Earths layers2
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  • 1. EARTH’S STRUCTURE AND MATERIALS
  • 2. JOURNEY TO THE CENTER OF THE EARTH IS A BOOK BY JULES VERNE ABOUT TRAVELING TO THE CENTER OF THE EARTH. COULD WE TRAVEL ALL THE WAY THROUGH THE EARTH LIKE THEY DID IN THE BOOK? IF WE COULD, WHAT MATERIALS WOULD WE ENCOUNTER ALONG THE WAY? • Answer the essential question (#1 ONLY on your worksheet).
  • 3. Florida Benchmarks • SC.7.E.6.1 Describe the layers of the solid Earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic liquid and solid cores.
  • 4. What is inside Earth? • Earth is made of several layers. • Each layer has its own characteristic properties. • Scientists think about Earth’s layers in two ways— chemical composition (what they are made up of) and physical properties (characteristics of each layer).
  • 5. What are Earth’s compositional layers? • Earth can be divided into three layers based on chemical composition: the crust, the mantle, and the core.
  • 6. Earth’s Interior Earth’s Crust The circle graph shows the composition of Earth’s crust.
  • 7. What are Earth’s compositional layers? • The outermost solid layer of Earth is the crust. • There are two types of crust: continental and oceanic.
  • 8. What are Earth’s compositional layers? • Both types of crust are made mostly of oxygen, silicon, and aluminum. • Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust because it contains almost twice as much iron, calcium, and magnesium. • The most common rock type in oceanic crust is basalt. • The most common rock type in continental crust is granite.
  • 9. What are Earth’s compositional layers? • The mantle is located between the crust and the core. • The mantle is a region of hot, slow-flowing solid rock. (500 – 900 C close to the crust; 4000 C close to the core) • The rock is still solid because the pressure is so great the molecules cannot move apart to allow for a change in state. • The mantle contains more magnesium and less aluminum and silicon than the crust.
  • 10. What are Earth’s compositional layers? • The core extends from below the mantle to the center of Earth. • Scientists think the core is made mostly of iron and some nickel. • The core is the densest layer and makes up about one-third of Earth’s mass. • The temperature range in the core is 4000 C – 7000 C.
  • 11. What are Earth’s physical layers? • Earth is also divided into layers based on physical properties, such as whether the layer is solid or liquid. • The five physical layers are the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, and inner core.
  • 12. What are Earth’s physical layers? • The outermost, rigid layer of Earth is the lithosphere. • The lithosphere is made of the crust and the upper part of the mantle. • The lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates.
  • 13. What are Earth’s physical layers? • The asthenosphere is the layer of the mantle made of solid rock that moves very slowly. • The asthenosphere is located below the lithosphere. • Tectonic plates move on top of the asthenosphere.
  • 14. What are Earth’s physical layers? • The strong, lower part of the mantle is called the mesosphere. • Rock in the mesosphere flows more slowly than rock in the asthenosphere.
  • 15. What are Earth’s physical layers? • The outer core is the liquid layer of Earth’s core. • The outer core lies beneath the mantle and surrounds the inner core.
  • 16. What are Earth’s physical layers? • The inner core is the solid, dense center of our planet. • The inner core extends from the bottom of the outer core to the center of Earth.
  • 17. HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT THE INSIDE OF THE EARTH IS LIKE?  Scientists get new knowledge by using direct and indirect observation.  Direct observation – something they see themselves through experimentation, observation, research or some other direct method Core samples from holes drilled into the Earth  Rock from the samples give us evidence about what the interior is like   Indirect observation – making inferences about something based on known information.  Ex. We know how waves act, so we can infer what type of materials seismic waves are encountering inside the Earth.