FOOD, NUTRITION & CULTURE ‘ Feeding oneself and one’s offspring is the first concern of all living creatures’
WHY IS THE ACQUISITION OF FOOD SO IMPORTANT?
Question answered by the old adage ‘ We are what we eat .’
All living creatures need to ‘take in nutrients to live.’
Nutrition – the science that deals with the body’s ability to transform nutrients found in FOOD into FUEL & FLESH .
Calories Muscle & Tissue
PERSPECTIVES ON NUTRITION
To scientists , nutrition is the study of:
The nutrients found in foods
The body’s handling of nutrients to maintain health
Nutrients (some of which provide energy for processes in the body) are substances that can promote:
For many, nutrition is all about losing weight!
WHAT IS FOOD?
Food is a conduit for nutrients.
It is one central thing about human experience that can open up both our senses and our experiences to our place in the world.
– Alice Waters
Food is culturally defined, what is considered a food in Culture A is not necessarily a food in Culture B. OCTOPUS MEXICAN FOODS ACKEE AND BREADFRUIT PEARBUSH BUDS
Whereas there are many different foods. There are only six classes of nutrients namely:
Usually, more than one class of nutrients is represented in a food (e.g., ( CHO, fats, proteins, water, minerals [e.g., Ca] and vitamins [e.g., Vitamin D] are in milk .
TYPES OF NUTRIENTS protein Vitamin c Fatty acids
(with C- C or C- H bonds)
water Sodium and Chlorine ions
ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENTS
glucose, (preferred energy source) fructose and galactose
fatty acids and glycerol
Vitamins - only organic nutrient that does not supply energy but is needed to get energy from foods.
Essential nutrient - body cannot make enough of and must get from food.
Some dietary and lifestyle practices (smoking, inactivity, drinking alcohol) are risk factors for many health conditions.
Substances (non-nutrients) in foods are phytochemicals that give foods the characteristic taste and smell.
MORE FOOD RELATED FACTS ….
Values and beliefs
Select foods to provide adequate amounts of nutrients and energy!
When humans eat, foremost in their minds is that they are consuming foods, not nutrients!
The following influence food choices:
CHALLENGE OF CHANGING FOOD HABITS
Food is about more than feeding the body. It is embedded in family life, culture and religious ritual.
Food has always been the most direct, intimate tie to a nurturing earth and a primary means of bonding with each other.
Food has helped us to know where and who we are.
Digestion – process of breaking food into small substances to be absorbed by the body and subsequently used for fuel, growth, maintenance and repair.
RELEASING NUTRIENTS FROM FOOD Simple (e.g., phagocytosis- engulf and form food vacuoles in which food is broken down in the unicellular amoeba). Complex (e.g., cooking and chewing food before introducing it to the sophisticated multi-organ, digestive system in multi-cellular humans).
PRODUCTS OF DIGESTION (Energy Nutrients) Gastro- intestinal System CHO FATS PROTEINS GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE GALACTOSE FATTY ACIDS GLYCEROL AMINO ACIDS
Food energy measured in calories .
A calorie is not a component of food .
1g fat = 9 calories
1g CHO = 4 calories
1g protein = 4 calories
1 g alcohol = 7 calories
(alcohol is not a nutrient)
MEASURING FOOD ENERGY
Plants store energy as starch.
Humans eat plants and other animals that have also eaten plants.
Plants use the sun’s energy to combine carbondioxide and water to form glucose and oxygen.
6H 2 O + 6CO 2 = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
The Cycle of life begins with the sun! The Energy Cycle
THE ABC… OF A NUTRITIOUS DIET
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Health professionals agree that the overall composition of the diet has an important effect on health.
Eating too much fat, sat. fat and cholesterol and not eating enough vegetables, fruits, and fiber has been linked to an increase in heart disease and other cancers.
The federal government constantly revises its official U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans to help consumers choose a healthy diet.
These guidelines make Recommendations for Americans 2 years of age and older.
Reduce coronary heart disease
Reduce cancer deaths
Decrease incidence of diabetes
Reduce prevalence of osteoporosis and
Reduce dental caries
HOW MUCH FOOD DO WE NEED? The Dietary Reference Intakes ( DRIs ) are a comprehensive set of nutrient reference values for healthy populations that can be used for assessing and planning diets. The % Daily Value (% DV) can help you make informed food choices. Look for it in the Nutrition Facts table on food packages.
MEAL PLANNING GUIDES
Food group plan
Daily Food Guide
Let the Pyramid guide your food choices.
Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains.
Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily.
Keep food safe to eat!
CHOOSING FOODS ………
Food labels provide the following information:
Common name of product.
Name and address of manufacturer, packer or distributor.
Net contents (wt, measure or count).
Nutrient content of product
Servings per container
Calories/calories from fat
Nutrient amounts and percentages of Daily Values
Daily values and calories/gram reminder
CHECK THE FOOD LABEL BEFORE YOU BUY
Food labels have several parts:
Added nutrients (e.g., “enriched grain/pasta” means thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and folic acid have been added.
What’s in the food including e.g., added fats, or sugars.
Ingredients listed in descending order by weight.
USING THE NUTRITION FACTS
Look at the % Daily Value (%DV) column to see whether a food is high or low in saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium.
If you want to consume more of a nutrient (e.g., Calcium), choose foods with a higher %DV.
Foods with 5%DV or less contribute a small amount of that nutrient. Those with 20% or more contribute a large amount.
Nutrition Facts serving sizes may differ from Food Guide Pyramid (e.g., 2 ozs of dry macaroni yields about 1 cup cooked, or two [½ cup] Pyramid servings).
Use the Food Guide Pyramid to help select healthy foods.
Eat a variety of plant foods, including whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
Eat some low-fat dairy products and low- fat foods from the meat and beans group.
Enjoy fats and sweets occasionally.
The following dietary assessment methods are used: