivrebis kargad organizebuli procedurebi da sxva. amasTan,sakamaTo araa, rom saagentos efeqtianoba damokidebulia, rogorc gare faqtorebze,aseve TviT saagentoSi mimdinare procesebze da procedurebze. maT SorisgansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania: amocanebisa da prioritetebis sworad dasaxva daresurebebis efeqtiani ganawileba saqmianobis ZiriTad mimarTulebebze. konkurenciis saagentoebis dizainsa da efeqtianobasTan dakavSirebiT,sainteresoa gaeros konkurenciisa da vaWrobis komisiis eqspertis, viliam kovasikis(FFTC yofili Tavmjdomaris da wlebis ganmavlobaSi komisiis wevri, msoflios 20-zemet qveyanas, maT Soris saqarTvelos, uwevda teqnikur daxmarebas) sxvadasxvawlebSi da tribunidan gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi konkurenciis saagentos efeqtianobismaxasiaTeblebTan dakavSirebiT. qvemoT warmoadgenilia saerTaSoriso praqtikaSiaRiarebuli midgomebi konkurenciis politikis aRsrulebaze uflebamosili organoebisefeqtianobis aucilebel porobebTan da procedurebTan dakavSirebiT.1. ef e q ti a ni kon k u r e n c ii s sage n t o –S e f a s e b i sk ri t e r i um e bidizaini da institucionaluri simZlavreebi is ZiriTadi faqtorebia romlebic gavlenasaxdenen dasaxuli miznebis miRwevaze. efeqtianobaze gavlenas axdens agreTve isgaremo romelSic saagentos uwevs Tanaarseboba. saqminaobis Sefasebis erTerTikriteriumia ramdenad axdens igi am garemoze gavlenas/ramdenad SeuZliagardaqmnas garemo konkurenciuli efeqtis TvalsazrisiT. viliam kovaseki saagentosSefasebisaTvis or kiTxvaze pasuxiT interesdeba: ra Sedegebi hqonda saagentos 7
  • intervenciebs kanonis miznebTan mimarTebaSi? da saagentos procesebmaSeuwyo Tu ara xeli resursebis gadanawilebas sakanonmdeblo miznebis realizaciissasargeblod? am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema SesaZlebelia wliuri angariSebis,analitikuri mimoxilvebis, sxvadasxva saxis kiTxvarebze (maT Soris saerTaSorisoorganizaciebis mier SemuSavebuli) pasuxebiT da sxva saxis masalebiT. analizisSedegebiT efeqtianad iTvleba saagento Tu igi asrulebs mis winaSe dasaxulamocanebs resursebis saTanado/sworad gamoyenebiT. saqmianobis calkeulikeisebis, kvlevebis, mosmenebis, sxvadasxva saxis komunikaciebis da advokatirebismcdelobis Sedegebis analizi aadvilebs imis gansazRvras ra iqneba ukeTesimomavlisaTvis.2. saa g e n t o s di z a i ni s e l eme n t e bi – optimaluri dizanis ZiriTadielementebia: a) samarTlebriv statusTan dakavSirebuli elementebi, b) statusi ufrofarTo samTavrobo struqturaSi da agreTve biznesisa da momxmarebelTawarmomadgenlebTan urTierTobebSi g) Sida procesebis organizacia. garda amelementebisa aucilebelia arsebobdes cxadi saapelacio normebi da procesebixorcieldebodes arakorumpirebul, kvalificiur garemoSi da transparentulobismoTxovnebis dacviT (garda im SemTxvevbisa rodesac saqme exeba konfidencialurinformacias).d amo u k i d e b l o b a - samarTlebrivi da institucionaluri CarCo undauzrunvelyofdes saagentos damoukideblobas mis saqmianobaSi da amdamoukideblobis dabalansebas angariSvaldebulebiT. samarTlebrivad garantirebuliunda iyos rogorc politikuri, aseve organizaciuli da finansuri damoukidebloba, raTa 7
  • minimumamde davides an gamoiricxos saagentos yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi Carevisriski. imavdroulad unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli damoukideblobisa daangariSvaldebulebis balansis uzrunvelmyofi iseTi normebi da procedurebi,rogoricaa:a) sawesdebo damoukideblobiT aRWurva, anu gaTavisufleba amaTu im saxelmwifouwyebis yoveldRiuri kontrolisaganb) Tanamdebobaze daniSvnis naTlad gansazRvruli kriteriumebig) xelisuflebis aRmasulebeli da sakanonmdeblo Stos monawileoba TanamdebobazedaniSvnis procedurebSid) pasuxismgebeli pirebis (mag. aRmasrulebeli direqtori, an komisiis wevrebi modelisgaTvaliswinebiT) daniSnva gansazRvruli fiqsirebuli vadiT, romelic ar undaemTxveodes saarCevno cikls da Tanamdebobidan vadaze adre gaTavisuflebisakrZalva garda gansakuTrebuli kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevebisa, amasTanmniSvnelovania, rom kolegialuri organos SemTxvevaSi calkeuli wevrebis vadebi arunda emTxveodes erTmaneTs da saarcevno ciklebs (miRebuli pratqikaa, rodesacama Tu im komisiis pirveli Semadgenlobis wevrebi iniSnebian gansxavebuli vadebiT1,2,3,4,5 wliani – xolo Semdegi, axali wevrebi 5 wliT/ an sxva vadiT)e) saagentos uzrunvelyofa adeqvaturi resursebiT unda gamoricxavdes maszesabiuJeto meqanizmebiT zemoqmedebis SesaZleblobasv) saagentoebis gaTavisufleba sajaro samsaxurebSi dawesebuli saxelfasoSezRudvebisagan (gansakuTrebiT im qveynebSi sadac sajaro seqtoris dafinansebamwiria), maRalkvalificiuri kadrebis mozidva SenarCunebis mizniT 7
  • z) saagentos gadawyvetilebebis ar unda eqvemdebarebodes Secvlas aRmasruleblismxridan, garda kanoniT aRwerili da gasaCivrebis SedegebiT gaTvalswinebuliSemTxvevebisa).uwy e b r i v i d amo u k i d e b l o b a : dReisaTvis arsebuli konkurenciissaagentoebis umravlesoba sxva samTavrobo struqturebisagan damoukidebelia,naxevarze naklebi saministroebs eqvemdebareba (unctad, guidebook). sxvadasxvawyaroebSi miTiTebulia sxvadasxva cifri konkurenciuli reJimebis mqone qveynebisa,Tumca maTi raodenoba ukve 120-s aRemateba (1990 wels gaeros monacemebiTmxolod 24 iyo). maTi umetesoba ukanaskneli ori dekadis warmonaqmnia. mravalimaTgani ganviTarebad da gardamaval qveyanaSia (ix. danarTi).fin a n s u r i d amo u k i d e b l o b a aRiarebulia erTerT mTavar elementadinstituciuri damoukideblobisa. dafinansebis wyaroebze saubrisasgasaTvalisiwinebelia, rom TviTdafinanseba (TurqeTi) xSirad qmnis zedmetiintervenciebis risks, iseve rogorc damokidebuleba mTlianad biujetze – iwvevspolitikuri damokidebulebis riskebis zrdas (UNCTAD,2011).a ng a r i S v a l d e b u l e b a sa z o g a d o e bi s mima r T – sazogadoeba(politikosebi, media, biznesi, akademiuri wreebi, momxmareblebi da sxva)uflebamosilia icodes vin aris pasuxismgebeli gadawyvetilebaze, ras efuZneboda misimiReba, vin arian dainteresebuli mxareebi, rogor mimdinareobda sakonsultacioprocesebi da sxva. angariSvaldebulebis uzrunvelyofis gavrcelebuli formebia: 7
  • - kanonebis, da kanonqvemdebare aqtebis gamoqveyneba, wesdebisgamoqveyneba, sadac cxadad iqneba gawerili amocanebi, funqciebi,uflebamosilebebi, movaleobebi;- saagentos gadawyvetilebebis gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobebi sasamarTloSi an sxvaarapolitikuri dawesebulebSi. Tumca raRac zRvari aucileblad unda iqnes dawesebuli,raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli aRsrulebis gadavadebis mizniT gamowveuligasaCivrebebi.- saagentos valdebuleba wliuri angariSebis gamoqveynebisa finansur angariSTanerTad, sakanonmdeblo organos an sxvaTa mier misi Semdgomi ganxilvis mizniT- wevrebis gaTavisuflebis formaluri wesebis arseboba- dasabuTebuli gadawyvetilebebis gamoqveyneba da sxva.transpa r en t u l o b a - transparentuloba potenciurad gamoricxavsmikerZoebuli diskriminaciuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebas, zrdis ndobisa dalegitimurobis xarisxs. Sesabamisad, aucilebelia yvela wesi, politika, principebi iyosgamoqveynebuli da gansajaroebuli. mniSvnelovani datvirTva aqvs sajaromosmenebsa da konsultaciebs. aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, transparentulobis xarisxiSesaZloa Semcirdes Tu saqme exeba komerciulad mgrZnobiare keisebs da sxvasaxis konfidencialur informacias. bazris gaaqtiureba da sainvesticio garemos gajansaRebis aucileblobamoiTxovs sakanonmdeblo garkveulobas. konkurenciis saagentoebis saqmianobaunda iyos ganWvretadi da emorCilebodes dadgenil wesebs. gasaTvaliswinebeliaagreTve precedentebis pativiscemis aucilebloba (anu gadawyvetilebebi ar unda 8
  • Seicvalos garda im SemTxvevebisa, rodesac arsebobs dasabuTebuli informacia,rom am gadawyvetilebam gamoiwvia seriozuli problema an warmoiSva axaligaremoebebi, romlebic ganapirobeben sakiTxisadmi damokidebulebis Secvlas ) daTanmimdevruloba (Seicvalos saagentos midgomebi da erTidaigive/ an msgavsgaremoebebSi miiRos msgavsi gadawyvetilebebi, rac gamoricxavs samarTlisSerCeviT aRsrulebas). saTan a d o sta t u si da aRma s r u l e b e l i Za l a u f l e b a -kanonis iZulebiTi aRsrulebis efeqtiani pratqikis uzrunvelsayofad aucilebeliasaTanado statusi da aRmasrulebeli Zalaufleba. arsebobs gamoTqma, rom„makontrolebeli organo ar unda iyos ukbilo“. mas unda hqondes cxadadgamokveTili, formalurad gansazRvruli aRmasrulebeli Zalaufleba (cxadi mandati),rasakvirvelia unarTan da movaleobebTan erTad, rom ganaxorcielos misiuflebamosilebebi da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, iZulebiT aRasrulos kanonierigadawyvetilebebi. konkurenciis saagentoebs unda hqondeT iseTi uflebebi, romelicsaSualebas miscems maT: a) srulad gamoiZion (maT Soris informaciis moTxovnis,moZiebisa da droulad miRebis ufleba), da droulad aRkveTon darRvevebi b)moiTxovon sasamarTlosgan amaTu im qmedebis ganxorcieleba, an jarimisdakisreba kanondamrRvevebze. aRsanisnavia, rom statusisa da uflebamosilebebis daubalansebloba iyoerTerTi ZiriTadi problema (ramac xeli SeuSala im periodisaTvis araerTi ”Tamami”saqmisa da principuli daskvnis saboloo Sedegamde miyvana) saqarTvelosantimonopoliuri samsaxuris saqmianobaSi (lafaCi, 2003). 8
  • ka d r e b i da fin a n s u r i r e s u r s e b i – kvalifikaciis problema, dabalisajaro xelfasebi, korufciisa da kerZo seqtoris mxridan ”dapyrobis” riski (esukanaskneli gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria dargobrivi maregulirebeli komisiebisSemTxvevaSi) is safrTxeebia rac gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT dgas ganviTarebadiqveynebis saagentoebisaTvis. dafinansebis ZiriTadi wyaroa sabiujeto asignebebi da mosakreblebiSerwymebTan dakavSirebuli Setyobinebebis ganxilvaze. sanqciebis nawilisdatovebam saagentos ganskargulebaSi SesaZloa gamoiwvios stimulirebasadamsjelo qmedebebisa, meores mxriv mxolod sabiujeto dafinansebam SesaZloagaaZlieros saxelisuflebo gavlena. dafinansebasTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebiTsainteresoa konkurenciis saagentoebis biujetebis Sedareba, rogorc absoluturi asevefardobiTi maCveneblebSi (mTlian Sida produqtTan, aseve erT sul mosaxleze mSp-Tan mimarTebaSi). dafinansebis maCveneblebis Sedarebisas, gasaTvaliswinebeliaisic, rom rom saagentoebis modelebi, iseve rogorc maTi mandati erTmaneTisagangansxvavdeba. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT absoluturad miuRebelia saqarTveloskanonproeqtiT gaTvalisiwnebuli safasuris, rogorc gancxadebebis ganxilviswinapirobis daweseba.3. Sid a p r o c e s e b i miznebisa da amocanebis gansazRvra, prioritetizacia, resursebis sworadganawileba. rogorc wesi, saagentos zogadi miznebi sakanonmdeblo aqtebiTganisazRvreba. Tumca personalisaTvis meti sicxadisaTvis TiToeuli saagento TavisiwesebiT, procedurebiTa da sxvadsxva saxis meToduri Tu sarekomendacio 8
  • masalebiT ufro naTlad ayalibebs specifikur miznebs da maTi miRwevisRonisZiebebs da erTian procedurul wesebs, miT umetes Tu gaaCnia regionaluriofisebi. p ri o r i t e t e b i - prioritetebis gansazRvris dros gamoiyenebagansxvavebuli midgomebi. mag: Serwymebis ganxilva sabazro wilis principiT, anspecifikuri seqtorebis gamorCeva, romelzec moxdeba koncentrireba. meoremidgomaa e.w. danaxarjebi-sargebelis analizi iseTi kriteriumebiT, rogoricaa a) efeqtisamomxmareblo bazarze sadac ganxorcieldeba intervencia b) samuSaos strategiulimniSvneloba, g) mosaldneli Sedegis albaToba d) resursebze mosalodneli danaxarji saerTaSoriso praqtika adasturebs, rom prioritetebis didi xniT adre gansazRvraaraefeqturia. gansakuTrebiT rTulia strategiebisa da prioritetebis gansazRvra axalisaagentoebisaTvis, romelTac isedac mravali problema aqvT kadrebis,uflebamisliebebis, biznes garemoSi konkurenciis kulturis ar arsebobisa da sxvasaxiT. am sakiTxebze gansakuTrebul yuradRebas amaxvilebdnen amerikelieqspertebi saqarTvelos antimonopoliuri samsaxurisaTvis momzadebul rCevebSipolitikis ganxorcielebisaTvis. resursebis ganawileba aseve mniSvnelovania Semdgomi motivaciisa daganviTarebisaTvis. ganaTlebuli, kvalificiuri, gawvrTnili Semadgenloba. maTi stimuliSesaZloa iyos paralelurad kvlevebisa da akademiuri saqmianobis SeTavseba,profesiuli maRalkvalificiuri treningebi. unarebi da treningebi proeqtis menejmentSikomunikaciasa advokatirebasa da sxva sakiTxebSi is aucilebeli faqtorebia, romlebicayalibeben saagentosaTvis saWiro kadrebis upiratesobas.4. g amow v e v e b i 8
  • konkurenciis saerTaSoriso qselis – ICN (aerTianebs msoflioSi arsebul TiTqmisyvela uwyebas da saerTaSoriso organos romelic funqciobs konkurenciis sferoSi)SefasebiT SedarebiT axali saagentoebi iseTi gamowvebis winaSe dganan,rogoricaa: - samarTlebrivi problemebi, rogorc kanonis dizainis da sakiTxebis speqtris, aseve im sakanonmdeblo SezRudvebis TvalsazrisiT, rac ar iZleva saTanado aRsrulebis SesaZleblobebs; - arasakmarisi TanamSromloba da koordinacia xelisuflebis sxva StoebTan; - mwiri biujeti; - kvalificiuri kadrebis deficiti rogorc qveyanaSi, aseve arsebobis SemTxvevaSi maTi mozidvisa da SenarCunebis TvalsazrisiT; sasamarTloebis moumzadebloba specifiur sakiTTxebSi, konkurenciis arasaTanado kultura biznes wreebSi da sxva (ICN,2006) mravali saagento cdilobs cvlilebebis Setanas kanomdeblobaSi da koordinaciisada urTierTobebis sakiTxebis daregulirebas SeTanxmebebisa da memorandumebisgamoyenebiT. UNCTAD kvlevam reformebis procesSi myofi qveynebis saagentoebisa kideverTxel daadastura, rom efeqtianoba moiTxovs stabilur kadrebs. miuxedavad imisa,rom mniSvnelovan Tanamdebobeze daniSvnis kriteriumebi winaswar gansazRvrulia,kadrebis xSir cvlas mainc uaryofiTi efeqti aqvs nebismieri samsaxurisTvis, miTumetes axali institutebisaTvis. arsebobs gansxvavebuli mosazrebac, rom 8
  • Camoyalibebuli samsaxurebis saqmianobis Sedegebi ar unda iyos damokidebulimxolod misi lideris personalur Tvisebebze.„warmoidgineT axali instituti, axali kadrebiT da SeadareT ukve Camoyalibebulsamsaxurs Tavisi instituciuri mexsierebiT, sainformacio resursiT, urTierTobebiT,procedurebiT, ramdenime gamocdili xeliT da sxva upiratesobebiT. realoba ki isaa,rom damoukidebeli saagento siaxlea mraval qveyanaSi, rac kidev ufro metproblemebs qmnis legitimurobisa da rolis dasamkvidreblad“. zogierTi eqspertis azriT (Kovacic, 2010) konkurenciis saagentos arsebobispirveli 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria:- sazogadoebis ndoba da damkvidreba arsebul maregulirebel garemoSi efeqtianiaRsrulebiT, iseve rogorc advokatirebiT, sajaroobiTa da kargi procesiT- kargi liderebis mozidva da SenarCuneba da gundis Camoayalibeba- akontrolos molodinebi da moTxovnebi- SeinarCunos/moipovos avtonomiis gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi, magram araizolacia politikiyri procesebidan-mosamarTleebis darwmuneba kanonis moqmedebis araealTan dakavSirebiT- administraciuli procesis adeqvaturobis uzrunvelyofa- kavSirebis damyareba sxva institutebtan, maT Soris maregulirebel komisiebTan,momxmarebelTa organozaciebTan, universitetebTan, mediasTan da sxva- biznesisa da sazogadoebis gaTviTcnobiereba konkurenciis kanonebSi. sazogadod cnobilia, rom dapyrobisa da korufciis problemis winaSeE dgasyvela maregulirebeli organo. Sesabamisad nebismieri regulatoris Seqmnis, anreorganizebis procesSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces iseT sakiTxebs, 8
  • rogoricaa: uflebamosilebebis angariSvaldebulebebiT dabalanseba, interesTakonfliqtebis gamoricxva da saqmianobis transparentulobis uzrunvelyofa. amasTangasaTvaliswinebelia, rom ganviTarebadi da gardamavali qveynebiisaTvisdamaxasiaTebelia, angariSvaldebulobis arsebuli meqanizmebis sisuste, Sedegebisada indikatorebis deficiti, parlamentis sisuste, aratransparentuloba (iSviaTadqveyndeba gadawyvetilebebi) da sxva problemebi. rigi garemoebebis gamo amqveynebSi ufro garTulebeulia kanonis aRsruleba da samarTlebrivi dacva. mravalqveyanaSi jer kidev didi araformaluri seqtoris wili, patara bazrebi da maRalibarierebi, arasaTanado simZlavreebi da politikur ekonomikuri problemebi kidev ufroaqtualurs xdis kargi konkurenciuli kanonebis aucileblobas. kidev ufro didi problema am qveynebisaTvis arakonkurenciuli bazrebia.miuxedavad didi saWiroebisa axalgazrda saagentoebi dganan seriozuliinstitucionaluri, politikuri adamianuri da finansuri SezRudvebis winaSe, rac arTulebskonkurenciis Sesaxeb kanonebis iZulebiT aRsrulebas. aseT viTarebaSi aTvlis wertiliunda iyos: saerTaSoriso praqtika da Sesabamisi: a) konkurenciis kulturis ganviTareba b) kanonebis, saxelmZRvaneloebisa da procedurebis ganaxleba c) aRsrulebis meqanzmebis ganviTareba. arc Tu iSviaTad axali saagentoebi – Seqmnilia struqturuli cvlilebebis gamo daar warmoadgenen organul produqts arsebul socialur, ekonomikur da politikurgaremoSi. maT ar gaaCniaT saTanado politikuri da ekonomikuri mxardaWera, 8
  • Tumca isini, arc Tu iSviaTad, dakompleqtebuli arian unariani da arasaTanadoddafinansebuli kadrebiT. aseT viTarebaSi ibadeba kiTxvebi: - im sazogadoebaSi, sadac konkurenciis idea ewinaaRmdegeba istoriul an tradiciul Rirebulebebs, ra nabijebi unda gadaidgas, rom saagenti iyos misaRebi sazogadoebisaTvis? - Tu kvalifikacia aRsrulebisaTvis ar aris sakmarisi rogor unda moiqces xelisufleba dasawyisisTvis? - im sazogadoebaSi, romlebic xasiaTdeba dominanti firmebiT (anu monopolizebuli bazrebiT), saagento Tu efeqtianad muSaobs is aucileblad gaiCens politikuri opozicias. ra startegiaa ukeTesi? - instituciuri mSeneblobis roli aRsrulebis procesSi. ra iTvleba saukeTeso praqtikad kvalifikaciis asamaRlelad? - Ra principiT unda moxdes pirveli wlebisTvis prioritetebis formulireba da sxva. yovelive zemoaRniSnulisa da qarTuli realobis gaTvaliswinebiT, migvaCnia,rom qveyanaSi unda Seiqmnas da funqciobdes saTanado resursebiT (finansuri dasakadro) uzrunvelyofili realurad damoukidebeli maregulirebeli organo (arsebiTimniSvneloba ara aqvs ra erqmeva mas), romlis funqciebic, saqmianobis ZiriTadimimarTulebebic, aRmasrulebeli uflebamosilebac, dizainis elementebic, procedurulisakiTxebic da gadawyetilebis gasaCivrebis procedurebic naTlad iqnebagansazRvruli sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT. sazogadod aRiarebulia, rom gansxvavebuli formulirebebis miuxedavadmaregulirebeli organoebis damoukideblobis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblebad iTvleba 8
  • organizaciuli avtonomiis iseT atributebi, rogoricaa - qonebrivi damoukidebloba, racaucilebelia saTanado profesiuli unaris gamomuSavebisa da distanciebisSenarCunebisaTvis da uzrunvelyofs gadawyvetilebebis miRebis Tavisuflebas. arsebobs sayovelTao konsensusi maregulirebeli organoebisaTvis oficialuridacviTi meqanizmebis Sesaxeb, esenia:_ maregulirebeli organosaTvis gansazRvruli uflebamosilebebis gadacema, romelicgaaTavisuflebs mas saministroebis Carevebisagan;_ Tanamdebobaze daniSvnis profesiuli kriteriumebis gansazRvra;_ Tanamdebobaze daniSvnis procesSi aRmasrulebebli da sakanonmdebloorganoebis monawileoba_ gansazRvruli vadiT daniSvna, maTi TviTneburi gadayenebis gareSe;_ vadebis cvalebadoba, raTa isini ar daemTxves saarCevno vadebs cikls, xolokomisiuri organos Seqmnisas TiToeuli wevris uflebamosilebebis cvalebadoba;_ maregulirebeli organoebis gaTavisufleba sajaro samsaxurisaTvis damaxasiaTebelisaxelfaso SezRudvebisagan;_ da sxva. es meqanizmebi ganakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania im qveynebisaTvis, romlebsacregulirebis mwiri tradiciebi aqvT (Tumca arsebobs azri imis Sesaxeb, romdamoukidebloba iluziaa maRalganviTarebuli sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSic ki,,sadac sasaxlidan erTi zaric ki yvelafers cvlis”). aseve udavoa, rom arc erT kanonsar Seswevs unari TavisTavad Secvalos instituciuri garemo, magram arsebobsaraerTi argumenti damoukidebeli maregulirebeli organoebis Seqmnis sasargeblod,Tundac arasaxarbielo garemoSi. 8
  • aseTive erTsulovnebaa, rom damoukidebloba dabalansebuli unda iyosangariSvaldebulebiT. savaldebuloa kontrolisa da wonasworobis dacvis iseTimeqanizmebis amoqmedeba, rogoricaa:  mkacri gamWvirvalobis uzrunvelyofa gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis procesis sajarooba da regularuli angariSgeba sazogadoebebisadmi  interesTa konfliqtis aRkveTa  organos gadawyvetilebebTan dakavSirebiT efeqturi sapelacio sistemis Camoyalbeba  organos biujetis guldasmiT Seswavla Semowmeba Cveulebriv sakanonmde- blo organos mier  maregulirebeli organos Semowmeba gareSe revizorebisa da sxca damoukide- beli sakontrolo organoebis mier  arajerovani qcevis SemTxvevaSi Tanamdebobis pirebis daTxova samsaxuri- dan migvaჩnia, rom am pirobebis dacva saqarTveloSi bevr rames gaaumjobesebda da ara mxolod konkurenciis sferoSi. konkurenciis politika, miznad isaxavs bazris monawileTa Soris jansaRikonkurenciis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba/waxalisebas da dacvas, agreTve saxelmwifopolitikis sxva sferoebSi konkurenciuli garemos uzrunvelmyofi (ganviaTarebisxelSemwyobi) procesebis mxardaWeras. konkurenciis politikis warmateba 8
  • damokidebulia im socialur ekonomikur da politikur garemoze, romelSic konkurenciissaagentoebs uwevT arseboba. zogierT qveynebsa da regionebSi biznesis warmomadgenlebi da mTavrobaaRiarebs konkurenciis rols, miznebs da pativs scems institutebs. sxva SemTxvevbSibiznes garemo da mTavroba jer kidev adaptaciis procesSia. calke SemTxvevaa, e.wBarefoot, anu naklebad sasurveli konkurenciis ofisebi, romlebic ibrZvian aRiarebisada damkvidrebisaTvis (saqarTvelo am mxrivac gamonaklisia: garkveul wlebSinacvlad damkvidrebisa, sagento agrZelebda fasadur arsebobas). winamdebare mimoxilva miznad isaxavs ara mxolod sazogadoebisinformirebas msoflios sxvadasxva qveynebSi arsebuli konkurenciis kanonebisa daSesabamisi aRmasrulebeli institutebis Sesaxeb, aramed, sxva qveynebisgamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT optimaluri modelis gansazRvras saqarTvelosTvis. dominirebis qveda zRvari 40% Tumca sxva faqtorebic 9
  • gaiTvalisiwineb a gamoy e n e b u li lit e r a t u r aAntitrust Law and Economics in a nutshell (1994), Flourth edition.West Publishing Co.Averitt Neill, RobertLande ‘Consumer sovereignty: A United Theory of Antitrust andConsumer Protection Law’ Antitrust Law Journal, Volume 65, Number 3, spring 1997Boner Roger and James Langenfeld, Liberal Trade and Antitrust in Developing Nations, Reg.,Spring (1992)Codek P. E., A Chicago-School Approach to Antitrust for Developing Economies, AntitrustBulletin, 261 (1998)Codek P. E., One U.S. Export Eastern Europe Does Not Need, Regulation 20 (1992)Clark J, “Restraints by Regional and Local Governments on Competition: Lessons fromTransition Countries,” Brooklyn Journal of International Law 25 (1999).Maria Coppola Tineo and Russell Pittman, Abuse of Dominance Enforcement under latinamerican Competition laws, 2006Competition law in the developing world: A fish out of water? www.oecd.orgCompetition Law of Ukraine, legal acts, Kiev, 2002Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 of 20 January 2004 on the control of concentrationsbetween undertakings (the EC Merger Regulation) Official Journal L 24, 29.01.2004, p. 1-22Commission Regulation (EC) No.802/2004 implementing Council Regulation (EC) No.139/2004 (The "Implementing Regulation") and its annexes (Form CO, Short Form CO andForm RS)Commission Consolidated Jurisdictional Notice under Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004on the control of concentrations between undertakings. The jurisdictional notice can be foundon the Competition DG’s website athttp://ec.europa.eu/comm/competition/mergers/legislation/draft_jn.htmlCommission Consolidated Jurisdictional Notice under Council regulation (EC) No139/2004 on the control of concentrations between undertakings [Official Journal C 9516.04.2008].Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 on the implementation of the ruleson competition laid down in Articles 81 and 82 of the TreatyOfficial Journal L 1, 04.01.2003, p.1-25 9
  • Cooperation between the competition authorities in the EU: new challenges for central andeastern European Countries” 2004 Law in Transition. EBRDConclusions of the Copenhagen European Council, 1993Cooperation between the competition authorities in the EU: new challenges for central andeastern european countries. By Philip Lowe Director General for Competition in cooperationwith Patrick Lindberg and Dorothe Dalheimer, Directorate General for Competition,European Commission. law in Transition 2004 pp. 55-59Foundation of an effective competition agency. Note by the INCTAD secretariat, 2011ICN(2003) Building credible competition authorities in developing and transition economies.Presented at ICN second annual conference in MexicoICN (2006), Lessons to be learnt from the experiences of yung competition agenciesPIWG,subgroup 2. Available at: http://www.internationalcompetitionnetwork.orgKovacic WE (2005) Using evaluation to improve the performance of competition policyauthorities. In Evaluation of the actions and Rsources of the competition authoritiesDAF/COMP (2005)30. Available at http//:www.oecd.org/dataoecd/7/15/Kovacic WE (2010). The first decade:challenges facing new competition agencies. Availableat http://www.ftc.gov/speechesKovacic WE (2007) Lucky Trip? Perspectives from a Foreign Advisor on CompetitionPolicy, Development and tEchnical Assistance. European Competition Journal, December2007, pp317-328Kovacic W. and Ben Slay, “Perilous Beginnings: The Establishment of Antimonopoly andConsumer Protection Programs in the Republic of Georgia,” Antitrust Bulletin (1998), 15-43.Lee (2004), Model Competition Laws: The World Bank-OECD and UNCTADApproaches ComparedLapachi k. "Policy Paper in Competition Policy - Summary of EU Acquiz in the Field ofCompetition " – GEPLAC research paper, 2009 http://www.geplac.ge/eng/Reports.phpLapachi K. “Competition policy and enforcement of antimonopoly legislation in Georgia: thelevel of approximation with the EU competition provisions and the necessity of furtherharmonization” – GEPLAC research paper, 2008, http://www.geplac.ge/eng/Reports.php Lapachi K.“Georgia - Profile: “Competition Regimes in the World – A Civil Society Report”, Published by CUTS International, India, 2005, pp.375-379;Lapachi K., ,,An examination of the present competition law of Georgia using Pittman’scriteria” , The Antitrust Bulletin, - The Journal of American and Foreign Antitrust andTrade Regulation, USA, Federal Legal Publications, Inc.,Vol. XLVII, Number 1, Spring2002, pp187 – 215; 9
  • Lapachi K., ,,Anti-monopoly Regulation in Transition Country: The Example of Georgia ”,European Competition Law Review, Volume 22, Issue 9 (September 2001, London, ,,Sweet &Maxwell”), pp. 374 –382;lafaCi q. ,,monopolisturi qcevis kontrolis meqanizmebis srulyofis sakiTxebisaTvis”,qarTuli samarTlis mimoxilva (TACIS, GEPLAC), meore kvartali, 2001. gv. 55-65;lafaCi q. ,,debatebi antimonopoliuri organos damoukideblobis Sesaxeb”, 2003lafaCi q., ,,neba miboZeT, ar dageTanxmoT”, ,,saq. respublika”, 2004,19 agvistoModel Law on Competition (2010). United Nations, Geneva.Notice on cooperation within the European Competition Network, http://europa.eu.int/comm/competition/antitrust/legislationOECD (2007) Guidelines to Business on Monopolization and Abuse of DominanceOECD(2007) Competition Assesment ToolkitRussell Pittman (2004), Abuse of Dominance Provisions in Central and East EuropeanCompetition Laws: Have Fears of Over Enforcement Been Born Out? World Comp.245(2004)Russell Pittman, “Some Critical Provisions in the Antimonopoly Laws of Central and EasternEurope,” The International Lawyer 26 (1992), 485-503;Pittman Russell, “Merger Law in Central and Eastern Europe,” The American UniversityJournal of International Law and Policy 7 (1992), 649-666;Pittman Russell, “Competition Law in Central and Eastern Europe: Five Years Later,”Antitrust Bulletin 43 (1998), 179-228.Progress of approximation of Georgian Legislation with EU Acquiz in the Area Covered byArt. 43 of PCA (as of December 2009),http://www.geplac.ge/newfiles/Food_Safety_Strategy.pdfPeer Review of Competition Law and Policy: Armenia Presentation by: Mr. William E.Kovacic, consultant for UNCTAD, and Mr. David Lewis, consultant for UNCTAD. Materialsof the Sixth United Nations Conference to Review All Aspects of the Set of MultilaterallyAgreed Equitable Principles and Rules for the Control of Restrictive Business Practices,Geneva, 8–12 November 2010, 9
  • Rossi, J.(2004), Competition law enforcement mechanisms. Law in transition2004. Availableat: www. ebrd.org/lawSecond Generation of Regulatosy reforms By Scot Jacobs (IMF conference in 1999,Washington DC)Small Economies and Competition Policy – A Fair Deal?, Summary of presentations anddiscussions/conference materials, October 2007, Luxemburg Chamber of Commerce,www.smaleconomies.orgThe Set of Multilaterally Agreed Equitable Principles and Rules for theControl of Restrictive Business Practices, United Nations, 1980.The Comprehensive Strategy in Competition Policyhttp://www.geplac.ge/newfiles/Comprehensive%20Strategy%20in%20Competition%20Policy.pdfThe role of competition policy in promoting economic development: The appropriate designand effectiveness of competition law and policy. Note by the UNCTADsecretariatTD/RBP/CONF.7/3Treaty establishing the European Community (Consolidated version)Treaty of functioning of European UnionThe United nations Set of Principles and Rules on Competition, Geneva, 2000Alexander Tushuri and Tato Urjumelashvili, “Law of Georgia ‘On Monopolistic Activity andCompetition’ -- An Overview,” Georgian European Legal Review (III, 2000).UNCTAD guidebook on competition systems, available at http://www.unctad.org/en/docsUNCTAD Peer Reviews on competition policy. Available athttp://www.unctad.org/templatesUNCTAD (2007) Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of competition authoritiesTD/B/COM.2?CLP/69Maria Vizgliasindi, Laura Cempbel (2004), The EBRD: promoting transition throughcompetition, Law in Transition . Available at www.ebrd.com/lawWorld Bank (2002). World Development Report 2002. World Bank, Washington, D.C.World Bank and OECD (1999). A Framework for the Design and Implementationof Competition Law and Policy. World Bank and OECD, Washington, D.C.World Competition Regimes. India. CUTS International, 2006Yachiestova N., “Competition Policy in Countries in Transition -- Legal Bases and PracticalExperience,” United Nations, New York and Geneva (2000), Advance Copy,UNCTAD/ITCD/CPL/Misc.16. 9
  • Yacheistova N., International Competition: Law, Regulation and Cooperation, UNCTAD.New-York and Geneva, 2001dan a r T e b idanarTi 1. konkurenciis kanonebi da aRmasrulebeli institutebidanarTi 2 konkurenciisa da momxmarebelTa dacvis organoebidanarTi 3 kanonmdeblobis miznebi gamokiTxuli qveynebis mixedviTdanarTi 4-5 mniSvnelovani sabazro Zalauflebis Sefasebis ZiriTadi kriteriumebi(SerCeva moxda mxolod SeTavazebuli kriteriumebidan, Tumca sxva kriteriumebsaciyeneben)danarTi 6 konkurenciis saagentoebis msaxasiTeblebi SerCeuli qveynebis mixedviTdanarTi 7 dominirebis prezumpcia da usafrTxoebis zRvruli normebi (“safe harbours”) 9
  • konkurenciis kanonebi da aRmasrulebeli institutebi dan K qveyana kanonis saxelwodeba aRmasrule1 albaneTi konkurenciis Sesaxeb, 1995 konkurenci2 avstralia 1974, 2009 kanoni savaWro praqtikis Sesaxeb konkurenci komisia3 avstria 1988, 2002, 2005 Kkartel აქტ konkurenci4 alJiri ekonomikuri konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb (1995, 2003) konkurenci5 argentina konkurenciis Sesaxeb 1980, 1999, 2001 konkurenci6 azerbaijani antimonopoliuri regulirebis Sesaxeb (1993) saxelmwifo7 axali zelandia komerciis Sesaxeb (1986, 2008)8 aSS antitrastuli kanonmdebloba DOJ- iustici Sermanis aqti- 1890, kleitonis aqti 1914, FTC –feder federaluri vaWrobis komisiis SEsaxeb 1914, hart-skot-rodinos aqti da 19969 bolivia 2006 wlis monacemiT jer kidev saproeqto stadiaze11 brazilia 1994,2002 F ekonomiku federaluri kanoni konkurenciis dacvis sistemis Sesaxeb (1994, sabWo (C 9
  • 2002) ekonomiku ekonomiku (SEAE)12 benini 1994 wlis kanoni, 2001 wlis cvlilebebiT, garda amisa dasaqmebi gamoiyeneba UEMOA gaerTianebis kanonmdbeloba saministro sammarTve13 bocvana 2010 konkurenci manamde “kompaniebis Sesaxeb” da “vaWrobis Sesaxeb” sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT regulirdeboda calkeuli aspeqtebi14 bosnia hercegovina konkurenci15 belorusia antimonopo16 burkina faso burkina fasoSi konkurenciis regulirebis Sesaxeb (1994, 2002), konkurenci garda amisa gamoiyeneba UEMOA gaerTianebis komisia kanonmdbeloba17 ბelgia Eekonomikuri konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb (1991, 1999, konkurenci 2002,2006)18 bulgareTi kanoni Kkonkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb 1991, 1998, 2008 konkurenci19 barbadosi Tavisufali konkurenciis Sesaxeb 200320 gaerTianebuli samefo keTilsindisieri vaWrobis Sesaxeb 1973, konkurenciis Sesaxeb keTilsindisi 1980, konkurenciis Sesaxeb 1989, sawarmoTa Sesaxeb 2002 konkurenci21 Ggermania konkurenciis SezRudvis sawinaaRmdego aqti (1957, 1998, federaluri k 2005)22 grenlandia konkurenci23 Ggambia gaerTianebis kanonmdbeloba konkurenci24 Ggana 2010 wels momzadebis statiaze iyo25 Ggaboni gamoiyeneba UEMOA gaerTianebis kanonmdbeloba26 gvatemala saproeqto stadia27 dania konkurenciis kanoni (aqti) 1997, 2007 konkurenci28 dominikebis resp. 200829 ეvrokaვSiri kevrogaerTianebis sadamfuZneblo xelSekrulebis konkurenciis generaluri wesebi xelSekrulebiTdan sakiTxebze 9
  • (EU Competition Acquiz) 1957, 2009)30 estoneTi konkurenciis kanoni (aqti) konkurenci31 espaneTi konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb (1989, 2007) konkurenci32 egvipte monopoliebis Tavidan acilebisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb konkurenci 1978, 200533 el-salvadori konkurenci (samdivno)34 eTiopia komerciis kodeqsi 1960 weli, savaWro praqtikis Sesaxeb, 2002 weli35 ekvadori organuli kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb, proeqti, 200436 venesuela 1992 Tavisufali konkurenciis mxardaWerisa da dacvis tavisufali Sesaxeb mxardaWe37 vietnami konkurenciis kanoni 2004 konkurenci38 zambia konkurenciisa da Tavisufali vaWrobis aqti 1994 konkurenci39 zimbabve konkurenciis aqti 1996, 2001 konkurenci40 თurqeTi konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb aqti (1994, 2005, 2009) konkurenci41 indonezia 1999 kanoni monopoliuri praqtikis akrZalvisa da biznes kon arakeTilsindisieri biznessis Sesaxeb42 indoeTi monopoliebisa da SemzRudavi savaWro praqtikis Sesaxeb, konkurenci 1969, 2002 konkurenciis aqti (2002),43 islandia konkurenciis Sesaxeb, 199344 irlandia konkurenciis Sesaxeb (1991, 2002, 2006), Serwymebisa da konkurenci STanTqmebis kontrolis Sesaxeb (1978 dan 1996 mde)45 israeli vaWrobis SezRudvebis Sesaxeb (1988) antitrastuli46 italia bazrebisa da konkurenciis dacvis wesebi (1990, 2005, 2006) konkurenci47 iordania konkurenciis Sesaxeb, 2002, 2004 konkurenci vaWrobis s48 iamaika keTilsindisieri konkurenciis aqti 1993 federaluri v49 iaponia kerZo monopolizaciis akrZalvisa da keTilsindisieri vaWrobis keTilsindisi mxardaWeris aqti )igive antimonopoliuri aqti 1947,200950 kot divuari konkurenciis Sesaxeb 1978,1991,1997 konkurenci 9
  • 51 kenia kanoni vaWrobis kontrolis, monopoliebisa da SemzRudavi Mkonkuren biznes praqtikis Sesaxeb52 kviprosi konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb 1989 konkurenci53 kolumbia konkurenciis mxardaWerisa das SemzRudavi komerciuli vaWrobisa praqtikis Sesaxeb 1992, 2009 sazedcamx54 kosta rika konkurenciis mxardaWerisa da momxmarebelTa efeqtiani konkurenci dacvis Sesaxeb (1992, 1994)55 kenia SemzRudavi savaWro praqtikis, monopoliebisa da vaWrobis monopolieb kontrolis Sesaxeb (aqti)56 koreis resp. monopoliebis regulirebisa da keTilsindisieri vaWrobis Sesaxeb (1980, 2007)57 lesoto 2010 saproeqto stadia58 luqsemburgi SemzRudavi komerciuli praqtikis regulirebis Sesaxeb (1970, konkurenci 2004, 2008)59 litva konkurenciis Sesaxeb (1999) konkurenci60 latvia 1997 konkurenciis Sesaxeb,,,,, 2002,2009. konkurenci61 lixtenSteini erovnuli ek62 laosi Ddekreti savaWro konkurenciis Sesaxeb komerciis s63 makedonia Kkonkurenciis SezRudvebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb, 1991 konkurenci64 malaizia saproeqti statia65 malta konkurenciis regulirebisa da keTilsindisieri vaWrobis momxmare uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb 1995, 2007 ganyofileba konkurentu komunikac66 Mmalavi 1998 konkurenciisa da Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb konkurenci komisia67 Mmali 1998 komerciis e68 Mmavrikia 1980 keTilsindisieri vaWrobis aqti, 2007 keTilsindisi konkurenci69 Mmaroko 1999 konkurenci saapelacio 9
  • 70 meqsika federaluri kanoni ekonomikuri 1993konkurenciis Sesaxeb konkurenci71 monRoleTi arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciis akrZalvis Sesaxeb 1993, 2002 araketilsind maregulireb72 moldova 1992.2000 monopoliuri saqmianobis SezRudvisa da konkurenci konkurenciis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb73 moa 1994,2002 montenegro konkurenci74 niderlandebi konkurenciis Sesaxeb (1997, 2009) konkurenci75 nikaragua konkurenciis mxardaWeris Sesaxeb (2006)76 norvegia konkurenciis kanoni (2004, 2008) konkurenci77 namibia 2003 konkurenciis aqti (manamdec iyo calkeuli maregulirebeli mrewvelob normebis saxiT)78 pakistani monopoliebisa da SemzRudavi savaWro pratqikis Sesaxeb konkurenci 1970,2007,201079 panama konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb (1996, 2008) konkurenci uwyeba80 paragvai saproeqto stadia81 papua axali gvinea momxmareblisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb, 2002 momxmare damoukide82 peru dekreti Tavisufal konkurenciaze moqmedi SemzRudavi konkurenci praqtikis kontrolisa da monopoliebis winaaRmdeg (1990)83 poloneTi konkurenciisa da momxmarebelTa dacvis Sesaxeb (2000, konkurenci 2007) ofisi84 portugalia 2003 wlis 11 ivnisisa da 18 ianvris kanonebi, 2008 konkurenci85 ruseTi sasaqonlo bazrebze konkurenciisa da monopoliuri federaluri a saqmianobis SezRudvis Sesaxeb86 rumineTi Kkonkurenciis Sesaxeb 1996,2003 konkurenci konkurenci87 სafrangeთi Dfasebis liberalizaciisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb (1977, 1986, konkurenci 2008) konkurenci 1
  • saqmeTa generaluri d88 saberZneTi monopoliebisa da oligopoliebis kontrolisa da Tavisufali konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb (1977, 1995, 2000)89 salvadori Tavisufali konkurenciis Sesaxeb 2006, 200790 samxreT korea- keTilsindisi serbia da montenegro 1996 federaluri antimonopoliuri kanoni serbiaSi: ko montenegr administrac seiSeli Tavisufali k siria konkurenci91 singapuri konkurenciis aqti (Tavi 50b), 2006 kanoni konkurenci92 slovakeTi ekonomikuri konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb (2001), jgufuri antimonopo gamonaklisebis Sesaxeb konkurenciis SemzRudavi SeTanxmebebis akrZalvebidan gamonaklisebis Sesaxeb (2001, 2002, 2009)93 somxeTi Eekonomikuri konkurenciis dacvis Sesaxeb (2000)94 saqarTvelo 1992-saxelmwifo sabWos dekreti Caanacvla Tavisufali 1996 wlis kanonma “monopoliuri saqmianobisa da saagento konkurenciis Sesaxeb”, romelic gauqmda 2005 wels da miRebul iqna “Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb” 2012 weli - kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb –saproeqto stadia95 slovenia 1991, 1999,2004 konkurenciis SezRudvebis Tavidan acilebis konkurenci Sesaxeb96 samxreT afrika konkurenciis kanoni (1955, 1979, 1998, 2000) konkurenci97 სvezilendi 2008 konkurenci98 სenegali 1965, 1994, fasebis konkurenciisa da ekonomikuri davebis konkurenci Sesaxeb gamoiyeneba UEMOA gaerTianebis kanonmdebloba siera leone antikonkurenciuli praqtikis aRsakveTad gamoiyeneba kotonis 1
  • SeTanxmebis 45-e muxli.99 trinidadi da tobago keTilsindisieri vaWrobis Sesaxeb (2006) konkurenci100 taivani 1991 Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb Tavisufali v101 tailandi Ffasebis kontrolisa da antimonopoliuri regulirebis Sesaxeb, konkurenci 1979 saministroS102 ტogo saproeqto stadia10 tunisi 1991 (1999,2000,2002 konkurenci3 )konkurenciis kanoni vaWrobis g10 tanzania 1994, 2002 Tavisufali vaWrobis aqti keTilsindisi410 tajikeTi monopoliuri saqmianobisa da konkurenciis ganviTarebis antimonopo5 Sesaxeb (1993, 2005) ekonomikis saministroS10 Uukraina 1991, 1996, 2001 monopoliuri saqmianobis SezRudvisa da saxelmwifo6 arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciis prevenciis Sesaxeb10 ungreTi arakeTilsindisieri da SemzRudavi sabazro praqtikis akrZalvis konkurenci7 Sesaxeb (20021990, 1996, 2010) Tu ekonom10 uzbekeTi 1992, 1996 antimonopoliuri kanoni demonopol8 mewarmeo komiteti10 filipinebi konstituciia 1987, vaWrobis9 sajaromo kodeqsis (1930) muxli 186 aRwers dasjad momxmare antikonkurenciul qmdebebs, xolosaproeqti statia da mrewve mniSvnelovani sakanonmdeblo aqtebia: respublikis aqti 3247 monopoliebisa da vaWrobis SemzRudavi gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb; fasebis aqti, intelqtualuri sakuTrebis Sesaxeb da sxva aqtebi.11 fineTi konkurenciis SezRudvis Sesaxeb (1992, 2009) konkurenci0 1
  • 11 fiji komerciis Sesaxeb 1998 konkurenci111 yirgizeTi konkurenciis Sesaxeb antimonopo2 departame11 yazaxeTi- 1998 arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciis Sesaxeb konkurenci311 Sri lanka Tavisufali vaWrobis komisiiis Sesaxeb 2003 momxmare411 SvedeTi konkurenciis aqti 1993, 2008 konkurenci511 Sveicaria federaluro kanoni kartelebisa da konkurenciis sxva konkurenci6 SezRudvebis Sesaxeb (1985, 1995, 2004) SeniSvna: biuro, rome savaWro p11 CexeTi komerciuli konkurenciis dacvis aqti 1991, 2009 konkurenci711 Cile antimonopoliuri kanoni 1973, 1980, 2005 konkurenci811 CineTi antimonopoliuri kanoni (1993, 2008)912 centraluri afrikis gamoiyeneba UEMOA gaerTianebis kanonmdbeloba0 respublika12 hondurasi 2006 konkurenci1 komisia xorvatia konkurenci COMESA Sesabamisi xelSekruleba KaRmosav qveynebis konkurenci UEMOA Sesabamisi xelSekruleba CARICOM Sesabamisi xelSekruleba karibis 1
  • konkurenci MERCOSUR Sesabamisi xelSekrulebawyaroebi: ICN, UNCTAD da CUTS-CIER masalebiModal law on competition(2010). Chapter I, Anex I - Names of Competition Laws (www.unctad.org)Annex 1. Evolution of competition law in the world. Competition Regimes in the world – A civilSociety Report xxviii (2006). India. (www.cuts.org)UNCTAD handbook on competition legislation, annex I, pp 79-81.da Sesabamisi saagentoebis vebgverdebiSeniSvna: msoflios konkurenciul angariSSi (2006) ganxilulia kidev ramdnime qveyana, maTSoris: senegali – 1994 wlis kanoni fasebis, konkurenciisa da ekonomikuri davebis Sesaxeb,islandiis konkurenciis aqti( 1993), albaneTis konkurenciis Sesaxeb kanoni (1995) serbia damontenegro federaluri antimonopoliuri kanoni, makedoniis kanoni konkurenciis SezRudvisSesaxeb (1999), barbudas arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciisagan dacvis bili (2001) , iordaniiskonkurenciis kanoni (2002), papua axali gvineas billi damoukidebeli momxmareblisa dakonkurenciis Sesaxeb (2002), namibiis konkurenciis aqti (2003), barbadosis keTilsindisierikonkurenciis aqti (2003), elsalvadoris kanoni Tavisufali konkurenciis Sesaxeb (2004),egviptis konkurenciisa da monopoliebis prevenciis Sesaxeb kanoni (2005), angola - kotonisSeTanxmebis 45-e muxli (bili sabazro konkurenciisa da mzadebis Sesaxeb), benini, sadackonkurencia regulirdeba aRmosavleT afrikis ekonomikuri da monetaruli kavSiris regulaciebiT(WAEMU)danarTSi miTiTebulia dRes moqmedi kanonebi kanonebis miRebisa da maTSi cvlilebebisTariRebi. amasTan gasaTvalsiwnebelia, rom rig qveynebs gacilebiT adrec hqondaTgarkveuli maregulirebeli aqtebi konkurenciis sferoSi. MmagaliTad: axali zelandiis pirveli aqtimonopoliebis prevenciis Sesaxeb 1908 wliT TariRdeba, norvegiis fasebis regulirebis aqti,romelic Seicavs konkurenciis debulebebsac – 1920 welsaa miRebuli, argentinis pirvelisakanonmdbelo aqti 1923 wliT, xolo estoneTis pirveli kanoni konkurenciis Sesaxeb(“arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciis winaaRmdeg”) 1931 wliT TariRdeba, iseve rogorc –CexeTis kanoni kartelebisa da kerZo monopoliebis winaaRmdeg da daniis kanoni fasebisSeTanxmebis Sesaxeb. cnobilia, rom 1980 wlamde mxolod 30 qveyanas hqondakonkurenciis Sesaxeb sakanonmdeblo aqtebi, 2000 wels es ricxvi ukve 84-s aRwevda,dReisaTvis - 120 –s aRemateba. . 1
  • დანართი 2 Competition & Consumer Protection Authorities WorldwideThe following jurisdictions have antitrust or consumer protection laws. Follow the selectedlink to the consumer protection or competition agency’s web site. Country Competition Agency Consumer Protection AgencyAlbania Competition Authority Consumer Protection CommissionAlgeria Competition CouncilAndean Commu- General SecretariatnityArgentina National Commission for the Undersecretary of Consumer Defense of Competition DefenseArmenia State Commission for the Pro- tection of Economic Competi- tionAustralia Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC)Austria Federal Competition Authority Federal Ministry for Social and (BWB) Consumer ProtectionAzerbaijan State Service for Antimonopoly Policy and Consumer Rights ProtectionBarbados Fair Trading CommissionBelarus The Antimonopoly Committee of the Republic of BelarusBelgium Belgian Competition Authority Privacy Protection Commission DG Enforcement and MediationBenin Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Employment Promotion; Man- agement of Competition and Internal TradeBosnia & Herze- Council of Competition Council for Protection of Con-govina sumersBotswana Competition Authority Consumer Protection Unit, De- partment of Trade and Con- sumer Protection 1
  • Brazil Administrative Council for Eco- nomic Defense (CADE) Secretariat for Economic Law Office of Consumer Protection Enforcement (SDE) and Defense, Ministry of Justice Secretariat for Economic Moni- toring (SEAE)Bulgaria Commission on Protection of Competition (CPC) Commission for Trade and Con- sumer ProtectionBurkina Faso National Commission of Com- petition and ConsumptionCameroon National Competition Commis- sionCanada Competition Bureau Canada Competition Tribunal Office of Consumer Affairs Consumer Measures CommitteeCaribbean Com- CARICOM Competitionmunity CommissionChile National Economic Prosecutor National Consumer Service (SERNAC) Tribunal for the Defense of Free CompetitionChina State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) Anti Monopoly Bureau, Ministry of Commerce National Development and Re- form Commission (NDRC)Colombia Superintendence of Industry and CommerceCommon Market Competition Commissionfor Eastern andSouthern Africa(COMESA)Costa Rica Commission for the Promotion Directorate of Consumer of Competition SupportCôte d’Ivoire Competition CommissionCroatia Croatian Competition Agency Consumer Protection Depart- ment, Ministry of Economy, 1
  • Labour and EntrepreneurshipCyprus Commission for the Protection Commission for Personnel Data of Competition ProtectionCzech Republic Office for the Protection of Ministry of Industry and Trade CompetitionDenmark Danish Competition and Con- Danish Consumer Ombudsman sumer AuthorityDominican Re- Procompetencia Pro-ConsumidorpublicEgypt Egyptian Competition Authority Egyptian Consumer Protection AgencyEl Salvador Superintendence of Defensoría del Consumidor CompetitionEstonia Competition Authority Consumer Protection BoardEuropean Union Competition Directorate (DG- Health and Consumer Direc- COMP) torate (DG-SANCO)European Free EFTA Surveillance AuthorityTrade AreaFaroe Island Faroese Competition AuthorityFiji Commerce CommissionFinland Finnish Competition Authority Consumer Agency and OmbudsmanFrance Competition Authority Directorate-General of Competition, Consumption and the Re- pression of FraudGambia Competition Commission Standards and Consumer Pro- tection Board, Ministry of Trade, Industry, Regional Integration and EmploymentGeorgia State Antimonopoly ServiceGermany Federal Cartel Office German Ministry for Consumer Protection, Food and Agricul- tureGreece Hellenic Competition General Secretariat of Con- Commission sumer AffairsGreenland Greenland Competition AuthorityGuyana Competition and Consumer Affairs Commission (CCAC)Honduras Commission for the Defense Honduras Consumer Protection 1
  • and Promotion of Competition AgencyHungary Hungarian Competition Hungarian Authority for Con- Authority sumer ProtectionIceland Competition Authority The Consumer AgencyIndia Competition Commission of Department of Consumer India AffairsIndonesia Commission for the Supervi- National Consumer Protection sion of Business Competition Agency (NCPA) (KPPU)Ireland Competition Authority National Consumer AgencyIsrael Israel Antitrust Authority (IAA) Director of Consumer ProtectionItaly Italian Antitrust Authority Ministry for Economic Develop- ment, Directorate-General for Market Harmonization and Con- sumer Protection (DGAMTC)Jamaica Fair Trading Commission Consumer Affairs ComissionJapan Japan Fair Trade Commission Cabinet Office, Quality-of-Life Policy BureauJersey Channel Islands Competition and Regulatory AuthorityJordan Competition Directorate at the Ministry of Industry and TradeKazakhstan Agency for the Protection of CompetitionKenya Competition Authority of KenyaKosovo Kosovo Competition CommissionKyrgyz Republic State Commission for Anti- monopoly PolicyLaos Ministry of CommerceLatvia Competition Council Consumer Rights Protection CentreLiechtenstein Office for National Economy (AVW) 1
  • Lithuania Competition Council State Consumer Rights Protec- tion AuthorityLuxembourg Competition Council Competition InspectionMacedonia Commission for Protection of CompetitionMalawi Competition and Fair Trading CommissionMali National Directorate for Com- merce and Competition (DNCC)Malaysia Malaysia Competition Ministry of Domestic Trade and Commission Consumer AffairsMalta Competition and Consumer Affairs AuthorityMauritius Competition Commission of Consumer Protection Unit, Min- Mauritius istry of Commerce and Con- sumer ProtectionMexico Federal Competition Federal Consumer Protection Commission Commission (Profeco)Moldova National Agency for the Protec- tion of CompetitionMongolia Authority for Fair Competition and Consumer ProtectionMontenegro Administration for Protection of CompetitionMorocco Competition CouncilNamibia Competition CommissionNetherlands Netherlands Competition Consumer Authority, Ministry of Authority Economic AffairsNew Zealand Commerce Commission Ministry of Consumer AffairsNicaragua ProcompetenciaNigeria Consumer Protection CouncilNorway Norwegian Competition Norwegian Consumer Authority OmbudsmanPakistan Competition Commission of PakistanPanama Authority for Consumer Protection and Competition DefensePapua New Independent Consumer and Competition Commission 1
  • GuineaParaguay National Integrated Consumer Protection SystemPeru National Institute for the Defense of Competition and the Protec- tion of Intellectual Property (INDECOPI)Philippines Bureau of Trade Regulation and Consumer Protection, Depart- ment of Trade and IndustryPoland Office of Competition and Consumer ProtectionPortugal Competition Authority National Commission for Data Protection Directorate-General for Con- sumers, Ministry of Economy and Innovation (DGC)Romania Competition Council National Authority for Consumer ProtectionRussia Federal Antimonopoly Service Federal Service on Customers RightsSaudi Arabia Council of Competition Consumer Protection Associa- Protection tionSenegal National Competition Commis- sionSerbia Commission for the Protection Sector for Trade, Consumer of Competition (CPC) Protection and Price Policy, Ministry of Trade and ServicesSeychelles Seychelles Fair Trading CommissionSingapore Competition CommissionSlovak Republic Antimonopoly Office Consumer Protection Depart- ment, Ministry of EconomySlovenia Competition Protection OfficeSouth Africa Competition Commission National Consumer Commission Competition Tribunal National Consumer TribunalSouth Korea Fair Trade Commission Korea Consumer Agency (KCA)Spain National Competition National Institute of Consumers CommissionSri Lanka Consumer Affairs AuthoritySwaziland Swaziland Competition Commission 1
  • Sweden Swedish Competition Authority Swedish Consumer AgencySwitzerland Competition Commission Federal Consumer Affairs BureauSyria Competition CommissionTaiwan Fair Trade Commission Consumer Protection Commit- tee, Executive YuanTajikistan State Agency on Antimonopoly Policy and Support of En- trepreneurship, Ministry of Eco- nomics and TradeTanzania Fair Competition CommissionThailand Office of Trade Competition Consumer Protection Board Commission (OTCC)Trinidad and To- Fair Trading CommissionbagoTunisia Competition Council General Director of Competi- tion and Domestic TradeTurkey Turkish Competition Authority (Rekabet Kurumu)Ukraine Antimonopoly Committee State Committee of Ukraine for Technical Regulation and Con- sumer PolicyUnited Kingdom Competition Commission Office of Fair TradingUnited States Federal Trade Commission Department of JusticeUruguay Commission for Promotion and Consumer Defense Area, Direc- Defense of Competition torate-General of Commerce, Ministry of Economy and Fi- nance (ADECO)Uzbekistan State Committee on Demonopolization and Development of CompetitionVenezuela Superintendence for the Pro- Institute for the Defense of Peo- motion and Protection of Free ples Access to Goods and Ser- Competition vices (Pro-Competencia)Vietnam Vietnam Competition Authority Vietnam Competition Council 1
  • West African Eco- Department of Competitionnomic and Mone-tary UnionZambia Zambia Competition Commis- sionZimbabwe Ministry of State Enterprises, Anti-Monopolies and Anti-Cor- ruption კანონმდებლობის მიზნები გამოკითხული ქვეყნების მიხედვით დანართი 3 ქვეყანა/მიზან კონკურე მომხმარ ეფექტია ეკონომი მცირე და პატიოსნ მომხარე ბაზ ი ნციის ებლის ნობის კური საშუალ ებისა და ბლისათ ინტ პროცესი კეტილდ ამაღლებ თავისუ ო ტანასწო ვის ცი ს ღეობის ა ფლების ბიზნესი რობის არჩევანი მიღ როგორც უზრუნვ უზრუნვ სათვის პრინციპე ს მიზანის ელყოფა ელყოფა საქმიანო ბის თავისუ და ბის გავრცელ ფლების შედეგის სამოქმე ება უზრუნვ ეფექტია დო ელყოფა ნობის სივრცის უზრუნვ უზრუნვ ელყოფა ელყოფა) მხარდაჭ ერა 1 ავსტრალია 2 ბrazilia 3 bulgareTi 4 კanada 5 Cile 6 CexeTi 7 evrokomisia 8 safrangeTi 9 Gგermania10 ungreTi11 indoeTi12 irlandia13 Italia 1
  • 14 israeli 15 Iamaika 16 იაპონია 17 ჯერსი 18 korea 19 latvia 20 meqsika 21 ჰolandia 22 აxali zelandia 23 pakistani 24 rumineti 25 ruseTi 26 singapuri 27 slovakeTi 28 samxreT afrika 29 ესპანეთი 30 SvedeTi 31 Sveicaria 32 TurqeTi უკრაინა 33 gaerTianebuli samefo აშშკვლევის მიხედვით, სააგენტოების უმრავლესობა ეფექტიანი კონკურნციისუზრუნველყოფას განიხილავს როგორც დამოუკიდებელ მიზანს (ბრაზილია,ბულგარეთი, ჩილი, ჩეხეთი,საფრანგეთი, გერმანია, , ისრაელი, იაპონია, მექსიკა,რუსეთი, შვეიცარია, თურქეტი, უკრაინა) ) , ნაწილი (აშშ, რუმინეთი, სამხრეთ აფრიკა,შვედეთი, კანადა, ევროკავშირი, უნგრეთი, ირლანდია, იტალია, იამაიკა, ჯერსი,კორეა, ლატვია, ჰოლანდია, ახალი ზელანდია) კონკურენციას განიხილავს როგორცმიზანს და როგორც საშუალებას, ხოლო მესამე კატეგორია (გაერთიანებული სამეფო,სლოვაკეთი, სინგაპური, ავსტრალია) კონკურენციის პროცესს განიხილავს როგორც 1
  • საშუალებას სხვა მიზნების მისაღწევად. წყარო: Modal law on competition. Available onhttp://www. unctad.org mniSvnelovani sabazro Zalauflebis Sefasebis ZiriTadi kriteriumebi (SerCeva moxda mxolod SeTavazebuli kriteriumebidan, Tumca sxva kriteriumebsac iyeneben) danarTi 4 qveyana firmisa bazarze konkurentebis myidvel da misi Sesasvleli da mdgomareoba da sabazro konkurentebis warmoebis sabazro qceva Zalaufle sabazro wili gafarToebis barierebiავსტრალიაbraziliabulgareTikanadaCileCexeTievrokomisiasafrangeTiGermaniaungreTiindoeTiirlandiaitaliaisraeliiamaikakorealatviameqsikaholandiaaxali zelandiapakistani 1
  • ruminetiruseTisingapurislovakeTisamxreT afrikaესპანეთიSvedeTiSveicariaTurqeTigaerTianebuli samefoukrainaaSSgarda zemoTCamoTvlili faqtorebisa, sabazro Zalauflebis SeafsebisaTvis qveynebiaanalizeben sxva faqtorebsac, kerZod: bulgareTi – firmis finansur resursebs, sxvasubieqtebTan urTierTobebs, damoukideblobas konkurentisagan, momwodeblebisa damyidvelebisagan; indoeTi - finansur resursebs; israeli masStabis ekonomias da qselurefeqtebs; jersi unars warmatebiT gazardos fasebi da gaauaresos xarisxi konkurentebisagan,myidvelebisa da momwodeblebis saTanado reaqciis gareSe; meqsika – unars calmxrivaddaadginos fasebi, SezRudos miwodeba da eqsportimportze xelmisawvdomobas; ruseTi -vertikaluri integraciis xarisxs, bazris ganvitarebis xarisxs; aSS – fasebis kontrolisa dakonkurentebis gandevnis unars da sxva. mniSvnelovani sabazro Zalauflebis Sefasebis ZiriTadi kriteriumebi (SerCeva moxda mxolod SeTavazebuli kriteriumebidan, Tumca sxva სააგენტოები სხვა kriteriumebsac iyeneben) danarTi 5 1
  • Cile Italia israeli ბrazilia CexeTi irlandia კanada indoeTi ungreTi Iamaika qვeyana bulgareTi safrangeTi Gგermania evrokomisia ავსტრალია Fფirmis dam მisი konkurentebis wili baza Mkonkurentebis qceva da mdgomareoba Bazarze SEsasvleli da warmoebis gafarToebis barierebi masStabis ekonomia da qseluri efeqtebi Mmyidvelis sabazro zalaufleba is da bis xel mis war oba faqt awv kalu ri int verti dom moe oreb Zalauflebis zangrZlivoba Bazris simwife an dinamiuroba1 arsebiTi aqtivebisadmi wvdoma
  • იაპონიაჯერსიkorealatviameqsikaჰolandiaაxali zelandiapakistaniruminetiruseTisingapurislovakeTisamxreT afrikaესპანეთიSvedeTiSveicariaTurqeTigaerTianebulisamefoukrainaaSSშერჩეული ქვეყნების მიხედვით კონკურენციის სააგენტოების მახასიათებლები დანართი 6 1
  • არგენტინა ავსტრალია კანადა მექსიკასააგენტოს კონკურენციის კონკურენციისა და კონკურენციის კონკურენციისდასახელება დაცვის მომხმარებლის ტრიბუნალი ფედრალური ეროვნული კომისია კომისია კომისიაგადაწყვეტილების 5 კომისიონერი; 6 სრული 4 იურისტი წევრი 5 კომისიონერმიმღები პრეზიდენტი კომისიონერი. აგრეთვე და 8 არაიურისტისტრუქტურა ექვემდებარება რამდენიმე არსრულ წევრი კომერციის შტატზე- სამდივნოს ასოცირებული ოტხი წევრიდან 2 კომისიონერი იურისტია და 2 ეკონომისტიგადაწყვეტილების კომისიონერების დანიშნვა ხდება იურისტი წევრები დანიშნვა ხდემიღების დანიშნვა (თუ გენერალური ინიშნებიან პრეზიდენტისპროცედურები წარდგენა?) ხდება გუბერნატორის ფედრალურ მიერ ეკონომიკის ( მმართველის) მიერ, მოსამართლეთაგა სამინისტროს რომელიც ასრულებს ნ იუსტიციის მიერ მინისტრთა სამინისტროს ჯკაბინეტის მრჩევლის სარეკომენდაციო როლს. საბჭოს ასოცირებული მმართველის მიერ; კომისიონერების სხვა წევრები ; დანიშნვა ხდება არაიურისტი მომხმარებელტა წევრბი კი საკითხთა მინისტრის მრეწველობის მიერ სამინისტროს სარეკომენდაციო საბჭოს მმართველის მიერთანამდებობაზე 4 წლიანი ვადა. 5 წლიანი ვადა, 7 წლის ვადით. 10 წლიანიდანიშვნის განხლება განახლების პირობით განახლება ვადით;პირობები შსაძლებელია შესაძლებელია განახლებადი სტაგგერედსაკვალიფიკაციო კომისიონერები ცოდნა და იურისტი წევრები მექსიკისმოთხოვნები უნდა იყვნენ გამოცდილება უნდა იყვნენ მოქალაქე აღიარებული ეკონომიკის, ვაჭრობის, მოსამართლეები გამოცდილები ექსპერტები სამართლის საჯარო ფედერალური კონკურენციის შსაბამის მმართველობის ან სასამართლოსი სფეროში და საკითხებზე, მომხმარებელთა საჯარო მინიმუმ 30 წლის, დაცვის სამსახურის ან და მინიმუმ 4 სფეროებშისფეროებში. აკადემიური წლიანი მინიმუმ ერთ სრულ საქმიანობის პროფესიული კომისიონერს მაინც გამოცდილები გამოცდილების უნდა ჰქონდეს ცოდნა ასაკი 35-75ა და გამოცდილება კონკურენციის 1
  • საკითხებზეგათავისუფლების გათავისუფლება გუბერნატორს შუძლია იურისტები - შსაძლებელიაპირობები შესაძლებელია გატვალისუფლება ვიდრე მხოლოდ მხოლოდ მენტალური და ინარჩუნებენ დასაბუთებულ მკაცრად ფიზიკური ფედერალური გადაცდომის განსაზრვრულ პრობლემების, სასამართლოს შმთხვევაში პირობებში ბანკროტობიის, სხვა მოსამართლის სპეციალური ანაზღაურებად პოზიციას; ტრიბუნალის საქმიანობაში დანარჩენების მიერ, რომელსაც მონაწილების ან გათავისუფლება თავმჯდომარეობს გამოუცხადებლობის შეიძლება ხაზინის გამო გარკვეული პროკურორი და მიზეზებით ტრიბუნალი შდგება 4 იურისტისგან, რომელთაც აქვთ გამოცდილება 10 პროფესიული წლიანიდაფინანსების სახელმწიფო სახელწიფო ბიუჯეტი; სახელწიფო სახელწიფოწყაროები ბიუჯეტი მოსაკრებლების ბიუჯეტი ბიუჯეტი ნაწილისახელფასო საჯარო საჯარო სამსახურის საჯარო საჯაროპირობები მოსამსახურის პირობები სამსახურის სამსახურის სახელფასო პირობები პირობები პირობები dominirebis prezumpcia da usafrTxoebis zRvruli normebi (“safe harbours”) danarTi 7 1
  • qveyana dominirebis prezumpciuli norma usafrTxoebis zRurbli sabazro wili sakam safuZveli sabazro wili sakam safuZveli aToa aToa Tu ara Tu arabrazilia 20 ki kanoni 20 ara instruqciabulgare 35 ki kanoni 20 ki instruqciaTikanada 80 ki precedentu 35 ara instruqcia li samarTaliCexeTi 40 ara kanonigermani 35 ki kanoniaungreTi 20 ara instruqciaisraeli 50 ara kanoniiamaika 50 ki instruqciakorea 50 ki kanoni 10 ara kanonilatvia 40 ki kanoniaxali 20 ara instruqciazelandiapakistan 33 ki kanoniirumineTi 40 ki instruqciaruseTi 50 ki kanoni 20 ki kanonisamxreT 40 ara kanoniafrikaSvedeTi 40 kiukraina 35 ki kanoni 35 ara kanoniaSS 70 % ki precedentu sasamarTlo ara precedentu sabazro li samarTali ebi li samarTal barierebis praqtikulad arsebobisa ar cnoben da sabazro warmoebis Zalauflebas 1
  • moculobis 50%ze zrdis qvemoT Semaferxebe li mtkicebulebe bis arsebobasta n erTadwyaro: saerTaSoriso konkurenciuli qselis me-6 konferenciis masalebi. 2007 1