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Effective learning structures presentation

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Effective Learning Structures

Effective Learning Structures

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  • 1. (The Taxonomy of Significant Learning. n.d.) (Using Course Structures, n.d.) Effective Learning Structures Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 2. Learning Structures (Habits of Mind, n.d.)  Addressing Student Learning Structures  How Does External Locus of Control Effect Learning Structures?  Do Teaching Styles Influence Learning Structures?  Does the Pygmalion Effect Influence Learning Habits?  Is Training Different from Education?  The Influence of External Stimulation!  How Can We Help Students Improve Learning Structure? ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 3. External & Internal Locus of Control External Locus of Control: Individuals conditioned by external locus of control characteristics relate the events and situations, success or failures to factors not related to them (Kutanİs, Mescİ & Övdür, 2011). Students conditioned with external locus of control characteristics view change as a danger. They believe they do not have control of the forces affecting their lives. They often are passive learners. They resist change as they justify decisions on external events (Kutanİs, Mescİ, & Övdür, 2011). Internal Locus of Control: Individuals with internal locus of control characteristics believe that they can monitor situations with their own fate. They have a strong belief in themselves and abilities (Kutanİs, Mescİ & Övdür, 2011). Students conditioned with internal locus of control characteristics believe in control over their fate. This prevents them from being suspicious of change since they feel responsible for their own actions (Kutanİs, Mescİ & Övdür, 2011). ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 4. External Locus of Control and Learning Structure  External locus of control conditioning often and unknowingly may control a student’s learning habits influenced by family or work demands.  This type of learner justifies learning habit decisions by external events.  These individuals are often conditioned with a task oriented approach to checked things off the list which includes learning.  They may not realize how conditional influence can affect learning.  They may accomplish tasks from a list approach without really engaging content to reconstruct understanding. They often approach learning with using a multitasking tactic. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 5. External Locus of Control and Learning Structure  Multitasking significantly reduces the capacity to engage the subject content for knowledge retention affecting learning outcome success.  Students may assume distance learning convenience provides a method for learning through effective multitasking.  Students significantly condition by multitasking are those that may be most influenced by external locus of control and instant gratification.  Implications of reactive external locus of control conditioning can have exacerbating influences on student learning success.  Students completing work through grade anticipation supported by culture conditioned consumerism and entitlement are often not engaged with learning subject content as learning takes a back seat to task completion. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 6. External Locus of Control and Learning Structure  Subjective course conditioning may result in students establishing patterns for how the course operates to get the best grade.  After two or three online courses have been completed, a student may assume that the involvement and engagement behavior is the same for all courses.  Students taking subjective learning courses which require reading a text and writing an essay become conditioned to approach every course in the same manner.  Students conditioned in this manner assume the method will work for all courses.  When the student enrolls in a performance based course that requires critical thinking and learning a process, they are often frustrated unaware of the need to change the approach. @Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB (Which is your Locus of Control?, n.d.)
  • 7. The Sage on the Stage Style and Learning Structure  Sage on the Stage:  The instructor is the central figure, the "sage on the stage”.  The instructor is the expert with subject knowledge.  Students may use memorization or attempt to understand information with limited interaction motivated by the extrinsic grade.  Students are challenged to demonstrate understanding through exams.  Students are passive learners rather than active ones.  How this Influences Learning Structure:  The instructor may not engage the student’s reality, forcing the student to depend on the instructor’s knowledge and expectations.  Students may not demonstrate adequately, resulting in undermined learning.  Does not motivate student changes to help the student improve learning structures.  Assumes students are prepared to understand the knowledge regardless of learning structure.  May not consider how students will use subject knowledge in the real world.  Assessments are based on the instructor’s understanding and expectation. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB (Conceptual Change, n.d.)
  • 8. The Guide on the Side and Learning Structure  Guide on the Side:  The instructor motivates students delivering content through active participation.  The instructor employs servant leadership guiding student self expectations.  Students reconstruct their understanding through engagement with prior knowledge.  Students demonstrate understanding through performance outcomes.  Students are active learners rather than passive learners.  How this Influences Learning structure:  Engages student reality promoting creative tension and questioning of status quo.  Through positive suggestion, motivates change to help students revise learning structures.  Challenges students to meet their own expectations through guidance of modeling critical thinking.  Considers how the student will use the knowledge in his or her world.  Assessments are focused on the student’s understanding providing formative feedback to inspire reconstruction of knowledge and process. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 9. Influence of the Pygmalion Effect  Educational learning integrates constructivist approaches.  Students are responsible to reconstruct knowledge through his or her understanding.  Constructivists acknowledge evidence that thinking creates individual cognitions because of experience (Schunk, 2004).  Curriculum design is often focused on the academic subject versus the student’s reality about the subject.  An elusive element of the Pygmalion Effect is the positive as well as negative characteristics of the conditioned external influence.  The power of expectation influences personal self-beliefs, which includes the individual beliefs for how they think they learn. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB (Pygmalion Effect, n.d.)
  • 10. Influence of the Pygmalion Effect  Individual beliefs influence behavioral learning habits which dictate student learning outcomes.  Including learning structure suggestions can influence positive change in a student’s learning outcomes.  When positive suggestions are communicated from the guide on the side approach, students are motivated to revise learning habits from a supportive approach.  Providing positive learning habit suggestions to students can present a new approach for an improved learning experience. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB (Attitude Feature 4, n.d.)
  • 11. Training Versus Education (Blooms Taxonomy, n.d.)  Training  “Training refers to contexts in which we can predict with some confidence the specific situations in which people will use what they learn” (Posner, 2004, p. 70).  Examples: certification tests, practicing sample tests to pass a licensing examination, repetitive memorization, external task oriented grade expectations, and behavioral conditioning.  Education  “Refers to contexts in which we cannot predict with any specificity or certainty the situations in which people will use what they learn” (Posner, 2004, p. 70).  Examples: Writing , communication, reading, speech, technical literacy, academic, and business courses. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 12. Training Versus Education  Posner (2004) posits an excellent question “How much of schooling and what proportion of each subject should we conceive of as education, and how much should we conceive of as training?” (p. 71).  This question stimulates other thought provoking questions.  What percentage of meeting learning objectives depends on skill?  Is demonstrating learning skills required to learn subjects?  Should an instructor care about student learning structure?  Is it important to focus on student learning structures?  Is challenging a student to think critically about learning structure beneficial in all educational activity?  Should instructors include structure suggestions in course content? ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB (Training Versus Education Divide, n.d.)
  • 13. The Influence of External Stimulation  Students may not realize how the influence of external stimulation by family or work can significantly affect learning.  The transfer from short term memory to long term memory of knowledge is intangible.  The information processing theory provides suppositions for how the brain receives and processes information.  The theory proposes the presence of working memory for processing chunks of information.  Connections to prior knowledge reinforce long-term memory with organizations of new knowledge designed to prompt for new inquiry of more knowledge. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB (Unconditional and Conditional Response, n.d.)
  • 14. The Influence of External Stimulation  According to Willis (2007) “the more regions of the brain that store data about a subject, the more interconnection there is. This redundancy means students will have more opportunities” to retain data for retrieval. “This cross-referencing of data means we have learned rather than just memorized” (p. 311).  Constant demand for the adult learner’s attention motivated by external interruption may disrupt the concentration affecting the chunking of content through the thinking process.  This can seriously derail an adult leaner’s intention.  Students may be unaware of personal learning ramifications resulting from paying attention to external expected demands in the moment versus staying focused on the learning involved process. (Survival Circuit, n.d.) ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB (Cognitive Workspace, n.d.)
  • 15. Learning Family Structure  A learning family structure is a means of establishing a learning organization setting expectations for family actions.  In a learning family, members understand why the learner is engaged with the long term goal of education.  The goal is to improve the family quality of life and not just the student’s goals.  Establishing a learning family where learners demonstrate consistent disciplined behavior as a learning practice is one of the best gifts an adult can provide for their children. (The Plan, Do, Study, Act cycle, n.d.) ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 16. Learning Family Structure Suggestions 1. The student that manages time, is not managed by time. 2. Establish a daily learning period of no more than 3 hours each day. 3. Set aside a minimum of one hour per day for each course. 4. Participate every day in learning versus checking things off the list. 5. Design a private learning area created for engaging with learning in the home that is secure and not subjected to media interruption - no cell, radio, or TV. (The Plan, Do, Study, Act cycle, n.d.) ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 17. Learning Family Structure Suggestions 6. Create a reward system for the families support of the student’s learning structure. Track the support weekly. 7. An excellent method is a 3x5-grease board with each family member listed to display progress and rewards. 8. Participate on Sunday of each week to review instructions and setup the assignment using the textbook as a reference. Scan the text to locate relevant material to do assignments. 9. Begin the work first by setting up an essay template before reading the material. 10.Students will develop an authentic assessment approach when the learning structure is followed each day as they complete assignments early in the week making it possible to review more of the text and their assignments with new eyes before submitting. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 18. Setting Up A Learning Family Structure 1. Suggest that adult students with families have a serious all family discussion at the kitchen table. 2. During the family discussion, the student must reach a point where feeling in their heart, family members are on the same sheet of music understanding that the adult is attending college to improve the family's quality of life. 3. If strengthening is necessary, state that the thousands of dollars of tuition for this educational experience is family money being spent now for a better future. 4. Once the student feels in their heart that the family is on the same sheet of music, ask, "Please, I need your help" to the family. How can we do this together? ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 19. Setting Up A Learning Family Structure 5. An important aspect of this is be aware that when an adult student demonstrates a consistent structured disciplined learning behavior, the family learning structure will develop within time. 6. Students demonstrating a strong learning structure benefit all family members. 7. A stellar benefit is the children will emulate the behavior of the parent developing the same practice. 8. As the student demonstrates consistent discipline, the family learns to take a structured approach for learning moving from external locus of control towards internal locus of control. 9. Furthermore, the opportunity for the communication in the family to approach a responsive behavior versus a reactive behavior over time is being supported. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 20. Can Educators Help Students Benefit from Improved Learning Structure?  Including formative suggestions on learning structure to students to enable revision of their understanding is invaluable.  When used effectively, learning structure suggestions motivate revisions of practical applicable knowledge promoting change and change is learning.  Communicating to learners suggestions on how, when, and why establishing a learning structure is an excellent online instructional design element. @Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 21. Suggestions for Improving Learning Structure?  Clarification of requirements to ensure understanding of requirements on Sunday through posting questions or emailing the instructor is an excellent way to begin each week.  Use instructional requirement statements from assignments in the order they are presented for headings in written work. This will order thinking and improve research skills to meet the requirements.  Never copy content from the Internet search engine sites to use as original words. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 22. Suggestions for Improving Learning Structure?  Do not wait the end of the week to begin an assignment. Start with a template with headings from the instructions early in the week and research each heading moving through the week.  Set up created essay templates that can be used each week. By setting up writing templates early, students engage the mind with content versus just getting something done.  Remember that when engaged with subject content effectively grades are always managed to earn the best result. ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB (Cognitive Areas Most Responsible for Academic Success, n.d.)
  • 23. References Attitude Feature 4. (n.d.) Retrieved from marioborgerding.blogspot.com Blooms Taxonomy. (n.d.) Retrieved from www.campus-adr.org Cognitive Areas Most Responsible for Academic Success (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.achieveandlearn.com/skills.html Cognitive Workspace (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627312001298 Conceptual Change. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Conceptual_Change Habits of Mind. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://frameworkproject.wikispaces.com/Emily King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41(1). Kutanİs, R., Mescİ, M., & Övdür, Z. (2011). The effects of locus of control on learning performance: A case of an academic organization. Journal Of Economic & Social Studies (JECOSS), 1(2) Langley, (1994). Langley's continuous improvement model. Retrieved from http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/10/31141146/3 Locus Of Control. (n.d.) Retrieved from www.leadership-and-motivation-training.com ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB
  • 24. References Posner, G. J. (2004). Analyzing the curriculum (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill. Pygmalion Effect (n.d.) Retrieved from o.getglue.com Schunk, D. (2004). Learning theories: An educational perspective (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Survival Circuit. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627312001298 The Plan, Do, Study, Act cycle. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://phprimer.afmc.ca/Part3PracticeImprovingHealth/Chapter13AssessingAndImprovingHealthCareQuality/Improvingqualityofcare The Taxonomy of Significant Learning. (n.d.) Retrieved from www.acu.org Training Versus Education Divide. (n.d.) www.sciencedirect.com Unconditional and Conditional Response (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.legacee.com/Info/Skills/Behaviorial_Learning.html Using Course Structures. (n.d.) Retrieved from www.help.blackboard.com Which is your Locus of Control? (n.d.) Retrieved from icgrouplp.com Willis, J. (2007). Brain-based teaching strategies for improving students’ memory, learning, and test-taking strategies. Childhood Education, 83(5). ©Copyright Dr. Glenn H. Dakin Ed. D. MBA/EB