Manitoba From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Manitoba (disambiguation). Manitoba Flag Coat of arms Motto: Latin: Gloriosus et Liber ("Glorious and free") Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Largest metro Winnipeg English, French (de facto), (de Official languages jure) Demonym Manitoban GovernmentLieutenant-Governor John HarvardPremier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal in Canadian Parliament representationHouse seats 14Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area Ranked 8th
Total 647,797 km2 (250,116 sq mi)Land 553,556 km2 (213,729 sq mi) 94,241 km2 (36,387 sq mi)Water (%) (14.5%) Population Ranked 5thTotal (2008) 1,207,959 (est.)Density 2.14 /km² (5.5 /sq mi) GDP Ranked 6thTotal (2006) C$44,757 millionPer capita C$38,001 (8th) AbbreviationsPostal MBISO 3166-2 CA-MB Time zone UTC-6, (DST -5) Postal code prefix R Flower Prairie Crocus Tree White Spruce Bird Great Grey Owl Website www.gov.mb.caRankings include all provinces and territories Manitoba (IPA: /ˌmæ.nɨˈ.to.bə/, pronunciation (help·info)) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 647,797 square kilometres (250,116 sq mi) and a population of 1,207,959 (according to 2008 estimates), with roughly 60% living within the Winnipeg Capital Region (population of 730,305). Manitobas largest and capital city, Winnipeg is also Western Canadas 4th largest CMA, and has Canadas 7th largest municipality. Other major cities, in order of size, are Brandon, Thompson, Portage la Prairie, Steinbach, Selkirk, and Winkler. Manitoba entered Confederation on July 15, 1870; and its provincial flower is the Prairie Crocus, its provincial bird is the Great Grey Owl, and its provincial tree is the White Spruce. Contents [hide] • 1 Geography o 1.1 Climate • 2 History o 2.1 First Nations o 2.2 Ruperts Land o 2.3 Confederation
o 2.4 20th century • 3 Demographics o 3.1 Religion • 4 Transportation • 5 Economy o 5.1 Historic economy o 5.2 Economy • 6 Government o 6.1 Official languages • 7 Municipalities • 8 Professional sports teams • 9 Military • 10 See also • 11 Notes • 12 References • 13 External links  Geography Main articles: Geography of Manitoba and List of Manitoba parksManitoba is located in Western Canada and borders Saskatchewan to the west, Ontario tothe east, Nunavut and Hudson Bay to the north, and the U.S. states of North Dakota andMinnesota to the south.The province has a large coastline bordering Hudson Bay and contains the tenth-largestfresh-water lake in the world, Lake Winnipeg, along with two other large lakes: LakeManitoba and Lake Winnipegosis. Manitobas lakes cover approximately 14.5% or94,241 km2 of its surface area. Lake Winnipeg is the largest lake within the borders ofsouthern Canada, and the east side has some of the last remote and intact watersheds leftin the world. The large rivers that flow into the east side of Lake Winnipegs basin arepristine, with no major developments along them. Many uninhabited islands can be foundalong the eastern shore of this lake. There are over 110,000 lakes spread throughout theprovince.Important watercourses include the Red, Assiniboine, Nelson, Winnipeg, Hayes,Whiteshell and Churchill Rivers. Fishing along the Red River is an important part fortourism and the economy of Manitoba. Most of Manitobas inhabited south lies within theprehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz, or the Red River Valley. The Red River Valleyregion is extremely flat because it was once the lake bottom of the ancient Lake Agassiz,which once covered the large area. However, there are many other hilly and rocky areasthroughout province, along with many large sand ridges left behind by receding glaciers.
Relief of ManitobaBaldy Mountain is the highest point at 832 m above sea level (2,727 ft) and the HudsonBay coast is the lowest at sea level. Other upland areas include Riding Mountain, thePembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, and the Canadian Shield regions. Much ofthe provinces sparsely-inhabited north and east lie within the irregular granite landscapeof the Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell Provincial Park, Atikaki Provincial Park,and Nopiming Provincial Park. Birds Hill Provincial Park was originally an island inLake Agassiz after the melting of glaciers.Extensive agriculture is only found in the southern half of the province, although there issome grain farming found in the Carrot Valley Region (near the The Pas). The mostcommon type of farm found in rural areas is cattle farming (34.6%), followed by othergrains (19.0%) and oilseed (7.9%). Manitoba is the nations largest producer ofsunflower seed and dry beans; and one of the leading potato producers. Altona is the"sunflower capitol of Canada". Around 12% of Canadian farmland is in Manitoba.The eastern, southeastern, and northern reaches of the province range through borealconiferous forests, muskeg, Canadian Shield and a small section of tundra borderingHudson Bay. Forests make up about 263,000 square kilometres (or 48%) of theprovinces 548,000 square kilometre land area. The forests generally consist of pines(mostly jack pine, some red pine), spruces (white, black), larch, poplars (trembling aspen,balsam poplar), birch (white, swamp) and small pockets of Eastern White Cedar. Thegreat expanses of intact forested areas are considered by many naturalists, hikers, andhunters as pristine wilderness areas. Some of the last largest and intact boreal forest of theworld can be found along the east side of Lake Winnipeg, with only winter roads, nohydroelectric development, no mines, and few communities. There are many clean anduntouched rivers, many that originate from the Canadian Shield in neighbouring Ontario.These pristine and intact areas have only been used as native fishing, hunting, andgathering grounds for thousands of years. Some traditional land use areas of the east side
of Lake Winnipeg are now a proposed United Nations Heritage Site that is approved bythe First Nation communities of those particular traditional lands. Climate Main article: Climate of ManitobaBecause of its location in the centre of the North American continent, Manitoba has avery extreme climate. In general, temperatures and precipitation decrease from south tonorth, and precipitation also decreases from east to west. Since Manitoba is far removedfrom the moderating influences of both mountain ranges and large bodies of water, andbecause of the generally flat landscape in many areas, it is exposed to numerous weathersystems throughout the year, including cold Arctic high-pressure air masses settle in fromthe north west, usually during the months of January and February. In the summer, the airmasses often come out of the southern United States, as the stronger Bermuda HighPressure ridges into the North American continent, the more warm, humid air is drawnnorthward from the Gulf of Mexico, generally during the months of July or August.Manitoba is also a very sunny province; according to Environment Canada, Manitobaranked first for clearest skies year round. Manitoba also ranked second for most clearskies in the summer and sunniest province in the winter and spring. Portage la Prairiehas the most sunny days in warm months in Canada; and Winnipeg has the secondclearest skies year-round and is the second sunniest city in Canada in the spring andwinter. Southern Manitoba has a fairly long frost-free season, consisting of between120 and 140 days in the Red River Valley. This decreases to the northeast. SouthernManitoba is also prone to high humidity in the summer months with the extreme of 53.0°C (127.4 °F) in Carman, Manitoba, which set the highest humidex recorded in Canada.There are three main climatic regions.Canadas first Fujita Scale F5 tornado approaching Elie.The northern sections of the province (including the city of Thompson) falls in thesubarctic climate zone (Koppen Dfc). This region features long and extremely coldwinters with brief, warm summers with relatively little precipitation. It is common tohave overnight lows as low as −40 °C (−40 °F) several days each winter, and have a fewweeks that remain below −18 °C (0 °F).
The central section of the province (including the city of Dauphin), has more of aContinental climate type to the west and more of a boreal climate type to the east nearLittle Grand Rapids.The southwestern corner (Including the city of Brandon) has a semi-arid mid-latitudesteppe climate (Koppen climate classification BSk). The region is somewhat drier thanother parts of southern Manitoba and very drought-prone. It is very cold and windy in thewinter and is the region most prone to blizzards in the winter because of the openness ofthe landscape. Summers are generally warm to hot, with low to moderate humidity.The remainder of southern Manitoba (including the city of Winnipeg), falls into thehumid continental climate zone (Koppen Dfb). Temperatures here are very similar to thesemi-arid climate zone, but this region is the most humid area in the Prairie Provinceswith moderate precipitation.Southern parts of the province, located just north of Tornado Alley, experience a fewtornadoes each year, with 15 confirmed touchdowns in 2006. In 2007, on June 22 andJune 23, numerous tornadoes touched down, including an F5 Tornado that devastatedparts of Elie (that being the strongest officially recorded tornado in Canada), and an F4tornado that was captured on video, near Pipestone. Temperatures exceed 30 °C (86°F) numerous times each summer, and the combination of heat and humidity can bringthe humidex value to the mid-40s(C), (mid- 100s(F)), and the dewpoint to the upper20s. History Main article: History of Manitoba First NationsThe geographical area now named Manitoba was inhabited shortly after the last ice ageglaciers retreated in the southwest. The first exposed land was the Turtle Mountain area,where large numbers of petroforms and medicine wheels can be found.The first human habitants of southern Manitoba left behind pottery shards, spear andarrow heads, copper, petroforms, pictographs, fish and animal bones, and signs ofagriculture along the Red River near Lockport. Eventually there were the aboriginalsettlements of Ojibwa, Cree, Dene, Sioux, Mandan, and Assiniboine peoples, along withother tribes that entered the area to trade. There were many land trails made as a part of alarger native trading network on both land and water. The Whiteshell Provincial Parkregion along the Winnipeg River has many old petroforms and may have been a tradingcentre, or even a place of learning and sharing of knowledge for over 2,000 years. Thecowry shells and copper found in this area are proof of what was traded as a part of alarge trading network to the oceans, and to the larger southern native civilizations alongthe Mississippi River and in the south and southwest.
In Northern Manitoba some areas were mined for quartz to make arrowheads. The firstfarming in Manitoba appeared to be along the Red River, near Lockport, where corn andother seed crops were planted before contact with Europeans. For thousands of yearsthere have been humans living in this region, and there are many archaeological cluesabout their ways of life. Ongoing research will be needed to uncover more artifacts androck art to lend to a more detailed understanding of past peoples and cultures inManitoba. Ruperts LandIn 1611, Henry Hudson was one of the first Europeans to sail into what is now known asHudson Bay. In 1619, explorer Jens Munk in search of the Northwest Passage, winteredon the Churchill River. Most of his crew died and only three, including himself, made thereturn trip back in July of that year. The Nonsuch ship that sailed into Hudson Bay in1668-1669 was the first trading voyage to reach the area; it led to the formation of theHudsons Bay Company. The Hudsons Bay Company was given the fur trading rights tothe entire Hudson Bay watershed, covering land in what is now Alberta, Saskatchewan,Manitoba, Ontario, Minnesota, North Dakota, and more. This watershed was namedRuperts Land, after Prince Rupert who helped to form the Hudsons Bay Company. YorkFactory was founded in 1684 after the original main fort of the Hudsons Bay Company,Fort Nelson—built in 1682—was destroyed by France two years later. Other traders andexplorers from Europe eventually came to the Hudson Bay shores and went southalong the northern Manitoba rivers. The first European to reach present-day central andsouthern Manitoba was Sir Thomas Button, who travelled upstream along the NelsonRiver and Lake Winnipeg in 1612 and may have reached somewhere along the edge ofthe prairies, where he reported seeing a bison. In 1690 to 1691, Henry Kelsey is the firstEuropean fur trader known to have seen the prairie grasslands, the great buffalo herds, thegrizzly bears, and the many Plains tribes. Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de laVérendrye, visited the Red River Valley in the 1730s to help open the area for Frenchexploration and the fur trade. Many other French and Métis explorers came from the eastand south by going down the Winnipeg River and the Red River. An important French-Canadian population (Franco-Manitobains) still lives in Manitoba, especially in theSaint-Boniface district of eastern Winnipeg. Fur trading forts were built by both theNorth West Company and the Hudsons Bay Company along the many rivers and lakes,and there was often fierce competition between the two in more southern areas. Theterritory was won by Great Britain in 1763 as part of the French and Indian War.There are a few possible sources for the name "Manitoba". The more likely is that itcomes from Cree or Ojibwe and means "strait of the Manitou (spirit)". It may also befrom the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie".Most rivers and water in Manitoba eventually flow north and empty into Hudson Bay.The Hudsons Bay Archives is located in Winnipeg and preserves the rich history of thefur trading era that occurred along the major water routes of the Ruperts Land area.
The founding of the first agricultural community and settlements in 1812 by LordSelkirk, north of the area which is now downtown Winnipeg, resulted in conflict betweenthe British colonists and the Métis who lived and traded near there. Twenty colonists,including the governor, were killed by the Métis in the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816, inwhich the settlers fired the first shots. There was also one Métis man killed. Many furtrading forts were also attacked during this period. ConfederationWhen Ruperts Land was ceded to Canada in 1869 and incorporated into the NorthwestTerritories, a lack of attention to Métis concerns led their elected leader Louis Riel toestablish a provisional government as part of The Red River Rebellion. Negotiationsbetween the provisional government and the Canadian government resulted in thecreation of the Province of Manitoba and its entry into Confederation in 1870. However,Louis Riel was pursued by Garnet Wolseley because of the rebellion, and he fled intoexile. The Métis were blocked by the Canadian government in their attempts to obtainland promised to them as part of Manitobas entry into confederation. Facing racism fromthe new flood of white settlers from Ontario, large numbers of Métis moved to whatwould become Saskatchewan and Alberta.Originally, the province of Manitoba was only 1/18 of its current size and was square inshape—it was known as the "postage stamp province". It grew progressively, absorbingland from the Northwest Territories until it attained its current size by reaching 60°N in1912. The creation of Manitoba out of the Northwest Territories was quick because of thesettlements in the Red River area by the Métis and the Lord Selkirk settlers. The RedRiver colony and Fort Garry area were the only colony in the west, and the Métis set up aprovisional republic government prior to joining with Canada. Saskatchewan and Albertawent through a longer period as part of the Northwest Territories until their creation asprovinces in 1905.The decision to make Manitoba a full-fledged province in 1870 resulted from threeinfluences: • A misunderstanding on the part of the Canadian authorities. • The formation of a provisional government of the Métis by Louis Riel.
• Fears of manifest destiny sentiments in the United States, ignoring American denials of any such goals.Initially, the subject of provincial status did not come up during the negotiations betweenCanada, the United Kingdom and the Hudsons Bay Company. It was assumed thatterritorial status was granted in the Act for the Temporary Government of Ruperts Landin 1869. Louis Riel first introduced the subject of provincial status to the Committee ofForty appointed by the citizens of Red River in 1870. Riels proposal to Donald Smith,emissary for the government of Canada, was rejected by the government of John A.Macdonald. The list of demands from Riel did goad the government of Canada intoacting on a proposal of its own regarding Red Rivers status. John A. Macdonaldintroduced the Manitoba Act in the Canadian House of Commons and pretended that thequestion of province or territory was of no significance. The bill was given royal assentand Manitoba joined Canada as a province.It was a significant leap of faith imposing responsible government on Manitoba in 1870without any adjustment period. It went against all conventional wisdom of the time.However, Macdonalds misunderstanding of territorial versus provincial status, the rise ofthe Métis people and the burgeoning growth of the United States all compelled him to actin a nation-building initiative. In the years that followed, much like the years thatpreceded, Manitoba went through many upheavals. However, parliamentary governmentand the Province that was created in 1870 prevailed.Numbered Treaties were signed in the late 19th century with the chiefs of various FirstNations that lived in the area. These treaties made quite specific promises of land forevery family. This led to a reserve system under the jurisdicion of the FederalGovernment. There are still land claim issues because the proper amount of landpromised to the native peoples was not always given.The Manitoba Schools Question showed the deep divergence of cultural values in theterritory. The French had been guaranteed a state-supported separate school system in theoriginal constitution of Manitoba, but a grassroots political movement among Protestantsin 1888-90 demanded the end of French schools. In 1890, the Manitoba legislature passeda law abolishing French as an official language of the province and removing funding forCatholic schools. The French Catholic minority asked the federal Government forsupport; however, the Orange Order and other anti-Catholic forces mobilized nationwide.The Conservatives proposed remedial legislation to override Manitobas legislation, butthey in turn were blocked by Liberals, led by Wilfrid Laurier, who opposed the remediallegislation on the basis of provincial rights. Once elected Prime Minister in 1896, Laurierproposed a compromise stating that Catholics in Manitoba could have Catholic teachingfor 30 minutes at the end of the day if there were enough students to warrant it, on aschool-by-school basis. Tensions over language remained high in Manitoba (andnationwide) for decades to come. 20th century
Winnipeg was the 4th largest city in Canada by the early 20th century. A boomtown, itgrew quickly around the turn of the century. There were a lot of outside investors,immigrants and railways. Many old mansions and estates attest to Winnipegs growingwealthy class. When the Manitoba Legislature was built, it was expected that Manitobawould have a population of 3 million quite soon. Around the beginning of World War I,the quickly growing city began to cool down as large amounts of money were no longerinvested to the same degree as before the war. Winnipeg eventually fell behind in growthwhen other major cities in Canada began to boom ahead, such as Calgary today.Crowd gathered outside old City Hall during the Winnipeg General Strike, June 21, 1919.In the 1917 election in the midst of the conscription crisis, the Liberals were split in halfand the new Union party carried all but one seat. As the war ended severe discontentamong farmers (over wheat prices) and union members (over wage rates) resulted in anupsurge of radicalism. With Bolshevism coming to power in Russia, conservatives wereanxious and radicals were energized. The most dramatic episode was the WinnipegGeneral Strike of 1919 which shut down most activity for six weeks. It began May 15and continued until the strike collapsed on June 25, 1919; the workers were graduallyreturning to their jobs, and the Central Strike Committee decided to end the strike.Government efforts to violently crush the strike, including a charge into a crowd ofstrikers by the Royal Northwest Mounted Police that resulted in 30 casualties and onedeath and the arrest of the strike leaders, contributed to this decision. As historianWilliam Morton explained: The strike, then, began with two immediate aims and two subsidiary but“ increasingly important aspects. One aim was the redress of legitimate ” grievances with respect to wages and collective bargaining; the other was the trial of a new instrument of economic action, the general strike, the purpose of which was to put pressure on the employers involved in the dispute through the general public. The first subsidiary aspect was that the general strike, however, might be a prelude to the seizure of power in the community by Labour, and both the utterances and the policies of the O.B.U. leaders pointed in that direction. The second subsidiary aspect was that, as a struggle for leadership in the Labour movement was being waged as the strike began, it was not made clear which object, the legitimate and limited one, or the revolutionary and general one, was the true purpose of the strike. It is now
apparent that the majority of both strikers and strike leaders were concerned only to win the strike. The general public at large, however, subjected to the sudden coercion of the general strike, was only too likely to decide that a revolutionary seizure of power was in view. [Morton 365-6]More recently, many historians have disagreed with Mortons interpretation of the strikeand have written considerably different histories of it.In the aftermath of the strike eight leaders went on trial, and most were convicted oncharges of seditious conspiracy, illegal combinations, and seditious libel; four were alienswho were deported under the Immigration Act. Labor was weakened and divided as aresult. Farmers, meanwhile, were patiently organizing the United Farmers of Manitoba,with plans to contest the 1920 provincial elections. The result was that no party held amajority. The Farmers, running against politics as usual, won in 1922, with 30 seats,against 7 returning Liberals, 6 Conservatives, 6 Labour, and 8 Independents.Since 1969, the New Democratic Party (NDP) has been the most successful provincialpolitical party, winning seven of the eleven elections during this period. Demographics Main article: Demographics of ManitobaAccording to the 2001 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Manitoba isEnglish (22.1%), followed by German (18.2%), Scottish (17.7%), Ukrainian (14.3%),Irish (13.0%), First Nations (9.9%), Polish (6.7%), Métis (5.2%), French (5.1%) Dutch(4.7%) and Icelandic (2.0%) - although almost a quarter of all respondents also identifiedtheir ethnicity as "Canadian".Population of Manitoba since 1871 Five Year Ten Year Rank AmongYear Population % change % change Provinces1871 25,228 n/a n/a 81881 62,260 n/a 146.8 61891 152,506 n/a 145 51901 255,211 n/a 67.3 51911 461,394 n/a 80.8 51921 610,118 n/a 32.2 41931 700,139 n/a 14.8 51941 729,744 n/a 4.2 61951 776,541 n/a 6.4 61956 850,040 9.5 n/a 6
1961 921,686 8.4 18.7 61966 963,066 4.5 13.3 51971 988,245 2.3 7.2 51976 1,021,505 3.4 6.1 51981 1,026,241 0.4 3.8 51986 1,063,015 3.6 4.1 51991 1,091,942 2.7 6.4 51996 1,113,898 2.0 4.8 52001 1,119,583 0.5 2.5 52006* 1,177,765 5.2 5.7 5*Preliminary 2006 census estimate. Source: Statistics CanadaManitoba holds the distinction of being the only Canadian Province or Territory withover 60% of its population located in a single city (Winnipeg). ReligionThe largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were theRoman Catholic Church with 292,970 (27%); the United Church of Canada with 176,820(16%); and the Anglican Church of Canada with 85,890 (8%). Transportation See also: List of bridges in Canada and List of Manitoba provincial highwaysTransportation and warehousing contributes approximately $2.2 billion to Manitoba’sGDP. Total employment in the industry is estimated at 34,500. Manitoba has a rail, air,road and marine component to its transportation industry.The Trans-Canada Highway built between 1950 and 1971 crosses the province from eastto west. Trucks haul 95% of all land freight in Manitoba, and trucking companies accountfor 80% of Manitobas merchandise trade to the United States. Five of Canadas twenty-five largest employers in for-hire trucking are headquartered in Manitoba, and three ofCanadas 10 largest employers in the for-hire trucking industry are headquartered inWinnipeg. $1.18 billion of Manitobas GDP directly or indirectly comes from trucking.Around 5% or 33,000 people work in the trucking industry. Domestic and internationalbus service from the Winnipeg Bus Terminal is offered by Greyhound Canada andJefferson Lines.Manitoba has two Class I railways. They are CN and Canadian Pacific Railway.Winnipeg is centrally located on the main lines of both of these continental carriers, andboth companies maintain large intermodal terminals in the city. CN and CP operate a
combined 2,439 kilometres of track within Manitoba. Via Rail Canada offerstranscontenial and northern Manitoba passenger service from Winnipegs Union Station.The first railway through Manitoba was the CP Railway, and the tracks were divertedsouth to make Winnipeg as the capital and centre, and not Selkirk, which is locatedfurther north.Numerous small regional and shortline railways exist in the province. They are theHudson Bay Railway, the Southern Manitoba Railway, Burlington Northern Santa FeManitoba, Greater Winnipeg Water District Railway, and Central Manitoba Railway.Together, they operate approximately 1,775 kilometres of track within the province.Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport is one of only a few 24-hour unrestricted airports in Canada and is part of the National Airports System. It has abroad range of passenger and cargo services and served over 3.5 million people in 2007which is over the maxium capacity of 600,000 the current terminal was to handle. Theairport handles approximately 140,000 tonnes of cargo annually which makes it the 3rdlargest in the country. Currently the airport is going under major redevelopment, with anew terminal (phase 1), parkade (already built), and luxury hotel. The new bus terminaland Canada Post plant which are moving from downtown will be located at the airportcampus.Eleven regional passenger carriers and nine smaller/charter carriers operate out of theairport, as well as 11 air cargo carriers and 7 freight forwarders. Winnipeg is a majorsorting facility for both FedEx and Purolator. It also receives daily transborder servicefrom UPS. Air Canada Cargo and Cargojet Airways use the airport as a major hub fornational traffic.The Port of Churchill, owned by OmniTRAX, is Canadas main window to the Arcticocean, to Russia, and inland to China. The port of Churchill is nautically closer to ports inNorthern Europe and Russia than any other port in Canada. The port is the only Arcticdeep water port in Canada and a part of the closest shipping route between NorthAmerica and Asia. It has 4 deep-sea berths for the loading and unloading of grain,general cargo and tanker vessels. The port is linked by the Hudson Bay Railway (alsoowned by OMNITRAX). Grain represented 90% of the port’s traffic in the 2004 shippingseason. In that year, over 600,000 tonnes of agricultural product was shipped through theport. Economy Historic economyManitobas early economy depended on mobility and living off of the land. ManyAboriginal Nations (including the Cree, Ojibwa, Dene, Sioux and Assiniboine) followedherds of bison and congregated to trade among themselves at key meeting placesthroughout the province.
The first fur traders entering the province in the 17th century changed the dynamics ofthe economy of Manitoba forever. For the first time, permanent settlements of forts werecreated and communities evolved over time. Most of the economy centred around thetrade of beaver pelts and other furs. Many native scouts and native maps were used tohelp the fur traders make their way through the region. Some of the best early maps weremade with the help of natives who knew the river routes within their traditional hometerritories. The natural rivers, creeks, and lakes were the most important routes for tradeand travel.The first major diversification of the economy came when Lord Selkirk brought the firstagricultural settlers to the area just north of present day Winnipeg in 1811. The lack ofreliable transportation and an ongoing dispute between the Hudsons Bay Company(HBC), the North West Company and the Métis impeded growth. The eventual triumphof the Hudsons Bay Company over its competitors ensured the primacy of the fur tradeover widespread agricultural colonization. Any trade not sanctioned by the Hudsons BayCompany was frowned upon. It took many years for the Red River Colony to developunder HBC rule. The Company invested little in infrastructure for the community. It wasonly when independent traders such as James Sinclair and Andrew McDermot (Dermott)started competing in trade that improvements to the community began.By 1849, the HBC faced even greater threats to its monopoly. A Métis fur trader namedPierre Guillaume Sayer was charged with illegal trading by the Hudsons Bay Company.Sayer had been trading with Norman Kittson who resided just beyond the HBCs reach inPembina, North Dakota. The court found Sayer guilty, but the judge levied no fine orpunishment.In 1853, a second agricultural community started in Portage la Prairie.The courts could no longer be used by the HBC to enforce its monopoly. The result was aweakening of HBC rule over the region and laid the foundations of provincehood forManitoba. EconomyManitobas economy relies heavily on tourism, energy, agriculture, oil, minerals, mining,forestry, and many more. Agriculture is vital to Manitobas economy and is only foundonly in the southern half of the province, although there is some grain farming found asfar north as The Pas. The most common type of farm found in rural areas is cattle farming(34.6%), followed by other grains (19.0%) and oilseed (7.9%). Manitoba is thenations largest producer of sunflower seed and dry beans; and one of the leading potatoproducers. Altona is the "sunflower capitol of Canada". Around 12% of Canadianfarmland is in Manitoba.Portage la Prairie is the North American potato processing capital. It is also home to theMcCain Foods and Simplot potato processing plants, which provide french fries forMcDonalds, Wendys, and various other commercialized restaurant chains. Can-Oat
milling, one of the largest oat mills in the world, is also located in the municipality.Churchills arctic wildlife plays an important part in Manitobas tourism industry, havingacquired the nicknames of "Polar bear capital of the world" and "Beluga capitol of theworld".Manitoba is the only Canadian Province with an Arctic deep water sea port, located inChurchill, along Hudson Bay. Manitobas sea port is the only link along the shortestshipping route between North America, Europe, and Asia. See also: List of companies based in Manitoba and List of hospitals in Manitoba Government Main articles: Politics of Manitoba and Monarchy in ManitobaLike all other provinces, Manitoba is governed by a unicameral legislature, theLegislative Assembly of Manitoba, which operates under the Westminster system ofgovernment. The executive branch is formed by the majority party and the party leader isthe Premier of Manitoba, the head of government. The head of state is represented by theLieutenant Governor of Manitoba, who is appointed by the Governor General of Canadaon advice of the Prime Minister of Canada. The head of state is mainly a ceremonial anda figurative role today.The legislative arm of the Government of Manitoba consists of the 57 Members electedto represent the people of Manitoba. The horseshoe arrangement of the members seatswithin the Chamber is unique in Canada.Manitobas primary political parties are the New Democratic Party of Manitoba, theProgressive Conservative Party of Manitoba and the Liberal Party of Manitoba.The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba was established on July 14, 1870. Originally, itwas named a Parliament and was later named a Legislature. Manitoba attained fullfledged rights and responsibilities of self-government as the first Canadian provincecarved out of the Northwest Territories, control over which had been passed by GreatBritain to the Government of Canada in 1869 because of the sale of Ruperts Land by theHudsons Bay Company.The current premier of Manitoba is Gary Doer of the NDP (New Democratic Party). Heis presently serving his third mandate with a majority government of 36 seats. TheProgressive Conservative Party holds 19 seats, and the Liberal Party (which does nothave official party status) has 2. The last election was held Tuesday, May 22, 2007. Official languagesEnglish and French are the official languages of the legislature and courts of Manitoba,according to the Manitoba Act, 1870 (which forms part of the Constitution of Canada):
Either the English or the French language may be used by any person in the“ debates of the Houses of the Legislature and both those languages shall be used in the respective Records and Journals of those Houses; and either of those languages may be used by any person, or in any Pleading or Process, in or issuing from any Court of Canada established under the Constitution Act, 1867, or in or from all or any of the Courts of the Province. The Acts of the Legislature shall be Printed and published in both those languages. ”However, with the rise to power of the English-only movement in Manitoba from 1890onwards, this provision was disregarded in practice and also by Manitoban legislation. InApril 1890, the Manitoba legislature introduced a measure to abolish the official status ofthe French language in the legislature, in the laws, in records and journals, as well as inthe Courts of Manitoba. Among other things, the Manitoban Legislature ceased to publishlegislation in French but did so in English only. However, in 1985 the Supreme Court ofCanada ruled in the Reference re Manitoba Language Rights that §23 still applied, andthat legislation published only in English was invalid (so that Manitoba did not descendinto a state of lawlessness, unilingual legislation was declared valid for a temporaryperiod, to give the government of Manitoba time to issue translations.)Although French is an official language for the purposes of the legislature, legislation,and the courts, the Manitoba Act (as interpreted by the Supreme Court of Canada) doesnot require it to be an official language for the purpose of the executive branch ofgovernment (except when the executive branch is performing legislative or judicialfunctions.) Hence, Manitobas government is not completely bilingual, and as reflectedin the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, the only completely bilingual province is NewBrunswick.The Manitoba French Language Services Policy of 1999 is intended to provide acomparable level of provincial government services in both official languages.Services to the public, including public utilities and health services, official documentssuch as parking tickets and court summonses, court and commission hearings, andgovernment web sites are accessible in both English and French. Municipalities See also: List of cities in Manitoba
Ten largest municipalities by population City 2006 2001 Winnipeg 675,483 626,956 Brandon 48,256 46,273 Thompson 13,446 13,256Portage la Prairie 12,773 13,019 Steinbach 11,066 9,227 Selkirk 9,553 9,772 Winkler 9,106 7,943 Dauphin 7,906 8,085 Morden 6,547 6,159 The Pas 5,765 6,030 Professional sports teams • Canadian Football League o Winnipeg Blue Bombers • American Hockey League o Manitoba Moose • Northern League (baseball) o Winnipeg Goldeyes
Former professional sports teams • National Hockey League/ World Hockey Association o Winnipeg Jets (moved to Phoenix, Arizona and are now the Phoenix Coyotes) • Northern League (baseball, 1902-71) o Winnipeg Maroons (defunct) o Winnipeg Whips 1970-1971 -Triple A Baseball/ Farm Team of Montreal Expos • World Basketball League / National Basketball League o Winnipeg Thunder (defunct) • International Basketball Association (1995-2001) o Winnipeg Cyclone (defunct) MilitaryCanadian Forces Base Winnipeg (CFB Winnipeg) is a Canadian Forces Base located inWinnipeg.Co-located at the Winnipeg International Airport, CFB Winnipeg is home to many flightoperations support divisions, as well as several training schools. It is also the 1 CanadianAir Division/Canadian NORAD Region Headquarters. The base is supported by over3,000 military personnel and civilian employees.17 Wing of the Canadian Forces is based in Winnipeg near the international airport. TheWing has three squadrons and six schools. It also provides support to the CentralFlying School.The Wing also supports 113 units stretching from Thunder Bay, to theSaskatchewan/Alberta border and from the 49th Parallel to the high Arctic. 17 Wing alsoacts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter-bombers assigned to theCanadian NORAD Region.Two squadrons based in the city are: • 402 “City of Winnipeg” Squadron. This squadron flies the Canadian designed and produced de Havilland Canada CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer in support of the Canadian Forces Air Navigation School’s Air Navigators and Airborne Electronic Sensor Operator training programs. • 435 “Chinthe” Transport and Rescue Squadron. This squadron flies the powerful Lockheed CC-130 Hercules tanker/transport in the airlift search and rescue roles. In addition, 435 Squadron is the only Air Force squadron equipped and trained to
conduct air-to-air refueling of fighter aircraft in support of operational and training activities at home and abroad. The CC-130 Hercules tanker is a key asset for the Canadian NORAD Region in its mission to defend Canada and the United States against aerial threats that originate outside or within North American airspace.For many years, Winnipeg was the home of The Second Battalion, Princess PatriciasCanadian Light Infantry, or 2 PPCLI. Initially, the battalion was based at the FortOsborne Barracks near present day Osborne Village. They eventually moved to theKapyong Barracks located in the River Heights/Tuxedo part of Winnipeg. Since 2004,the 550 men and women of the battalion have operated out of Canadian Forces BaseShilo near Brandon.The Royal Winnipeg Rifles and The Queens Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada areinfantry reserve units based at Minto Armouries in Winnipeg. The Fort Garry Horse isan armored reconnaissance and field engineer reserve unit based at McGregor Armouryin Winnipeg.Canadian Forces Base Shilo (or CFB Shilo) is an Operations and Training base of theCanadian Forces located 35 km east of Brandon, Manitoba. During the 1990s, CanadianForces Base Shilo was also designated as an Area Support Unit, which acts as a localbase of operations for south-west Manitoba in times of military and civil emergency.CFB Shilo is the home of the 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery , the 2ndBattalion, Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (2PPCLI)—both battalions of the 1Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group—as well as being the Home Station of the RoyalCanadian Artillery.In addition, CFB Shilo lodges training units such as the Western Area Training CentreDetachment Shilo and the Communications Reserve School.It also serves as a base for some support units of Land Force Western Area, including 731Signals Squadron. See also