Freedom of Speech & Expression


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Presentation for Global Experiences course Spring 2010

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  • ("Universal Declaration of Human Rights”)
  • (Darbishire)("A People's History of the European Court of Human Rights")
  • (Savage)
  •"Human Rights Education Associates")("Global Education")
  • (Darbishire)
  • (Darbishire)
  • ("Freedom of the Press”) (Callamard)
  • ("Reporters Without Borders")
  • ("Freedom of Expression and the Media”)(Clinton)("Media”)
  • (Darbishire)
  • (Darbishire)("Global Education”)
  • (Darbishire)
  • ("Freedom of Expression and the Media")(Darbishire)
  • ("Reporters Without Borders”)
  • ("Reporters Without Borders”)(Haven)
  •"Reporters Without Borders").
  • ("Reporters Without Borders”)("Media”)
  •"Reporters Without Borders”)
  •"Reporters Without Borders”)("About Aung San SuuKyi”)
  •"Reporters Without Borders”)
  •"Reporters Without Borders")(Darbishire)
  • INDEX ON CENSORSHIP("Reporters Without Borders")
  •"Reporters Without Borders”)
  • INDEX ON CENSORSHIP("Reporters Without Borders”)
  •"Reporters Without Borders")(Stocking)
  • (Savage)
  • ("Global Education”)
  • (Darbishire)
  • ("Freedom of Expression and the Media”)
  • ("Reporters Without Borders")
  • ("Freedom of Expression and the Media")
  • ("Freedom of Expression and the Media”)
  • Freedom of Speech & Expression

    1. 1. Gretchen Cundiff Skip intro…
    2. 2. Home Page What is it? Regional ExamplesWhat‟s the What can beproblem? done?Why does it Additionalmatter? Resources Works Cited
    3. 3. What is it? Background Information Definition GoalsInternational The Communality ofLegislation Freedom
    4. 4. DefinitionAn indivisible right, which forms the basis of allother human rights and measures theeffectiveness of laws.Freedom of expression constitutes one of theessential foundations of a democratic society andone of the basic conditions for its progress andfor each individual‟s self-fulfillment. What isit?
    5. 5. GoalsTo enable all people, regardless of race, gender,or ethnicity, the right to speak their mind andwrite down ideas without fear of condemnation.“It is applicable not only to information or ideasthat are favorably received or regarded asinoffensive or as a matter of indifference, but alsoto those that offend, shock, or disturb.” – LuizaSavage, Macleans Magazine What isit?
    6. 6. International LegislationPrior to the proposal of any human rights legislation, thefirst session of the United Nations General Assembly in1946 passed a resolution stating that "freedom ofinformation is a fundamental human right and ... thetouchstone of all the freedoms to which the United Nationsis consecrated."Free speech doctrines caught the attention of theinternational community following World War II, with theinstatement of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR) in 1948.Article 19 of the UDHR applies to free speech &expression.December 10th established as Human Rights Day. What isit?
    7. 7. The Communality of FreedomIt is freedom of expression that guarantees therights of individuals, minorities, the collective andthe community. Any suggestion that freedom ofexpression is a luxury of the West insults thehistoric struggles of individuals and communitiesall over the world for the dignity and well-being oftheir kind, for social fulfillment, equality ofopportunity, equitable sharing of resources,access to shelter, nourishment and health. Suchclaims are an attempt to diminish our humanity,to reduce us to marginal existence even withinour own societies. It is a clear vote for the party -Wole Soyinka, Nigerianof Power against the communality of Freedom. writer What is it?
    8. 8. What‟s the problem? Communication Limitations Culture Press FreedomGlobal Divide Role of Hate Speech Journalists
    9. 9. CultureThe main factor contributing to the variance of free speechperspectives that shape the actions of the press andpublic.Lack of free speech and expression separatesindustrialized countries from undeveloped nations, whichcreates a universal disconnect between people of differentcultures.Variance of human rights liberties in developed/ developingsocieties.Freedom of expression often called “luxury of the West.”Most people in the world still cannot exercise that rightpartly because of crippling poverty and lack of education,but also because governments stop them. What‟s the problem?
    10. 10. Global DivideIn modern societies, the amount of pressfreedom around the world is an indicator of ahealthy democracy, where the public can speakits mind and write down ideas without fear ofcondemnation.U.S. President Barack Obama defends the rightof people to freely access information, claimingthat, "the more freely it flows, the strongersocieties become.”Lack of international coverage in repressedcountries, focus on ethnocentric issues. What‟s the problem?
    11. 11. Role of JournalistsJournalists, reporters, and bloggers perform society‟s"watchdog" function by monitoring the government andserving the public interest.Covering often sensitive or controversial topics such asfemale genital mutilation or genocide, the media has revealedinformation that governments have tried to suppress to avoidconflict.Most non-democratic societies employ state-run newsorganizations to promote the propaganda critical tomaintaining an existing political power base.Expose corruption and disseminate balanced and impartialinformation to the public.Essential to reporting human rights abuses. What‟s the problem?
    12. 12. Press FreedomMore than 1/3 of the worlds people live in countrieswhere there is no press freedom.Jean-Francois Julliard, the secretary-general of thehuman rights organization, Reporters WithoutBorders, insists, "Press freedom must be defendedeverywhere in the world with the same energy andthe same insistence.”Governments have historically used „national security‟as an excuse to stifle political opposition andcriticism. In recent years, heightened fears aboutterrorism and security have been invoked to justifyincreased repression of individuals and groupsexercising their right to free expression. What‟s the problem?
    13. 13. Hate SpeechDefamation of religion is often the source of conflictwhich may incite intolerance between groups.Government restricts media in certain cultures fromdiscussing sensitive topics that might “incite hatred”or “endanger national security.”Punitive laws: punish the press for use of libel ordefamation.A fine line exists between upholding the right tofreedom of expression and protecting other humanrights.Views causing illegitimate harm often drivenunderground. What‟s the problem?
    14. 14. Hate Speech cont. •In 2005, Danish “Muhammad cartoons” were published in the Jyllands- Posten newspaper, which set off riots by Muslims who were offended by the controversy. • Islamic nations have succeeded in passing "blasphemy" resolutions at the UN General Assembly. The measures call on states to limit religiously offensive language or speech. U.S. Other countries• 1st Amendment of the • Canada, Britain, France, Constitution guarantees: Germany, the Netherlands, South Africa, Australia and IndiaCongress shall make no law all have laws or have signed respecting an establishment of international conventions religion, or prohibiting the free banning hate speech. exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the • Israel and France forbid the sale press; or the right of the people of Nazi items like swastikas and peaceably to assemble, and to flags. petition the Government for a redress of grievances. • It is a crime to deny the Holocaust in Canada, Germany• Exceptions: slander, threats, and France. inciting violence, community standards, etc. result in legal What‟s the consequence. problem?
    15. 15. Why does it matter? Rights vs. ResponsibilitiesGovernment Reporter PunishmentCensorship Public Technolog Awareness Global Actors y
    16. 16. Government CensorshipCensorship is the act of changing a message,including the act of deletion, between the sender andthe receiver, without the senders and receiversconsent and knowledge.Claim “national interest” as reasoning for censoringwhat should be open information.Media faces opposition from political powers whoseviews challenge its own.Fear is constantly on the minds of journalists, whichoften leads them to censor themselves. Why does it matter?
    17. 17. TechnologyThe Internet has continually been a target of criticshoping to pose further restrictions on the globalexchange of information.Pros and cons: while it has enabled civilians tospread truth and expose injustice about humanitarianissues, government structures have been given moreroom for regulation.“Blogging has flourished in countries whererestrictions on media are toughest," with forty-fivepercent of all media workers imprisoned as bloggers.Journalists circumvent electronic barriers to informthe public. Why does it matter?
    18. 18. Public AwarenessEnvironmental and health issues have beenjeopardized by censorship because they depend onfreedom of information and expression.The lack of public awareness about AIDS, STDs, andbirth control has contributed to sickness andpremature deaths of millions.Starvation is one implication of governmentrepression because those suffering werent able tocry out for help so their lives couldnt be saved,whereas in "countries where a relatively free pressregularly addresses the issue of food shortages,major famines have not arisen in recent years.” Why does it matter?
    19. 19. Reporter PunishmentMost importantly, censorship threatens the "right to life"when individuals are murdered, harassed, or imprisonedwhen governments take extreme measures againstdissidents.Everyday, press freedoms are infringed upon, and "manypeople face illegal detention, persecution, torture anddeath because their governments do not protect theirrights.”A government cant make it impossible to say certainthings- can only punish people after they have said, writtenor published their thoughts.Those who publicly express or disseminate views orimages that are critical of the regime are subject to harshpunishments, including lengthy prison sentences, as wellas assault and intimidation.Human rights defenders are also targeted. it Why does matter?
    20. 20. Reporter Punishment cont.An annual index is complied by Reporters Without Borders, which measurespress freedom violations using questionnaires completed by journalists andmedia consultants worldwide. Why does it matter?
    21. 21. Global ActorsNGOs have witnessed the suffering of people undercorrupt and repressive governments and arent afraidto speak up and directly get involved.The United Nations Educational, Scientific andCultural Organization (UNESCO) has developedprograms to "promote the growth of communicationsystems in developing countries.”On May 3, 1991, the Windhoek Declaration wasadopted by UNESCO and has helped identify theneeds of media around the globe. Today, it isrecognized as International Press Freedom Day. Why does it matter?
    22. 22. Global Actors cont.The International Centre Against Censorship,founded in 1986, defends victims of censorshipwhile promoting freedom of expression.The International Freedom of ExpressioneXchange (IFEX) created an electronic networkin 1992 connecting international freedom ofexpression groups with each other.Recognize the legal and economic conditionsnecessary for an independent and pluralisticpress. Why does it matter?
    23. 23. Regional Examples
    24. 24. Regional Examples cont.A Free country is one where there is broad scope foropen political competition, a climate of respect forcivil liberties, significant independent civic life, andindependent media.Partly Freecountries are characterized by somerestrictions on political rights and civil liberties, oftenin a context of corruption, weak rule of law, ethnicstrife, or civil war.A Not Free country is one where basic political rightsare absent, and basic civil liberties are widely andsystematically denied.The Freedom House survey found that only 17% ofthe world‟s inhabitants live in countries that enjoy aFree press, while 41%have a Partly Free press and42% have a Not Free press.
    25. 25. Regional Examples cont.In its 2009 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders measured thenumber of press freedom violations occurring in 175 countries internationallybetween September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2009.The results determined that democracies ranked best while totalitarian andcommunist regimes ranked worse.The countries where the press was the most free were: Finland, Norway,Ireland, Sweden, and Denmark.The U.S. ranked 20th.A majority of human rights abuses and free expression violations can be tracedto countries in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.Specifically, seven countries in those regions ranked within the top ten spotsfor press freedom violations.Vietnam (166), China (168), Cuba (170), Burma (171), Iran (172), North Korea(174), and Eritrea (175) hold the titles as some of the most repressed nationsin the world.
    26. 26. Regional Examples Taking a Closer Look North Iran  Korea  Cuba  China Eritrea    Burma Vietnam
    27. 27. CubaThe top priority of the Cuban government is totalcontrol of information as users can be imprisoned forup to twenty years for posting "counter-revolutionary"opinions online.Watchdog groups in the U.S. have been calling for anend to "systemic harassment" of bloggers andindependent journalists in Cuba while urging theinternational community to interfere and lobby insupport of the blogs.Bloggers insist that hope is on the horizon becausethey have "opened a new space for free expression inCuba" while offering a "rebirth of independent ideas inCubas closed system.”
    28. 28. Cuba cont.For nearly five decades, Fidel Castro silenced virtually allforms of dissent in Cuba, locking up anyone who dared tocriticize his government. Under Cubas "dangerousness" law, authorities canimprison people who have not committed a crime on thesuspicion that they might commit one in the future."Dangerous" activities include handing out copies of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights, writing articlescritical of the government, and trying to start anindependent union.Cuba doesnt allow human rights groups to intervene, sothey are forced to gather information from phoneinterviews, reports from local groups and the copies ofprison sentences smuggled out by visiting relatives. Regional
    29. 29. EritreaIn 2009, Eritrea claimed the un-praiseworthy titleas the country with the most press freedomviolations thanks to its President,IssaiasAfeworki, who eliminated his countrysindependent press as of 2001.Eritrea has been politically and virtually cut offfrom the rest of the world as there is no privatelyowned press in the country whatsoever.With a stringent government force and unyieldingdictator in power, “Eritreas climate of fear hascrippled the capacity of freedom of expression toexist.” Regional
    30. 30. Burma (Myanmar)The people of Burma face one of the worlds mostrepressive regimes, where free expression iscertainly not exempt from government interference.Internet users are prohibited from sending andreceiving emails unless the government owns themessaging services.As of August 2009, there were 800 active blogs runby Burmese citizens, which proves that even threatsof death, forced labor, and imprisonment haventstopped them from expressing their opinions online.More than 2,100 political prisoners are currentlybeing held in Burmas jails.
    31. 31. Burma (Myanmar) cont.The detainment of human rights defender AungSan SuuKyi thirteen years ago, caught theattention of international media then and still isrelevant today as she is still under house arrest.As a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize and theUnited States Presidential Medal of Freedom,SuuKyi has "symbolized the struggle of Burmaspeople to be free."Her campaign for human rights and democracy isa straightforward and powerful call to action:"Please use your liberty to promote ours." Regional
    32. 32. IranSince the heavily disputed re-election of presidentMahmoud Ahmadinejad made headlines on June 12,2009 after huge displays of protest, Iran has forcefullycrackdown on Internet usage through increasedonline surveillance.This censorship has primarily focused on politicallymotivated websites or those promoting womensrights movements or defending human rights.Social networking and entertainment websites suchas Facebook, Twitter, Flicker, and YouTube were alsoblocked and Gmail was suspended after the election.
    33. 33. Iran cont.Iran has become one of the largest prisons in theMiddle East for journalists, but that hasntprevented young Iranians from expressing theiruncensored thoughts and opinions on blogs.More than 3,500 respected writers and pressfreedom leaders, including Thomas Friedman,Margaret Atwood, and Ahmed Rashid, havepetitioned Irans Supreme Leader, AyatollahSayed Ali Khamenei, to release the dozens ofjournalists currently imprisoned there. Regional
    34. 34. North KoreaNorth Korea, under the communist rule of Kim Jong-il, has transformed journalism by regulatinginformation and censoring free speech to help spreadthe regimes propaganda to foreign countries.Communication is limited to an excessive extent, inwhich North Korea has been proclaimed to be theonly country in the world in which the telephone bookis classified as “top secret.”However, journalists have found ways ofcircumventing online censorship, by expressing theirviews by transmitting messages to North Koreans viaindependent radio stations in South Korea. Regional
    35. 35. ChinaArticle 35 of the Chinese constitution guarantees freedomof speech, assembly, association, and publication.Even though authorities insist that China has a "completelyopen" Internet, its censorship system is one of the mosttechnologically advanced with continuous cyber-attacks"aimed at dozens of human rights activists and journalists.”With 380 million Internet users, China has the wordslargest population online as well as the worlds biggestprison for netizens.The Chinese Communist Party vowed to grant foreignjournalists complete media freedom to cover the 2008Olympic Games, but this never became a reality.
    36. 36. China cont.Chinas free expression restrictions also madeheadlines when Google revealed the extent ofInternet censorship of its Chinese search engine onJanuary 12, 2010.Google has threatened to withdraw from the countrydue to recent hacking of its email service and atightening of Chinas restrictions on free speech onthe internet.To the dismay of Chinese people, censors haveblocked out tens of thousands of websites using URLfiltering blocking keywords from "Dalai Lama" to"democracy."Reportedly, on the day prior to the 20th anniversaryof the Tiananmen Square fatalities, a dozen websitesincluding Twitter, YouTube, Flicker, and Blogger were Regionalblocked.
    37. 37. VietnamVietnams Internet growth has increased significantly,which has promoted web use by young Vietnamese whileheightening government censorship efforts.Since January 2010, the number of cyber-attacks hasgrown steadily with hackers shutting down sites thatprotest the ruling Communist Party.Access to social networking sites, such as Facebook, havealso been limited after pro-democracy groups denouncedarrest of human rights activists on the web.Vietnam is reportedly the worlds "second biggest prison fornetizens" even though the right to independent thought andfree expression is enshrined in the Vietnameseconstitution. Regional
    38. 38. What can be done? Finding a Solution Globalizatio Work toward n DemocracyCurrent Limitations Take Action Intervention Efforts Raise your Voice
    39. 39. GlobalizationThe undeniable fact is that free expression hasbecome especially apparent, relevant, and necessaryin the increasingly interconnected world ofcommunication today.Globalization is occurring, forcing actors to rely oneach other and exchange ideas through newchannels of economic, social and politicalinteractions.However, the world is only as strong as its weakestlink, so as long as one nation and its people aresuffering, the rest of the global community feels thenegative effects as well.In this century of "cross-cultural" communications,interdependent relationships must be formed,recognized and sustained despite cultural differences. What can be
    40. 40. Current LimitationsOn an international scale, legislation has beenineffective because it is not enough to just have lawsif they arent properly enforced or respected.Free speech and expression need to be defined interms of the rights versus responsibilities ofindividuals and their governing bodies so certain linesarent crossed and freedoms arent abused.A clear line must be drawn outlining what “definesappropriate standards and rules” for recognizing andrespecting the right to freedom of expression andopinion worldwide. What can be
    41. 41. Intervention EffortsWhile the Universal Declaration of Human Rights hadthe best intentions, it doesnt hold nations legallyaccountable for the protection or obliteration of itspeople‟s rights.Sixty years have passed since Article 19 was firstinstated, and while its overall purpose is promising, ithas failed to positively influence the entire globalpopulation.“Human rights are what reason requires andconscience demands; they are us and we are them.”– UN Sec. General Kofi AnnanNeed to promote the concept of global free speechand peaceful coexistence of culturally diversenations. What can be
    42. 42. Work toward DemocracyIn order for individuals to be able to trust and respect theirleaders, governments need to objectively interact withcitizens rather than solely listening to those who supporttheir self-interests while silencing opposition.Human and economic development relies directly upon theamount and type of information that the government andcitizens are subject to.Therefore, actors on all levels of the international systemmust demand that their rights be respected by authorityfigures, and governments, in return must take into accountthe will of the people and respect its moral and ethicalobjectives to allow free speech and expression to not onlyoccur, but thrive. What can be
    43. 43. Take ActionCultural reform can be achieved by thecombination of many factors: a change to theinstitutions and practice of government,increased awareness among civil society and thegeneral public, and probably an effective law topromote and protect the right to information.Since change cannot simply happen overnightand solve all the worlds problems, individualsneed to look to each other for support ofhumanitarian rights and set a precedence forother global actors to follow toward achievinguniversal freedom. What can be
    44. 44. Take Action cont.Spreading truth and exposing injustice arentnecessarily a part of a citizens defined role, but ifindividuals are striving for free speech andexpression for both the press and public, then itneeds to be their main objective.For example, Iranian people have not letgovernment intimidation interfere with them“speaking out on behalf of their human rights,”which has inspired people all over the world to dothe same. What can be
    45. 45. Raise your VoiceWhile the public can take a tough stand againstrepressive governments, it cant expect long-lastingimprovements and legitimate results without a littlehelp from outside sources, namely NGOs.The role of human rights organizations is to "drivestandards up rather than down" by helping to preventand eliminate further government corruption andenabling sustainable growth of free expression andspeech rights.Consider social, political, and religious implicationsand how constructive criticism can benefit theinternational system. What can be
    46. 46. Additional Resources Find out more about how to become a free speech advocateThe focus should be on “changing the cultureof a government and society from one that isclosed to one that is open.”Show your support for free speech &expression reform by signing a petition,donating to an NGO, or joining a human rightsorganization. Websites Videos
    47. 47. WebsitesARTICLE 19, the Global Campaign for Free Expressionundertakes regional freedom of expression activities inCentral and Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, LatinAmerica and Asia. It has produced a series of internationalstandard setting documents and an online freedom ofexpression handbook that are used by governments andcivil society groups worldwide.The Committee for the Protection of Journalists(CPJ)promotes press freedom worldwide by defending theright of journalists to report news without fear of reprisal. Italso shares information on breaking cases with other pressfreedom organizations worldwide through the InternationalFreedom of Expression Exchange(IFEX), a global e-mailnetwork. Additional
    48. 48. Websites cont.The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)represents around 500,000 members in more than 100countries and promotes international action to defendpress freedom and social justice through strong, free andindependent trade unions of journalists.TheInternational Press Institute is a global network ofeditors, media executives and leading journalists,dedicated to freedom of the press and improving thestandards and practices of journalism.Reporters Sans Frontieres(Reporters Without Borders)challenges practices to restrict press freedom throughpublic awareness raising campaigns. A new judicial arm tothe organization provides journalists with legal servicesand represents them before national and internationalcourts. Additional
    49. 49. Websites cont.Freedom Houseis an independent NGO that supports theexpansion of freedom worldwide. It has assessed thedegree of print, broadcast and internet freedom in everycountry in the world since 1980.Human Rights Watch is one of the world‟s leadingindependent organizations dedicated to defending andprotecting human rights. The group has laid the legal andmoral groundwork for deep-rooted change and has foughtto bring greater justice and security to people around theworld.Amnesty International has campaigned on behalf ofthousands of prisoners of conscience – people who areimprisoned because of their political, religious or otherconscientiously held beliefs, ethnic origin, sex, color,language, national or social origin, economic status, birth,sexual orientation or other status. Additional
    50. 50. VideosFree Speech, Hate Speech, the UN, andYouTubeUN Wants to Regulate Free Speech of EveryNationVideo Report: Imprisoned in IranFree Speech Issues at the Olympics64 for Suu: Global Campaign To Free Aung SanSuuKyi Additional
    51. 51. Works Cited"About Aung San SuuKyi." 64 Words for Aung San SuuKyi. Web. 15 Apr.2010.The British Council. Freedom of Expression and the Media. , 2004. Web. 13 Apr 2010.<>.Callamard, Agnes. "USA: Obama Meets Human Rights Defenders, including ARTICLE 19,in Human Rights Discussion." Article 19. Article 19, 23 Feb. 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2010.Clinton, Hillary. "Internet Freedom." Speech. Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy, 21 Jan. 2010.Web. 13 Apr. 2010. <,3&print=yes&%3Bhidecomments=yes&%3Bpage=full>.Coliver, Sandra. The Article 19 Freedom of Expression Handbook. Article 19, 1993. Print.Darbishire, Helen. "Free Speech- Democracys Watchdog." UNESCO Courier 47.3 (1994):Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Apr. 2010.European Court of Human Rights. A Peoples History of the European Court of HumanRights. By Michael D. Goldhaber. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers UP, 2007. Print."Freedom of Expression." Human Rights Education Associates. HREA, 2009. Web. 13 Apr2010. <>."Freedom of the Press." Freedom House. Freedom House, Inc., 10 May 2004. Web. 13Apr. 2010.
    52. 52. Works Cited cont.Haven, Paul. "Journalism Watchdog Calls for Cuba Blogger Freedom."Associated Press Online. Associated Press, 11 Sept. 2009. Web. 12 Apr. 2010.< /wireStory?id=8546157>."Human Rights." Global Education. AusAID, 15 001 2010. Web. 13 Apr 2010.<;jsessionid=827E5A23CA3626F2C778DC469B782A1C>.Liptak, Adam. "Hate speech or free speech? What much of West bans isprotected in U.S." New York Times, 11 June 2008: Web. 10 Apr. 2010.< /06/11/world/americas/11iht-hate.4.13645369.html?pagewanted=all>."Media Watchdog Warns That the Free Press faces Extinction in Eritrea."Associated Press Worldstream. Associated Press, 29 Oct. 2004. Web. 11 Apr.2010."Press Freedom Index 2009." Reporters Without Borders. Reporters WithoutBorders, 2009. Web. 13 Apr 2010. <,1001.html>.Savage, Luiza CH. "Stifiling Free Speech- Globally." Macleans 4 Aug. 2008:MasterFILE Premier. Web. 10 Apr. 2010.
    53. 53. Works Cited cont.Steinberg, Nik. "Imprisoned for Dangerousness in Cuba."Washington Post 27 Feb. 2010: Web. 12 Apr. 2010.<>.Stocking, Ben. "2 Popular Web Sites Blocked in Vietnam."Associated Press Online. Associated Press, 11 Feb. 2010.Web. 10 Apr. 2010. <>.United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ,1948. Web. 13 Apr 2010.<>.Van Mill, David. "Freedom of Speech." StanfordEncyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008. Web.<>.
    54. 54. Site Map• Introduction- Article 19• Home Page • What can be done? Finding a Solution• What is it? - GlobalizationBackground Information - Current Limitations - Definition - Intervention Efforts - Goals - Work toward democracy - International Legislation - Take Action - The Communality of Freedom - Raise your Voice• What’s the problem? • Additional ResourcesCommunication Limitations - Websites - Culture - Videos - Global Divide - Role of Journalists • Works Cited - Press Freedom - Hate Speech• Why does it matter?Rights vs. Responsibilities - Government Censorship - Technology - Public Awareness - Reporter Punishment - Global Actors