Realms of Creativity


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Presentation covers Creativity , Innovation, Process of Innovation, Types of Creativity,Creative Intelligence , Divergent and Convergent Thinking, Model of Creative Process, Creative Problem Solving Techniques,Roots of Human Creativity and Forms of Creativity

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Realms of Creativity

  1. 1. Realms of CreativityGopaldas Pawan KumarMain excerpts from “ Lifelong Creativity- An Unending Quest”By Pradip N Khandwalla6/21/20131GDP
  2. 2. CreativityA "new" idea is a combination of old elements.Creativity:• It is your ability to combine ideas in a uniqueway or to make useful associations among ideas.• “Mere novelty of a product does not, however, justify its being called creative ….. Itmust serve to solve a problem , fit the needs ofa given situation, accomplish some recognizablegoal.”-Donald W MacKinnon6/21/20132GDP
  3. 3. Need for Creativity*In the present scenario:– Competition is high, thus quality becomes important;creativity leads to quality.– Every profession needs updating, innovating andexperimenting; creativity thus becomes important.– Customer purchasing power as well as informationpower is high, they demand the best value for their money;creativity gives that extra edge.6/21/20133GDP
  4. 4. Creativity*Creative people are said to have:A particular StyleOriginalityCompetenceExperienceDeterminationFlexibilityPositive outlook6/21/20134GDP
  5. 5. Organizational Creativity VsIndividual CreativityOrganizations based oncontinuous development,on systematic research ofefficiencySuccessful organizationsHigh rate of innovationsFew innovations, justimitationsLow rate of innovations,sometimes radical, based onentrepreneurial spirit ofindividualsOrganizationalCreativityHighLowIndividual Creativity High6/21/20135GDPFigure:1
  6. 6. "Without innovation, new products, new services, andnew ways of dong business would never emerge, andmost organizations would be forever stuck doing thesame old things the same old way."InnovationInnovation is a process of taking new ideas to satisfiedcustomers. It is the conversion of new knowledge into newproducts and services.Innovation is about creating value and increasingefficiency, and therefore growing your business.6/21/20136GDP
  7. 7. Innovation• *6/21/20137GDPFigure:2
  8. 8. Process of Innovation• The Innovation process can bedepicted as a series of funnelseach getting progressivelysmaller.• Typically sixty ideas into the topfunnel only produces just oneinnovation.• The funnels are labeled as thefour phases in the process - ideageneration, ideascreening, feasibility andimplementation.6/21/20138GDPFigure:3
  9. 9. Types of Creativity*Kinds of creativity:- Essential: Creativity as an „Idea‟.– Elaborative: What is done‟ with the idea.– Expressive: „How‟ is the idea communicated.– Entrepreneurial: Idea converted into a profitable „venture‟– Existential: Idea for survival.– Empowering: An idea is made to grow to empower others.6/21/20139GDP
  10. 10. • Essential: Einstein• Elaborative: Karl Marx• Expressive :Rabindranath Tagore• Entrepreneurial: Dhirubhai Ambani• Existential: Ramakrishna Paramhamsa• Empowering: Mahatma GandhiThere could be more than one type of creativity in some ofthe examples, but the major focus in each of the examples isquite clear and distinct from one another.Examples6/21/201310GDP
  11. 11. Kinds of creativity :Examples• Essential: Creativity as an „Idea‟• Elaborative: „What is done‟ withthe idea• Expressive: „How‟ is the ideacommunicated• Entrepreneurial: Idea convertedinto a profitable „venture‟• Existential: Idea for survival• Empowering: As an idea is madeto grow to empower others Einstein Marx Tagore Dhirubhai Ambani Ramakrishna Paramhamsa Mahatma Gandhi6/21/201311GDP
  12. 12. What is Creative IntelligenceAccording to Porter, Creativity has following five elements:1.Fluency – Fluency means the ability to provide ideas involumes. It means having lots of ideas, but the ideas may notbe necessarily unusual or uncommon.2.Flexibility- Flexiblity means the ability to convert familiarconcepts into new shapes or jump from old concepts to newones3.Originality- Originality means the ability to create unusual/uncommon ideas. It must lead to something novel or unique6/21/201312GDP
  13. 13. What is Creative Intelligence?Porter, contd:4.Awareness- Imagination to perceive connections &possibilities beyond obvious5.Drive or Motivation - to think up new ideas .PassionateFew other elements of Creativity are6.Value or appropriateness or usefulness - It should have somevalue according to some external criteria (Market). It shouldhave some useful application7.Capable of being reduced to practice – It must be more thanjust an idea and feasible of being reduced into practice6/21/201313GDP
  14. 14. What is Creative Intelligence?Others , apart from Porter’s8. Problem Sensitivity: To notice the unexplained ,theunsatisfactory or the incongruent- i.e. ,the ability to senseproblems and issues that may be unclear or camouflaged.9. Guessing Causes and Consequences: It is the ability to haveroot cause analysis- go to the roots of the problem , findreasons and the likely consequences.10. Elaboration: The ability to elaborate on a theme is also acreative ability.11. Problem Restructuring: Defining the problem beyond whatis visible in a more interesting way.Two persons may be having different ratings in each of theabove6/21/201314GDP
  15. 15. Divergent and Convergent thinking skills_They are both important aspects of intelligence, problemsolving and critical thinking.Bringing facts and data together from various sources andthen applying logic and knowledge to solve problems, achieveobjectives or to make informed decisions is known as thinkingconvergently. Ex: Sherlock HolmesDivergent Thinking is thinking outwards instead of inward. It isthe ability to develop original and unique ideas and then comeup with a problem solution or achieve an objective.Ex: Einstein6/21/201315GDP
  16. 16. Convergent Thinking*6/21/201316GDPFigure:4
  17. 17. Divergent Thinking*6/21/201317GDPFigure:5
  18. 18. Enhancing Creativity IntelligenceCreativity is not DNA ,(birth related) but couldbe enhanced by orchestration of many forceslike-1. Personality Traits and Motives2. Mental Capabilities3. Environment4. Creative Problem Solving Process Techniques.The right combination of these will enhance thecreativity intelligence.6/21/201318GDP
  19. 19. Creative Problem Solving Process1. Structuring and restructuring of problem.2. Cycles of Convergent and Divergent thinking3. Phases ofpreparation, incubation, illumination, elaboration , evaluation, and refinement.4. Mechanism of Convergent thinking-definition, clarification, modeling, classification, synthesis, evaluation, optimization etc5. Mechanisms of Divergent thinking- naïve,associative thinking, root causes, fantasizing , constraint-free etc.6/21/201319GDP
  20. 20. A model of Creative AchievementCreativeProblemSolvingProcessDomainKnowledgeandCompetenceCreativityTechnologyCreativePersonalityCreativeEnvironCreativeIntelligenceCreativeOutcome6/21/201320GDPFigure:6
  21. 21. Elements1. Creative Technology: Attributes Changing, Morphological Analysis, Check list, Brainstorming , Synectics and BreakthroughTechniques.2. Creative Personality : Creativity , Growth, Social Contribution motives , Low blockage ofcreative ideas, Curiosity ,Courage , risk taking, persistency etc .3. Creative Environment: Stimulation, Challenge, Diversity , Reward, support, facilities , resources etc .6/21/201321GDP
  22. 22. Techniques of Creative Problem Solving1.Brainstorming : It is a group activityPrinciplesDefer evaluation ,quantity begets quality , themore fantastic the more better, build onprevious ideas.2.Check list Questions: By Alex Osborn – Whatcan beadded, deleted, altered, rearrange, adapt, etc -Cupboard3. Attribute Changing: Useful for designing orredesigning a product or service. Developed byby Robert Crawford. – Steel Trunks-Suitcases, castors, fabric ,etc6/21/201322GDP
  23. 23. Techniques of Creative Problem Solving………3. Morphological Analysis: It is a variant of AttitudeChanging. Developed by Dr Zwicky.To identify some critical modifiable attributes andwrite down several alternatives for each of thesealternatives.- Ex : Dissemination of daily news-1s Attribute- Newspapers, Radio, TV , Net etc2nd Attribute- Frequency- daily, twice , thrice a day.3rd Attribute -Coverage- Local , national , international.4th Attribute -Content -Political, Economical, Social, Cultural, Scientific etc.We can go on adding attributes. The above steps help increative favoring attitudes and values, experimental andinnovative bent of mind . Also prompts new applicationof ideas.6/21/201323GDP
  24. 24. Techniques of Creative Problem Solving………4. Synectics : Boston based Organization foundedby William JJ Gordon and George Prince. Thetechnique specializes in finding solutions tocomplex technical or other problems that havedefied solution by experts .It is a remarkable technique of group problemsolving and develop fresh workable approachesto difficult problems.Examples : Closure mechanism, Writinginstrument in space , Packaging in Nirma.6/21/201324GDP
  25. 25. Techniques of Creative Problem Solving………5. Breakthrough: Evolved after combining manyproblem solving techniques by Khandwalla. Moreuseful in people related issues. It emphasizesidentification of problems stakeholders, multipleways of defining a problem and demolition of thechosen alternative and its reconstruction.Process : Each member to state the problem as he sees-define thestakeholders to the problem- stakeholder teams are formed-Problem redefined- Top problems selected for brainstorming- Bestsolution is selected- Reverse brainstorming is done (Why the ideawill not work)-Each group to reward the solution consideringobjections – Further economics, planning and development arelooked into – Finalized.6/21/201325GDP
  26. 26. Structure of MindUnconscious Mind(instincts, Self preservation andreproduction, no regulation)Preconscious Mind(Fantasizing and Imagining prominent inchildhood , motivated to fulfill dreams droppingreal life constraints like getting into IAS, actingwith Deepika , playing in IPL)Conscious Mind ishighly orderly, logical, evaluativeand analytical . aware of realitiesand constraints and manages entirepersonality and responses6/21/201326GDPFigure:7
  27. 27. Roots of Human Creativity- Biological1. Limbs- write, climb , handle ,paint , carve etc2. Vocalizing System- articulate , sing, shout etc3. Brain- cortex is the seat of intellectual activitylike recalling, reasoning, analyzing , categorizing ,associating , weighing, dreaming etcLeft hemisphere- vocalizing, analyzing, reasoning ,categorizing ( in right handed person)Right hemisphere- integrating, intuiting, visualizingetc6/21/201327GDP
  28. 28. Roots of Human Creativity- Mental1. Subconscious roots of creativity- As perSigmund Freud roots are in the recess ofsubconscious mind.Unconscious : Compulsions of Wilder Impulses VsCompulsions of consciencePreconscious : analogy (comparison) , memories, playful , trial and error thinking- help increative thinking.6/21/201328GDP
  29. 29. Roots of Human Creativity- Mental(Cont)As per Alfred Adler, creativity is a way of compensatingfor feelings of inferiority.Carl Gustav Jung opined that human race hascollective unconscious in which archetypal (typical, representative) shadows lurk.These archetypes are the primal shared experiences ofmankind. They include Persona- Mask, Anima-Feminine side of man , Animus – masculine side ofwomen‟s nature, Shadow- animal side of humanpsyche and Self- individuals striving forcompleteness.Human creativity is always accessing and expressing, in many ways , all the above potent and shadowyarchetypes.PAASS6/21/201329GDP
  30. 30. Roots of Human Creativity-Mental(Contd)2. Closure need and creativity: Humans feeluncomfortable if there are no answers toproblems . When there are no answers to Why, What , How, When or Where , humans go intoproblem solving overdrive .• Gaps between what it is and what ought to be.• Questions asked are a response to perceivedgaps.• Asking a good question is an art. It prioritizesthe knowledge and focuses on the search moresharply.6/21/201330GDP
  31. 31. Roots of Human Creativity- Mental(Contd---)3. Dialectical sources of Creativity:Another root of creativity is the urge to synthesize earlierantagonistic (hostile)perspective into a new integratedperspective.As per Hegel‟s „Dialectical Phenomenology‟ it involvesfinding what are the oppositions, conflicts, contrasts, contradictions , the otherness,estrangements that are possible in the context.Imagination , Emotion or Passion also play critical role increativity.Spiritual advances take place when thesis(Idea, opinion) andanti-thesis is resolved productively .(like humans andanimals-the others concept of differentiating).Ex: Wood outside the house transformed into a threshold.Otherness of wood is not lost but uplifted/ upgraded.6/21/201331GDP
  32. 32. Roots of Human Creativity- Mental(Contd..)4. Intuition as a source of Creativity: Intuition ismore or less correct conclusion reached on the basisof neither conscious logic or noticeable evidence.Intuition could be in many forms:a. Premonition- seeing in advance without evidence orrationale- Ex : like expecting a calamity.b. Guessing repeatedly on thin basis.-Ex: Stock investorc. Creative intuitions- inspiration, vision, conviction,hunch , law , hypothesis etc.Thus , creative intuition is a stimulating pointer , aninitial awareness for creative work.Dreams and meditation could be a source of intuitions.6/21/201332DP
  33. 33. Roots of Human Creativity- SpiritualA . Variety of Spiritual CreativityThe Spiritual Impulses variety for creativity are1. Quest for divine2. Sense of Human Brotherhood and Sisterhood3. Altruism- doing good with expecting reward4. Deep moral sense of what is right or wrong5. Love of Humanity and all living beingsB . Spiritual Fraternity and Creativity:Forms of Yoga and TM increase our creativity when practicedfor longGroups of people come together for good and humane deeds-Green movement, Ramakrishna Mission, Sarvodaya , RedCross, Lions Club , Swadhyaya (empowering thepoorest), Krushibhakhti (Devotion through farming). AamAdmi Party (against corruption)6/21/201333GDP
  34. 34. Roots of Human Creativity- SocialVariety of Social Creativity looks at how tolerantare the societies to promote creativity.1. Conservative Society- Conformance , and WhyChange?2. Entrepreneurial Society – Creative destruction3. Authoritarian Society- Creativity supportingpower4. Democratic Society- tinkering with existingthings, growing and actualizing their potential.6/21/201334GDP
  35. 35. ConservativeSocietyDark AgeCreativityAuthoritarianSocietyEntrepreneurialSocietyCentrallydirectedRenaissancePopularRenaissanceDemocraticSocietyExplosiveRenaissanceSociety – Creativity Types1 23 4A great deal ofstateentrepreneurshipin defense, security, economicdevelopment likein erstwhile USSRand ChinaIncremental,permittedcreativity intraditionaldomains like inMynamar ,Afghan etcWidespreadcreativity in all itsforms. Presenceof breakthroughand incrementalcreativity like inUS and UKIncrementalcreativity intraditional aswell asmodernizationrelateddomains like inBRICS6/21/201335GDPFigure:8
  36. 36. Forms of Creativity :Essence Creativity1. It is distilled creativity . It is transparent and visibleexpressed compactly with clear meaning. Succinctexpression of a novel idea. Result of individual effort2. It is insightful and a product of distinctivecontexts, personality traits, cognitive (relating to theprocess of acquiring knowledge by the use ofreasoning, intuition, or perception) process andmental giftedness.3. It can be graded from moderate to exceptional.Nicely expressed by proverbs- No Risk NoGain, Necessity is the mother of invention etcEx: Eureka- Archimedes discovery of law of floatation isexample of creative discovery. Darwin‟s survival ofthe fittest is also an example of Essence Creativity6/21/201336GDP
  37. 37. Forms of Creativity: Elaborative Creativity• It is the distinctive elaboration of an idea, principle, law, view point that render it notonly novel but useful in a context.• The mechanisms include seeking reasons andcauses for the elaboration relevant to the idea .• Epics, poems , fiction ,essays are creativeelaborations.• Legal governance, Management systems ,workflow are also elaborations.• Essence creativity is the labor of individualand Elaborative is a collective effort.(Mahabharata)6/21/201337GDP
  38. 38. Forms of Creativity: Expressive CreativityIt consists of fresh , effective communication to move, restore , delight , stun or amaze. Mechanisms:1. Like suggestion and statement:Images, Associations Vs Sentences2. Virtuality and Realism : Words, Voice, GesturesPainting of Horse Vs Real horse, , Painting of ShipVs Sailing Ship3. Hype and Understatement- Attention Vs Implied .(Greatest, best or an understatement like “Give meliberty or give me death”.)4. Metaphor and Imagery- Symbols Vs GraphicsEx: Symbol –Flag representing a nationMetaphor :A Lion- hearted King conveys meaning ofa King having the courage of a lion but not theheart of a lion.6/21/201338GDP
  39. 39. Forms of Creativity : Existential Creativity It is concerned with the development of one‟sown creativity , effectiveness and self actualizationpotential. It arises when the individual is open toall of his experiences. Self-actualized persons have a creative personality. It can be enhanced by increasing theconsequences of peak experience which is one ofintense happiness and joy, love and passion, greatachievement.The ratio of „Living‟ to „Existing‟ may be a scoreboardof existential creativity . Living experiences areworth cherishing whereas Existing experiencesare every day activities that could be calleddrudgeries.6/21/201339GDP
  40. 40. Forms of Creativity : Entrepreneurial Creativity The process of creating , operating a ventureconstitutes entrepreneurship. Terese Amabile has defined EntrepreneurialCreativity as the generation and implementationof novel, appropriate ideas to establish a newventure. It covers novel offerings of Product andservices. As per Mathew Manimala the High Pioneering andInnovative (HPI) entrepreneurs stressed muchmore on Idea sources, Criteria of choice, Ideadevelopment , Persistence with ideas, StressManagement ,HRM , Growth Strategy , RiskManagement , Networking etc for creativity.6/21/201340GDP
  41. 41. Forms of Creativity : Empowering Creativity It is concerned with the development of theeffectiveness , creativity and self actualizationpotential of others. –spouse, children , customers, relatives etc A distinctive kind of creativity where in altruism, mission , empathy and understanding of thehuman hood is the motive. Various approaches that could be considered areempowerment through the following activities:Poverty alleviation, better health and population control,collective action , education and skilling , training tolearn and innovate, transformational leadership, transformation of human nature etc.6/21/201341GDP
  42. 42. ENDGDP 6/21/201342GDP