Nomenclature
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Nomenclature

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Nomenclature Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Nomenclature PO 4 3- phosphate ion C 2 H 3 O 2 - acetate ion HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid
  • 2. Common Names
    • A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name.
    • Chemicals that should always be named by common name and never named by the IUPAC method are:
      • H 2 O water, not dihydrogen monoxide
      • NH 3 ammonia, not nitrogen trihydride
  • 3. COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS
    • Na + + Cl - --> NaCl
    CATION + ANION = COMPOUND A neutral compound requires equal number of + and - charges.
  • 4. Charges on Monatomic Ions +1 +2 -3 -2 -1 0 Cd +2
  • 5. IONIC COMPOUNDS ammonium chloride, NH 4 Cl NH 4 + Cl -
  • 6. Some Ionic Compounds
    • Mg 2+ + N -3 ---->
    • Mg 3 N 2
    • magnesium nitride
    • Sn 4+ + O 2- ---->
    • SnO 2
    • Tin (IV) oxide
    calcium fluoride Ca 2+ + 2 F - ---> CaF 2
  • 7. Formulas of Ionic Compounds
    • Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions
    • atoms ions
    •     –
    • Na  +  F :  Na + : F :  NaF
    •    
    • sodium + fluorine sodium fluoride formula
    • Charge balance: 1+ 1- = 0
  • 8. Monatomic Ions
  • 9. Writing a Formula
    • Write the formula for the ionic compound that will form between Ba 2+ and Cl  .
    • Solution:
    • 1. Balance charge with + and – ions
    • 2. Write the positive ion of metal first, and the
    • negative ion Ba 2+ Cl  Cl 
    • 3. Write the number of ions needed as
    • subscripts BaCl 2
  • 10. Learning Check
    • Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions:
    • 1. Na + , S 2-
    • a) NaS b) Na 2 S c) NaS 2
    • 2. Al 3+ , Cl -
    • a) AlCl 3 b) AlCl c) Al 3 Cl
    • 3. Mg 2+ , N 3-
    • a) MgN b) Mg 2 N 3 c) Mg 3 N 2
  • 11. Solution
    • 1. Na + , S 2-
    • b) Na 2 S
    • 2. Al 3+ , Cl -
    • a) AlCl 3
    • 3. Mg 2+ , N 3-
    • c) Mg 3 N 2
  • 12. Naming Compounds
    • 1. Cation first, then anion
    • 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element
    • Ca 2+ = calcium ion
    • 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide
    • Cl  = chlor ide
    • CaCl 2 = calcium chlor ide
    Binary Ionic Compounds:
  • 13. Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
    • Examples:
          • NaCl
          • ZnI 2
          • Al 2 O 3
    sodium chloride zinc iodide aluminum oxide
  • 14. Learning Check
    • Complete the names of the following binary compounds:
    • Na 3 N sodium ________________
    • KBr potassium ________________
    • Al 2 O 3 aluminum ________________
    • MgS _________________________
  • 15. Transition Metals
    • Elements that can have more than one possible charge MUST have a Roman Numeral to indicate the charge on the individual ion.
    • 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+
    • Cu + , Cu 2+ Fe 2+ , Fe 3+
    • copper(I) ion iron(II) ion
    • copper (II) ion iron(III) ion
  • 16. Names of Variable Ions
    • These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals because they can have more than one possible charge:
    • Transition metals and the metals in groups 4A and 5A (except Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al) require a Roman
    • Numeral.
    • FeCl 3 (Fe 3+ ) iron (III) chloride
    • CuCl (Cu + ) copper (I) chloride
    • SnF 4 (Sn 4+ ) tin (IV) fluoride
    • PbCl 2 (Pb 2+ ) lead (II) chloride
    • Fe 2 S 3 (Fe 3+ ) iron (III) sulfide
  • 17. Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals
  • 18. Learning Check
    • Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions:
    • FeBr 2 iron (_____) bromide
    • CuCl copper (_____) chloride
    • SnO 2 ___(_____ ) ______________
    • Fe 2 O 3 ________________________
    • Hg 2 S ________________________
  • 19.
    • CO 3 -2 is carbonate
    • HCO 3 – is hydrogen carbonate
    • H 2 PO 4 – is dihydrogen phosphate
    • HSO 4 – is hydrogen sulfate
    Polyatomic Ions
  • 20. Ternary Ionic Nomenclature
    • Writing Formulas
    • Write each ion, cation first. Don’t show charges in the final formula.
    • Overall charge must equal zero .
      • If charges cancel, just write symbols.
      • If not, use subscripts to balance charges.
    • Use parentheses to show more than one of a particular polyatomic ion .
    • Use Roman numerals indicate the ion’s charge when needed (stock system)
  • 21. Ternary Ionic Nomenclature
    • Sodium Sulfate
    • Na + and SO 4 -2
    • Na 2 SO 4
    • Iron (III) hydroxide
    • Fe +3 and OH -
    • Fe(OH) 3
    • Ammonium carbonate
    • NH 4 + and CO 3 –2
    • (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3
  • 22. Learning Check
    • 1. aluminum nitrate
    • a) AlNO 3 b) Al(NO) 3 c) Al(NO 3 ) 3
    • 2. copper(II) nitrate
    • a) CuNO 3 b) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 c) Cu 2 (NO 3 )
    • 3. Iron (III) hydroxide
    • a) FeOH b) Fe 3 OH c) Fe(OH) 3
    • 4. Tin(IV) hydroxide
    • a) Sn(OH) 4 b) Sn(OH) 2 c) Sn 4 (OH)
  • 23. Naming Ternary Compounds
    • Contains at least 3 elements
    • There MUST be at least one polyatomic ion
    • Examples:
    • Na NO 3 Sodium nitrate
    • K 2 SO 4 Potassium sulfate
    • Al (HCO 3 ) 3 Aluminum bicarbonate
    • or
    • Aluminum hydrogen carbonate
  • 24. Learning Check
    • Match each set with the correct name:
    • 1. Na 2 CO 3 a) magnesium sulfite
    • MgSO 3 b) magnesium sulfate
    • MgSO 4 c) sodium carbonate
    • 2 . Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 a) calcium carbonate
    • CaCO 3 b) calcium phosphate
    • Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 c) calcium bicarbonate
  • 25. Mixed Practice!
    • Name the following:
    • Na 2 O
    • CaCO 3
    • PbS 2
    • Sn 3 N 2
    • Cu 3 PO 4
    • HgF 2
  • 26. Mixed Up… The Other Way
    • Write the formula:
    • Copper (II) chlorate
    • Calcium nitride
    • Aluminum carbonate
    • Potassium bromide
    • Barium fluoride
    • Cesium hydroxide
  • 27. Naming Molecular Compounds CH 4 methane BCl 3 boron trichloride CO 2 Carbon dioxide All are formed from two or more nonmetals. Ionic compounds generally involve a metal and nonmetal (NaCl)
  • 28. Molecular (Covalent) Nomenclature for two non metals
    • Prefix System (binary compounds)
      • 1. Less electronegative atom comes first.
      • 2. Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on the FIRST element. Mono- is OPTIONAL on the SECOND element (in this class, it’s NOT optional!).
      • 3. Change the ending of the second element to -ide .
  • 29.
    • PREFIX
    • mono-
    • di-
    • tri-
    • tetra-
    • penta-
    • hexa-
    • hepta-
    • octa-
    • nona-
    • deca-
    • NUMBER
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
    Molecular Nomenclature Prefixes
  • 30. Molecular Nomenclature: Examples
    • CCl 4
    • N 2 O
    • SF 6
      • carbon tetrachloride
      • dinitrogen monoxide
      • sulfur hexafluoride
  • 31. More Molecular Examples
    • arsenic trichloride
    • dinitrogen pentoxide
    • tetraphosphorus decoxide
      • AsCl 3
      • N 2 O 5
      • P 4 O 10
  • 32. Learning Check
    • Fill in the blanks to complete the following names of covalent compounds.
    • CO carbon ______oxide
    • CO 2 carbon _______________
    • PCl 3 phosphorus _______chloride
    • CCl 4 carbon ________chloride
    • N 2 O _____nitrogen _____oxide
  • 33. Learning Check
    • 1. P 2 O 5 a) phosphorus oxide
    • b) phosphorus pentoxide
    • c) diphosphorus pentoxide
    • 2. Cl 2 O 7 a) dichlorine heptoxide
    • b) dichlorine oxide
    • c) chlorine heptoxide
    • 3. Cl 2 a) chlorine
    • b) dichlorine
    • c) dichloride
  • 34. Mixed Review
    • Name the following compounds:
    • 1. CaO
    • a) calcium oxide b) calcium(I) oxide c) calcium (II) oxide
    • 2. SnCl 4
    • a) tin tetrachloride b) tin(II) chloride
    • c) tin(IV) chloride
    • 3. N 2 O 3
    • a) nitrogen oxide b) dinitrogen trioxide
    • c) nitrogen trioxide
  • 35. Solution
    • Name the following compounds:
    • 1. CaO
    • 2. SnCl 4
    • 3. N 2 O 3
    a) calcium oxide c) tin(IV) chloride b) Dinitrogen trioxide
  • 36. Mixed Practice
    • Dinitrogen monoxide
    • Potassium sulfide
    • Copper (II) nitrate
    • Dichlorine heptoxide
    • Chromium (III) sulfate
    • Iron (III) sulfite
    • Calcium oxide
    • Barium carbonate
    • Iodine monochloride
  • 37. Mixed Practice
    • BaI 2
    • P 4 S 3
    • Ca(OH) 2
    • FeCO 3
    • Na 2 Cr 2 O 7
    • I 2 O 5
    • Cu(ClO 4 ) 2
    • CS 2
    • B 2 Cl 4
  • 38. Acid Nomenclature
    • Acids
      • Compounds that form H + in water.
      • Formulas usually begin with ‘H’.
    • Examples:
      • HCl (aq) – hydrochloric acid
      • HNO 3 – nitric acid
      • H 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acid
  • 39. Acid Nomenclature Review No Oxygen  w/Oxygen
  • 40. Acid Nomenclature Flowchart
  • 41. Acid Nomenclature
    • HBr (aq)
    • H 2 CO 3
    • H 2 SO 3
      • 2 elements, - ide
      • 3 elements, -ate
      • 3 elements, -ite
     hydro bromic acid  carbon ic acid  sulfur ous acid
  • 42. Acid Nomenclature
    • hydrofluoric acid
    • sulfuric acid
    • nitrous acid
      • 2 elements
      • 3 elements, -ic
      • 3 elements, -ous
     HF (aq)  H 2 SO 4  HNO 2  H + F-  H + SO 4 2-  H + NO 2 -
  • 43. Name ‘Em!
    • HI (aq)
    • HCl
    • H 2 SO 3
    • HNO 3
    • HIO 4
  • 44. Write the Formula!
    • Hydrobromic acid
    • Nitrous acid
    • Carbonic acid
    • Phosphoric acid
    • Hydrotelluric acid
  • 45. Now it’s Study Time DONE