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Dna structure 12.1 and 12.2 students
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Dna structure 12.1 and 12.2 students


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  • 1. End of 12.1 and 12.2
  • 2.  Nucleotides are made up of 3 things: 1. 5 carbon sugar 2. Nitrogenous (containing nitrogen) bases 3. Phosphate group Nucleic Acids (like DNA and RNA)
  • 3.  The nucleic acid DNA consists of the following: 1. Deoxyribose- sugar 2. A phosphate group 3. A series of 4 nitrogenous bases: cytosine, adenine, thymine, guanine
  • 4.  The nucleic acid RNA consists of the following: 1. Ribose- sugar 2. A phosphate group 3. A series of 4 nitrogenous bases: adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine
  • 5.  Adenineand Guanine are considered purine
  • 6.  Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil are considered pyrimidines
  • 7.  DNA is compared to a twisted ladder Ladder Rails- consist of alternating deoxyribose (sugar) and phosphate group A purine base always bonds with pyrimidine Bases are held together by hydorgen bonds
  • 8.  The direction or orientation of the The carbon in the sugar molecules are numbered The leading strand starts with the 3’ (five prime) end The lagging strand runs in the reverse direction This orientation of the
  • 9.  Length of a human chromosome ranges from If a DNA strand 140 million nucleotides long In order for all of the DNA to fit into microscopic cells, the
  • 10.  The phosphate groups in DNA create a negative charge The structure of DNA wound around
  • 11.  DNA replication is considered semiconservative replication- because this process consists
  • 12.  DNA replication occurs during interphase of the cell cycle- There are 3 main stages to semiconservative replication:
  • 13.  Helicase-is an enzyme used to When DNA is unzipped, the hydrogen bonds between the bases
  • 14.  DNA polymerase- enzyme that catalyzes the addition of appropriate nucleotides There are a plethora of nucleotides floating in the cell waiting to be DNA polymerase ensures that each base binds to its compliment
  • 15.  DNA polymerase adds the nucleotide bases to the 3’ end of the In this way, the templates allow identical copies of
  • 16.  The leading strand is replicated from 3’ to 5’ end The lagging strand is synthesized discontinously in segments called Okazaki fragments by the DNA The lagging strand is oriented in the 5’ to 3’
  • 17.  DNA ligase- is an enzyme that connects all the fragments of