Atoms and isotopes

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Atoms and isotopes

  1. 1. <ul><li>The Atom: </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Number , Mass Number </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  2. 2. Atomic Theory <ul><li>Atoms are building blocks of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Similar atoms in each element </li></ul><ul><li>Different from atoms of other elements </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more different atoms bond in simple ratios to form compounds </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  3. 3. Subatomic Particles <ul><li>Particle Symbol Charge Relative </li></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Electron e - 1- 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Proton p + 1+ 1amu </li></ul><ul><li>Neutron n 0 1amu </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  4. 4. Location of Subatomic Particles <ul><li> 10 -13 cm </li></ul><ul><li>electrons </li></ul><ul><li> protons </li></ul><ul><li> neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>10 -8 cm </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake nucleus
  5. 5. Atomic Number (Z) <ul><li>Counts the number </li></ul><ul><li>of </li></ul><ul><li>protons </li></ul><ul><li>in an atom </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  6. 6. Atomic Number on the Periodic Table <ul><li>11 </li></ul><ul><li>Na </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake Atomic Number Symbol
  7. 7. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons <ul><li>11 </li></ul><ul><li>Na </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake 11 protons Sodium
  8. 8. Learning Check AT 1 <ul><li>State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14 protons </li></ul><ul><li>B. Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons 3) 6 protons </li></ul><ul><li>C. Barium </li></ul><ul><li>1) 137 protons 2) 81 protons 3) 56 protons </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  9. 9. Solution AT 1 <ul><li>State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li> 2) 7 protons </li></ul><ul><li>B. Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>2) 16 protons </li></ul><ul><li>C. Barium </li></ul><ul><li>3) 56 protons </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  10. 10. Number of Electrons <ul><li>An atom is neutral </li></ul><ul><li>The net charge is zero </li></ul><ul><li>Number of protons = Number of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic number = Number of electrons </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  11. 11. Mass Number (A) <ul><li>Counts the number </li></ul><ul><li>of </li></ul><ul><li>protons and neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>in an atom </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  12. 12. Atomic Symbols <ul><li>Show the mass number and atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>Give the symbol of the element </li></ul><ul><li>mass number </li></ul><ul><li> 23 Na sodium-23 </li></ul><ul><li>atomic number 11 </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  13. 13. More Atomic Symbols <ul><li>16 31 65 </li></ul><ul><li>O P Zn </li></ul><ul><li>8 15 30 </li></ul><ul><li>8 p + 15 p + 30 p + </li></ul><ul><li>8 n 16 n 35 n </li></ul><ul><li>8 e - 15 e - 30 e - </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  14. 14. Isotopes <ul><li>Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different mass numbers </li></ul><ul><li> Isotopes of chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>35 Cl 37 Cl </li></ul><ul><li>17 17 </li></ul><ul><li> chlorine - 35 chlorine - 37 </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  15. 15. Learning Check AT 2 <ul><li>Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms . </li></ul><ul><li>12 C 13 C 14 C </li></ul><ul><li> 6 6 6 </li></ul><ul><li>#P _______ _______ _______ </li></ul><ul><li>#N _______ _______ _______ </li></ul><ul><li>#E _______ _______ _______ </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  16. 16. Solution AT 2 <ul><li>12 C 13 C 14 C </li></ul><ul><li> 6 6 6 </li></ul><ul><li>#P __6___ _ 6___ ___ 6 ___ </li></ul><ul><li>#N __ 6 ___ _ _ 7 ___ ___ 8 ___ </li></ul><ul><li>#E __6___ _ 6___ ___ 6 ___ </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  17. 17. Learning Check AT 3 <ul><li>An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65. </li></ul><ul><li> A. Number of protons in the zinc atom </li></ul><ul><li> 1) 30 2) 35 3) 65 </li></ul><ul><li>B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom </li></ul><ul><li> 1) 30 2) 35 3) 65 </li></ul><ul><li>C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope </li></ul><ul><li>with 37 neutrons? </li></ul><ul><li> 1) 37 2) 65 3) 67 </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  18. 18. Solution AT 3 <ul><li>An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65. </li></ul><ul><li> A. Number of protons in the zinc atom </li></ul><ul><li> 1) 30 </li></ul><ul><li>B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom </li></ul><ul><li>2) 35 </li></ul><ul><li>C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope </li></ul><ul><li>with 37 neutrons? </li></ul><ul><li>3) 67 </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  19. 19. Learning Check AT 4 <ul><li>Write the atomic symbols for atoms with the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A. 8 p + , 8 n, 8 e - ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>B. 17p + , 20n, 17e - ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>C. 47p + , 60 n, 47 e - ___________ </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  20. 20. Solution AT 4 <ul><li>16 O </li></ul><ul><li>A. 8 p + , 8 n, 8 e - 8 </li></ul><ul><li>B. 17p + , 20n, 17e - 37 Cl </li></ul><ul><li> 17 </li></ul><ul><li>C. 47p + , 60 n, 47 e - 107 Ag </li></ul><ul><li> 47 </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  21. 21. Learning Check AT 5 <ul><li>An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Its atomic number is </li></ul><ul><li>1) 14 2) 16 3) 34 </li></ul><ul><li>B. Its mass number is </li></ul><ul><li>1) 14 2) 16 3) 34 </li></ul><ul><li>C. The element is </li></ul><ul><li>1) Si 2) Ca 3) Se </li></ul><ul><li>D. Another isotope of this element is </li></ul><ul><li>1) 34 X 2) 34 X 3) 36 X </li></ul><ul><li>16 14 14 </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  22. 22. Solution AT 5 <ul><li>An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>A. It has atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>1) 14 </li></ul><ul><li>B. It has a mass number of </li></ul><ul><li>3) 34 </li></ul><ul><li>C. The element is </li></ul><ul><li>1) Si </li></ul><ul><li>D. Another isotope of this element would be </li></ul><ul><li>3) 36 X </li></ul><ul><li> 14 </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  23. 23. Masses of Atoms <ul><li>A scale designed for atoms gives their small atomic masses in atomic mass units (amu) </li></ul><ul><li>An atom of 12 C was assigned an exact mass of 12.00 amu </li></ul><ul><li>Relative masses of all other atoms was determined by comparing each to the mass of 12 C </li></ul><ul><li>An atom twice as heavy has a mass of 24.00 amu. An atom half as heavy is 6.00 amu. </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  24. 24. Atomic Mass <ul><li>Listed on the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the mass of “average” atom of each element compared to 12 C </li></ul><ul><li>Average atom based on all the isotopes and their abundance % </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass is not a whole number </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake Na 22.99
  25. 25. Learning Check AT6 <ul><li>Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element (round to the tenths place): </li></ul><ul><li>A. calcium __________ </li></ul><ul><li>B. aluminum __________ </li></ul><ul><li>C. lead __________ </li></ul><ul><li>D. barium __________ </li></ul><ul><li>E. iron __________ </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  26. 26. Solution AT6 <ul><li>Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element (round to the tenths place): </li></ul><ul><li>A. calcium _40.1 amu _ </li></ul><ul><li>B. aluminum _27.0 amu _ </li></ul><ul><li>C. lead _ 207.2 amu _ </li></ul><ul><li>D. barium _137.3 amu_ </li></ul><ul><li>E. iron _55.8 amu__ </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake
  27. 27. Atomic Mass of Magnesium <ul><li>Isotopes Mass of Isotope Abundance </li></ul><ul><li>24 Mg = 24.0 amu 78.70% </li></ul><ul><li>25 Mg = 25.0 amu 10.13% </li></ul><ul><li>26 Mg = 26.0 amu 11.17% </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass (average mass) Mg = 24.3 amu </li></ul>LecturePLUS Timberlake Mg 24.3

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