Earth’s structure and materials2
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  • 1.  The layer of solid rock that makes up the Earth’s outer layer including the continents and the ocean floor.
  • 2.  A dark, fine-grained extrusive volcanic rock that makes up the oceanic crust.
  • 3.  A light colored, coarse -grained volcanic rock that makes up a large part of the continental crust.
  • 4.  The layer of rock found below the crust that is separated into the lithosphere, asthenosphere, and mesosphere.
  • 5.  The uppermost part of the mantle composed of brittle rock and the crust of the Earth.
  • 6.  The less rigid part of the mantle directly underneath the lithosphere.
  • 7.  The lowest part of the mantle that is made up of semi-liquid rocks.
  • 8.  Outer layer of the core made up of dense, liquid metal.
  • 9.  Center layer of the core made up of solid metal.
  • 10.  The crust that forms the continents which is made up of many different types of rocks but mostly granite.
  • 11.  The crust that lies beneath the oceans which is made up of basalt.
  • 12.  Heat from the core is transferred by convection into     the mantle. The heat causes convection currents in the mantle and core. Convection currents have been moving inside Earth for more than 4 billion years. Convection currents in the mantle cause the tectonic plates to move. Convection currents in the core cause the Earth’s magnetic field.