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IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS

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FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES IN THE GCLME

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES IN THE GCLME

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  • 1. Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANSA GUIDE TO FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION Proceedings of the GCLME Regional Workshop, Douala, 2009
  • 2. Interim Guinea Current Commission / Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS ANDIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES IN THE GCLME Proceedings of the GCLME Regional Workshop, Douala, 2009 Edited by: Dr. Mohamed B.D. Seisay Mr. Olu Sarr Supervised by: Dr. Stephen Maxwell Donkor Designed by: Yvonne A. Botwe
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSChapter One PageWorkshop Proceedings, Recommendations and Conclusions Table of Contents Abbreviations and Acronyms Foreword1.1 Introduction 71.1.1. Workshop Objectives 71.1.2 Conduct and Organization of the Workshop 81.1.3. Main Outcomes 81.1.4. Outlook and Recommendations 91.2. Context, Justification and Recommendations for Suggested Outlook Actions 101.2.1. Convene Meeting of Major Shrimp Producing Countries 101.3. Sub regional Approaches for Beach Seine Fisheries 111.4. Strengthen Institutional Arrangements in the Management of Small Pelagic Resources 111.4.1. Justification 111.5. Strengthen Cooperation between GCLME Project and Sub regional Fisheries Organizations 121.6. Strengthen collaboration between the GCLME Project and the EAF-Nansen Project 131.7. Harmonization of legislation and utilization of MCS-VMS systems 141.8. Elaboration of country specific Action Plans 151.9. Conclusion 15Chapter TwoFramework for the Management of Sciaenidae and Sparidae FisheryCommunities in the GCLME Region2.1. Brief Description of the Fishery 162.2. Purpose/overall Objective 162.3. Management Objectives 172.4. Scope of Management Framework 172.5. Operation of the Management Framework 172.6. Review of the Management Framework 17
  • 4. 2.7. Key Policy Drivers 172.8. Rationale 172.9. Conclusion 20Chapter ThreeFramework for the Management of Shrimp Fishery in the GCLME Region3.1. Description of the shrimp fisheries in the GCLME region 213.2. Purpose/overall Objective 223.3. Management Objective 223.4. Scope of Management Framework 223.5. Operation of Management Framework 223.6. Review of Management Framework 223.7. Key Policy Drivers 223.8. Rationale 233.9. Conclusion 27Chapter FourManagement Framework for Small Pelagic fishery of the Central Gulf ofGuinea4.1. Description of the Fishery 284.2. Overall Objective 294.3. Specific Management Objectives 294.4. Scope of Management Framework 294.5. Operation of Management Framework 294.6. Review of Management Framework 294.7. Key Drivers 294.8. Strategies 294.9. Special considerations 304.9.1. Presentation of the Management Framework 314.9.2. Conclusions and Recommendations 34Chapter FiveAction Plan for Conservation and Management of Shared SardinellaResources of Angola, Congo Republic, Congo DR and Gabon5.1. Description of Fisheries 35
  • 5. 5.2. Purpose 365.3. Specific Objectives 365.4. Scope of Management Framework 365.5. Operation of Management Framework 365.6. Review of Management Framework 365.7. Key Policy Driver 375.8. Rationale 375.9. Log Frame for the Management of Sardinella Stocks of the South 385.9.1. Conclusion 42Chapter SixManagement Framework for Small Pelagic Fishery of the Western Gulf ofGuinea6.1. Description of the Fisheries 436.2. Overall Objective 446.3. Specific Objectives 446.4. Operation of the Framework 446.5. Key Drivers 446.6. Rationale 446.7. Conclusion 46Chapter SevenManagement Framework for Small Pelagic Resources in the Northern Gulfof Guinea Region7.1. Brief Description of the Fisheries 477.2. Purpose/Overall Objective 477.3. Specific Objectives 487.4. Scope of the Management Framework 487.5. Operation of the Management Framework 487.6. Review of the Management Framework 487.7. Key Policy Drivers 487.8. Rationale 497.9. Management Strategies 497.9.1. Conclusion 51ANNEXE A: List of Participants 52
  • 6. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSBRD By-catch Reduction DeviceCECAF Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central AtlanticCNSHB Centre National des Sciences Halieutiques de BoussaraDFID Department for International DevelopmentEAF Ecosystem Approach to Marine Fisheries in Developing CountriesGCLME Guinea Current Large Marine EcosystemFAO Food and Agricultural Organization of the United NationsFCWC Fishery Committee for the West Central Gulf of GuineaJSWG Joint Scientific Working GroupICZM Integrated Coastal Zone ManagementIGCC Interim Guinea Current CommissionIPOA International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of SharksIUU Illegal, unreported and unregulatedMCS-VMS Monitoring, Control and Surveillance – Vehicle Monitoring SystemsMPA Marine Protected AreaNORAD Norwegian Agency for Development CooperationR/V Research VesselSRFC Sub regional Fisheries CommissionTED Turtle Excluding DeviceUNIDO United Nations Industrial Development OrganizationWSSD World Summit for Sustainable DevelopmentWWF World Wide Fund for Nature
  • 7. FORWARDFish was plentiful in many coastal markets along the Guinea Current. Alas! Today fishare far fewer, much smaller and more expensive.One of the long-term aims of the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem project isthe recovery of such depleted living resources in the region and provision of sustainedsupplies of this protein source for human consumption. Management of living marineresources is an urgent transboundary issue with serious implications for food security.It is a task requiring prudent ecosystem-based management of marine areas andrestoration of degraded coastal habitats.Some 150 million people living along the coastal zone forming part of the GCLMEregion are counting on their governments and scientists to lead such managementaction. It would help enhance long-term national and regional food security, restorefishing as a vital economic activity and so help secure livelihoods.The GCLME SAP Development project places considerable emphasis on buildingregional capacity for a science-based regional ecosystem approach to achieving theseaims. This book provides frameworks for the management of a variety of livingresources once abundant in the Gulf of Guinea area; actions being taken; what thestakeholders need to accomplish immediately; and sets out strategic fisheriesmanagement objectives.While stocks of marine living resources may recover slowly, application of the fisheriesmanagement plans contained in this book are a starting point and could go a long way tohalting the present decline.Stephen Maxwell Donkor, Ph.DExecutive Secretary and Regional Project Coordinator,Interim Guinea Current Commission
  • 8. CHAPTER ONEWorkshop Proceedings, Recommendations and Conclusions1.1. IntroductionA regional workshop on the formulation and implementation of fisheriesmanagement plans organized by the Project EGRAFO4001-BL 1758 “Combating LivingResources Depletion and Coastal Area Degradation in the Guinea Current LargeMarine Ecosystem (GCLME) through Ecosystem-based Regional Actions” was held inDouala, Cameroon, from 2 to 7 November 2009. The workshop was opened by Dr.Wassouni Amadou, director of the environment, Ministry of the Environment ofCameroon and National GCLME director.Experts from 13 of the 16 GCLME countries and partners of the Project participated atthe workshop. The representatives from Benin, Equatorial Guinea and Liberia wereunable to attend. Besides the fisheries expert of the GCLME Project, Dr. OumarouNjifonjou, and the principal resource person/consultant to the workshop, Dr. BenedictP. Satia, a representative of the United States National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration, (Dr. Bradford Brown); as well as Dr. Kwame Koranteng, arepresentative, and coordinator of the EAF-NANSEN Project of the Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations), provided technical assistance at theworkshop. The list of participants is given as Annex A.1.1.1. Workshop ObjectivesThe workshop had the following objectives: v Improve understanding of the status of the resources in GCLME area v knowledge on the principles of developing fisheries management Enhance plans v individual skills of participants in developing plans Improve the v collaboration among and between countries in the management Strengthen of resources 7
  • 9. 1.1.2 Conduct and Organization of the WorkshopThe workshop was conducted in a participatory and iterative manner. All the maindocuments were available to participants at least two weeks before the meeting,making it possible for participants to acquaint themselves with the contents of thedocuments before the workshop; and thus reducing time devoted to lecture-typepresentations. The workshop was 15 per cent lecture and 85 per cent hands-onexercises. Prior to the workshop, a questionnaire survey on management practices inthe GCLME area was conducted, analyzed and the results made available to allparticipants. The questionnaire survey facilitated efforts by participants at theworkshop to: Ø state of fisheries management in the region Assess the Ø Mainstream and guide discussion on “Development of Fisheries Management Plans” Ø the thought process of participants in relation to elements and Stimulate strategies that are often used in the development of fisheries management plansIn addition, participants worked in small groups. The groups were based on the naturalsubdivision of the GCLME region into four sub-ecoregions. The rationale of working insmall groups was to: § Enhance the participatory nature of the workshop, as all participants have ample opportunity to contribute to the groups efforts § Provide a means of engendering broader and deeper discussion on concepts and issues, relating to the formulation of plans § Encourage cooperation among and between countries in the region § Further encourage the development of individual skills among participants through hands-on exercisesParticipants had the opportunity to prepare and make presentations on the state offisheries management in their respective countries with emphasis on transboundaryissues and the available data and statistics on the sector.A wrap-up session was held at the end of the workshop. During the sessionparticipants determined the main outcomes; ways to enhance the outputs of theworkshop; and evaluated the overall context and organization of the workshop(logistics, quality of materials made available, presentation and conduct of theworkshop, the usefulness and potential effects of the workshop on participantsoutput, etc).1.1.3. Main OutcomesThe main outcomes are the following: • Participants appreciation of the importance of developing management frameworks was greatly increased 8
  • 10. • Participants also understood the constraints in formulating management frameworks or plans, a factor that contributes to the limited number of management plans on the fish stocks in the area • Collaboration among and between countries on several aspects of the fisheries sector, particularly fisheries management, was enhanced • The individual technical skills of participants was improved and they were able, as part of the learning process, to develop management frameworks on: Øfishery Shrimp Ø fin fish fishery Demersal Ø Small pelagic fishery (four different stocks) on the basis of naturally determined eco-regionsParticipants pointed out that the workshop had other secondary outcomes such as: §Affording them the opportunity to be informed of recent developments of the sector in the region §Created awareness among them of weaknesses in fisheries governance and the high rate of by-catch in the fisheries including their adverse ecological and financial effects §Demonstrated the need for greater cooperation and collaboration among countries, on issues related to the fisheries including the exchange of information in the region §Enabled them to better appreciate the importance of having good statistics on the fisheries sector, to involve stakeholders and adopt a participatory and iterative process not only in developing fisheries management frameworks but in other aspects of their work § need to ensure management frameworks are kept as simple as possible, The undertake risks assessments and cost-benefit analysis in developing management frameworks1.1.4. Outlook and RecommendationsThe following are seven priority areas that were identified for action to enhance,further, the outcomes of the workshop: v GCLME Project should convene a meeting of the major shrimp countries in the GCLME region in order to facilitate the exchange of information and experiences on transboundary issues related to the sustainable management of this very important resource. v should assist countries of Western Gulf of Guinea to find sub The Project 9
  • 11. regional approaches for resolving the adverse effects of using beach seines in that eco-region. v The GCLME Project should continue to provide assistance to strengthen institutional arrangements in the management of small pelagic fisheries in the southern zone to ensure the sustainable development of the resources. v Project should take steps to strengthen collaboration with sub The GCLME regional fisheries bodies in the area, as well as the FAO Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF), for the effective implementation of management advice/decisions. v Project should initiate action to strengthen collaboration with The GCLME projects addressing ecosystem-based regional actions and in particular the FAO/NORAD EAF-Nansen Project with a view to avoiding duplication, create synergies and for cost-effectiveness. v Project should provide assistance to enable the completion of the The GCLME process on the harmonization of legislation and approaches to the utilization of MCS-VMS systems in the sub region, as this would contribute to better compliance and enforcement of management measures. v should develop country-specific action plans in order to Countries operationalize the sub regional management frameworks developed or elaborated during the workshop.1.2. Context, Justification and Recommendations for Suggested Outlook Actions1.2.1. Convene Meeting of Major Shrimp Producing CountriesThe shrimp fishery of which the main species are Penaeus monodon; Penaeus notialis;Penaeus kerathurus; Parapeneopsis atlantic and Aristeus varidens, Parapenaeuslongirostris (the two latter are deep sea species), plays a pivotal role in the economicdevelopment of Angola, Cameroon, Guinea, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. However, thefishery has major ecological and human issues such as high by-catch rates of high-valued fin fish species including juveniles and habitat degradation by trawl gear. Inaddition, limited knowledge concerning stock status and removal of large predatorsleading to trophic cascades and distortion in ecosystem functioning, as well ascompetition and conflicts among artisanal and industrial fisheries, are majorproblems that countries need to tackle. From 2002 to 2008, FAO initiated a worldwideproject to attend to issues and constraints in shrimp fishery and in the processintroduced selective devices such as By-catch Reduction Devices and Turtle ExcludingDevices. Two GCLME countries - Cameroon and Nigeria - were partners with FAO inthat project. 10
  • 12. In view of the ecological, biodiversity and economic importance of shrimp fishery, aswell as the paramount importance for countries to exchange information andexperiences on transboundary issues of this very important resource, participants atthe GCLME at the workshop recommend that:The GCLME Project should convene a meeting of a working group made up of themajor shrimp producing countries in the GCLME region (Angola, Cameroon, Guinea,Nigeria and Sierra Leone) to discuss and find appropriate solutions to issues relatedto shrimp fishery.1.3. Sub regional Approaches for Resolving the Adverse Impacts of UsingBeach Seines in the Fisheries of Western Gulf of GuineaSeveral fisheries communities in Benin, Côte dIvoire, Ghana and Togo use beachseines along the coasts, in breeding and grow-out areas as well as sensitive or fragileecosystems. A significant portion of the catch is juveniles, thus this fishing practice iscontributing to the destruction of the reproductive base of the fishery. The use of thisfishing gear is, therefore, creating tensions and conflicts between fishers and thefisheries administrations responsible for enforcing management measures. It isrecognized that if the issue is not properly addressed it could adversely affect thelivelihoods of the fisheries communities or lead to the migration of fishers from onecountry to another, thereby increasing fishing pressure (effort) on resources. It was inthis context that the DFID/FAO Sustainable Fisheries Livelihood Programme - inconsultation with Benin, Ghana and Togo - initiated activities on resolving the problemof using beach seines in the fisheries. In 2003 through 2004, a study on the biologicaland socio-economic impacts of beach seine fishing in the three countries wasundertaken. However, the DFID/FAO project ended before countries were able to puttogether the outcomes in their different countries and agree on a sub regionalapproach to resolve the issue.In order to find a durable solution to this destructive fishing practice, whose negativeimpacts are not only biological but ecological and socio-economic, and bearing inmind that much of the activities have already been undertaken, the workshoprecommends that:The GCLME Project should assist countries of Western Gulf of Guinea to completework and adopt sub regional approaches for resolving the adverse effects of usingbeach seines in that region.1.4. Strengthen Institutional Arrangements in the Management of SmallPelagic Resources (Sardinella spp.) in the South 11
  • 13. 1.4.1. JustificationDuring the past decade the four southern countries of GCLME (Angola, the CongoRepublic, Congo DR and Gabon) have taken steps to enhance cooperation, improvetheir knowledge and exchange experience with regards the Sardinella fishery.Examples of such activities include workshops organized under the auspices of theFAO in 1997 and by UNIDO/GCLME in 2006 and 2007, as well as participation inactivities of the R/V DR. Fridtjof Nansen Research Programme on surveys of the fisheryresources of Eastern Gulf of Guinea.Following the 2006 workshop, it became apparent that the countries needed to workmore closely together to address some of the important recommendations taken atthe workshop, and to forge cooperation in science to generate timely and reliableinformation and data in support of management; to establish an institutionalarrangement to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience between thecountries; and to agree on processes to enhance the governance of the fishery,including effective compliance and enforcement apparatus. Consequently, at theSecond UNIDO/GCLME sponsored workshop held in Luanda, Angola, 5-7 September2007, the participants agreed to elaborate an Action Plan that would serve as a roadmap to move the fishery forward on an agreed schedule of shared responsibilitiesamong the participating States and stakeholders within each State. The Action Planwas updated at this workshop and an important component of it is the putting in placeof an institutional arrangement to ensure good governance of the resources so thatthese transboundary stocks continue to make significant socio-economiccontributions to these countries, while ensuring the health and well-being of theecosystem. The participants at the workshop recommend that:The GCLME Project should continue to provide assistance to strengthen institutionalarrangements in the management of small pelagic fisheries in the southern zone toensure the sustainable development of the resources.1.5. Strengthen Cooperation between GCLME Project and Sub regionalFisheries Organizations, as well as with CECAF.The GCLME area has three sub regional fisheries organizations: the Regional FisheryCommittee for the Gulf of Guinea in the south, whose members are Angola,Cameroon, Congo Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea,Gabon and Sao Tome and Principe; the Fishery Committee for the West Central Gulfof Guinea covering the countries between and including Nigeria to Liberia; and theSub-Regional Fisheries Commission (of which the three northern members of GCLME(Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone) are members. These fisheries organizationshave been established, in the main, to facilitate cooperation between the countries 12
  • 14. with a common interest in the management of fish stocks. For each of theseorganizations, policy directives are given and decisions are taken at the Conference ofMinisters which, in principle, meet once a year.Country representatives at the Interim Guinea Current Commission (IGCC), the policyand decision-making structure for the GCLME, are generally the ministers in-charge ofthe environment, who may or may not have competence in fisheries matters in theirrespective countries. To ensure that fisheries matters, particularly those related tomanagement, are properly executed it is considered essential that the GCLME Projectshould establish strong working relationships with the three sub regional fisheriesorganizations, as well as CECAF, whose Scientific Subcommittee is responsible forassessing the state of fishery resources, and provide management advice. Allcountries of the GCLME are members of CECAF and play an active role in the CECAFScientific Subcommittees Working Party for the South, whose area of competence isthe GCLME area. Participants at the workshop recommend that:The GCLME project should take steps to strengthen collaboration with sub regionalfisheries bodies in the area as well as CECAF for the effective implementation ofmanagement advice/decisions.1.6. Strengthen Collaboration between the GCLME and the EAF-NansenProjectsThe participants at the workshop recalled that FAO is currently executing, with thefinancial assistance of NORAD, a global project “Strengthening the Knowledge Basefor and Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Marine Fisheries in DevelopingCountries” whose acronym is EAF-Nansen. The immediate objective of the FAOs EAF-Nansen project is to provide fisheries research institutions and managementadministrations with additional knowledge on their ecosystems for their use inplanning and monitoring and to further the acceptance of the key principles of theEAF; the GCLME project aims, inter alia, at recovery and sustenance of depletedfisheries and restoring degraded habitats.The participants at the workshop noted the complementarities between the GCLMEand EAF-Nansen projects. They remarked that it was critical that these two projectswork together to avoid overlaps and to ensure effective synergies that wouldmaximize benefits to the coastal countries, as well as improve the productiveefficiency of both projects in achieving their respective objectives. The workshopexpressed the view that the two projects could strengthen their working relationshipthrough such instruments as a memorandum of understanding at agency (FAO andUNIDO) levels for collaboration between the two projects. Participants at the work 13
  • 15. shop recommend that:The GCLME should take steps to strengthen collaboration with projects addressingecosystem-based regional actions and in particular the FAO/NORAD EAF-NANSENProject, with a view to avoiding duplication, create synergies and for cost-effectiveness.1.7. Complete Work on the Harmonization of Legislation and Approachesto the Utilization of MCS-VMS Systems in the Sub region.In the past decade marine capture fisheries from the region stagnated, and most ofthe important demersal resources were either fully exploited or overexploited. At thesame time, fishing effort is increasing and it is estimated that 500 trawlers arecurrently operating within the area. Several of the fleets are engaged in illegal,unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, resulting in a loss of about US $30 billionannually to the countries, not to mention the ecological, social and economic impactsof such activity. Many factors contribute to the prevalence of this phenomenon in theGCLME area, among them is weak governance and poor monitoring and enforcementsystems - for example, Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) and VehicleMonitoring Systems (VMS).In January 2006, the GCLME Project and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) jointlyorganized in Accra, Ghana, a regional workshop on “Promoting Sustainable FisheriesAccess Arrangements in the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Countries”. Oneof the positive outcomes of the workshop was the initiative taken by countries inCentral Gulf of Guinea to harmonize their fisheries legislation and seek commonapproaches to improve on monitoring and enforcement of management measuresand reduce the high rate of IUU fishing, estimated at over 40 per cent. The countries(Benin, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe andTogo) have held three meetings, and with the help of FAO have harmonized theirlegislation. The countries, however, need assistance to meet and agree on theharmonized legislation and explore ways and means to collaborate in the use of theirMCS-VMS systems, which many of the countries acquired following the 2006GCLME/WWF workshop. Participants at the GCLME workshop on the formulation andimplementation of fisheries management plans recommend that:The GCLME Project should provide assistance to enable the completion of theprocess on the harmonization of legislation and common approaches to theutilization of MCS-VMS systems in the sub region, as this would contribute to bettercompliance and enforcement of management measures. 14
  • 16. 1.8. Elaboration of Country-Specific Action PlansParticipants at the GCLME Regional Workshop on the Formulation andImplementation of Fisheries Management Plans (Douala, Cameroon, November2009) developed management frameworks on shrimp fishery, on demersal fin fishfishery (Sciaenidae and Sparidae communities) as well as sub regional frameworks onthe management of small pelagic fishery at sub regional levels (concerning 2-4countries). These plans address transboundary issues. In order to operationalize theseplans at national level, it was agreed that participants ensure the plans are validatedby representatives of stakeholders and that a process for implementing the actionscalled for in these frameworks be elaborated, including a clear definition of the rolesof the administration and stakeholders should be put in place. The participants at theworkshop agreed that one of the most important elements in the process ofoperationalizing the management frameworks that emphasize transboundary issueswas “Country Specific Action Plans”. The workshop recommends that:Each country of the GCLME should develop and implement “Country-Specific Plansof Actions” to ensure the implementation, as appropriate, of the contents of thetransboundary management frameworks developed at the workshop.1.9. ConclusionAll the participants contributed actively to the outcome of the workshop. In theirresponses to the Evaluation Questionnaire of the workshop, they indicated that theorganization, logistics and conduct of the workshop was very good. All indicated thatthe objectives of the workshop were met, and that the knowledge they had acquiredwould contribute to improving their output in their respective countries. Participantsalso emphasized the need to monitor the extent to which the outputs of the workshopwere being used, and requested that due consideration be given to therecommendations coming from the workshop. 15
  • 17. CHAPTER TWOFramework for Management of Sciaenidae and Sparidae FisheryCommunities in the GCLME Region2.1. Brief Description of the FisheryThe marine fisheries in the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem are exploited byboth the artisanal and industrial fisheries. The fisheries resources are multi-species innature and comprise both demersal and pelagic fish as assemblages. They areexploited by artisanal and industrial fishing fleets. One species/family that constitutesa high percentage in catch landings within the GCLME region is the Sciaenid family. Itplays an important role in the socio-economic development of the fishermen and foodsecurity.The Sciaenid family constitutes Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Pseudotolithus typus,and Pseudotolithus brachygnathus. These species are inshore demersal resources andlargely distributed inshore and can occur in estuaries and brackish waters. They thrivein a wide-range of salinity. The species can easily grow to about 30 cm in total length,and lengths in excess of 40 cm have been found. The species has a shoaling behaviourand migrates along the shore. It is found in greatest abundances from August toNovember in most areas in the region.They are exploited by demersal fish trawlers, and the shrimp trawlers take a largeproportion of them as by-catch. In addition, these species are taken in a variety ofartisanal fishing gear including ring nets, drift nets, beach seines, hook and line, etc.,and it has been supporting an export oriented onshore processing outfit thatexclusively targets croakers.2.2. Purpose/Overall Objective“Sustainable management of the Sciaenidae and Sparidae fish stocks in the GuineaCurrent Large Marine Ecosystem”. 16
  • 18. 2.3. Management Objectives Ø status of the Sciaenid and Sparid fish stocks in the GCLME region Improve Ø ecosystem wellbeing of the region Enhance Ø the socio-economic welfare (livelihood) of the fisheries communities Improve Ø fisheries governance. Enhance2.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThis management framework will cover the Sparids (Pagrus caeruleostictus, Pagellusbellottii, Dentex angloensis, Dentex congoensis, Dentex canariensis, dentexmacrophthalmus) and Sciaenids species (Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Pseudotolithustypus, Pseudotolithus brachygnathus) in the GCLME region. However, since thefisheries resources are multi-species in nature and are exploited by multi-gear, it isimplied that the management plan will cover all demersal resources in the GCLMEregion.2.5. Operation of Management FrameworkThe management framework will cover a period of two years, from January 2010 toDecember 2011, and it will be subjected to review by the authorized ministry ofmember countries, contingent on any major changes in the exploitation state of thesefish resources. Relevant data generated from the data collection scheme will beanalyzed by research institutes in the region and annual reports on the state of theresources and management regime will be produced by fisheries directors in theregion. The annual reports would be shared or exchanged between fisheriesinstitutions in the region.2.6. Review of Management FrameworkThe management framework will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and researchcentres in the region. Review will be based on the performance indicators.2.7. Key Policy DriversThe management framework will be consistent with guiding principles for thesustainable exploitation and development of the resources such as the United NationsFood and Agriculture Organizations (FAO) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries,Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management; the Plan of Implementation of theWorld Summit on Sustainable Approach to Fisheries and the Precautionary Approach.2.8. RationaleThe Sparid family, which constitutes Pagrus caeruleostictus, Pagellus bellottii, Dentexangloensis, Dentex congoensis, Dentex canariensis, Dentex macrophthalmus, form animportant element in the demersal catch landings in the GCLME region. Most of them 17
  • 19. spawn in coastal areas and spend their adult lives in deep waters. Some are multiplespawners. It is a high-valued export species, most of which are deep water dwellersand are largely exploited by industrial fishing vessels and hook and line artisanalfisheries using powered motorized craft, with insulated boxes. The bulk of the speciesis caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the region.Unlike the Sparids that mostly live in deep waters, the Sciaenid family, whichcomprises Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Pseudotolithus typus, Pseudotolithusbrachygnathus, are found exclusively in inshore coastal waters. They are commerciallyexploited by both artisanal and industrial fisheries subsectors in the inshore areas andform a critical portion of the demersal catch landings in the GCLME region. The bulk ofthe species are also caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the region, and over thelast 20 years the juvenile mortality of these species has been increasing as a result ofincrease in the by-catch rate in the shrimp fishery. In addition, this situation isaggravated by the indiscriminate use of destructive fishing methods and illegal fishingmesh in spawning and nursery areas by artisanal and industrial fisheries.Furthermore, the removal of mangrove vegetation for fish smoking, boat building,etc., has degraded spawning and nursery habitats, thereby causing possible stockrecruitment failure or disturbance is stock recruitment. The excessive exploitation ofthese species as a result of effort pressure and desire to catch fish has considerablyincreased the fishing mortality over the years. The Sparid species/family of fishesconstitutes high percentage in catch landings within the GCLME region and plays animportant role in the socio-economic development of the fishers and food security.Recent estimates by the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee on the basis of workundertaken by the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee Demersal Working Group (South)have indicated that both the Sciaenidae and Sparidae species are either fully exploitedor overexploited in the region.In view of the above, and considering the importance of the sciaenid and Sparids stockto the sustainable economic development and the ecosystem well-being of thisregion, it is necessary to develop a management framework with a view to restoringthe stock and the ecosystem integrity of the region, hence the proposed managementframework. 18
  • 20. ACTIONS PERFORMANCE INDICATORS PARTICIPANTS TIMELINEObjective 1: Improve the status of the Sciaenid and Sparid stocks in the GCLME region1. Reduction of the fishing effort. a. Moratorium on new licenses. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Begins in January 2010 maritime transport administration. and throughout the plan The Navy, research Insztitutes. and beyond. b. Reduction of fishing vessels licensed (5%). January 2010 and throughout the plan and beyond. c. Restriction of vessel sizes limitation (TGB). Throughout the plan and beyond.2. Reduction of by-catch and discards. Reduction by 20% during the life of the management plan Research institutes, Ministry of March 2010 and reduction of by-catch rate from 75% to 60%. Fisheries (Fisheries Observers), the throughout the plan and Navy and appropriate NGOs. beyond.3. Control me sh size regulations. a. Decreased number of fishing gears with inappropriate Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan and mesh sizes by 10%. maritime transport administration. beyond. The Navy/ fishers organizations. b. Increase in the average size of fish landed.4. Prohibition of fishing in spawning Reduction in incidences of infraction reduced by 10% and Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan andareas. reduction in the use of trawl gears in spawning and Navy/ fishers organizations. beyond. nursery area by 5%.5. Enforcement of landing obligation in Increase use of designated landing sites and fishing ports. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan andauthorized landing sites and ports. Navy, custom officers beyond.Objective 2: Enhance ecosystem wellbeing in the region1. Reduce pressure on mangrove and a. Reduce exploitation pressure on mangrove by 5%. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan andother fragile habitats spawning and Navy/ fishers organizations. beyond.nursery areas. b. Reduction in the use trawl gears in spawning and nursery area by 5%.2. Creation of the marine protected area. a. Initiate the process of establishing of at least one (1) Ministry of March 2010 and MPA in each country. Fisheries/Environment/Forestry, throughout the plan and Navy, fishermen organizations, beyond. research institutes, NGO/INGOs.3. Reduce land-based pollution. a. Decrease in the levels of pollutants in coastal water by Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan and 5%. fishermen organizations, research beyond. institutes/CECAF, industries, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, GCLME, rural development, NGO/INGOs.Objective 3: Improve the livelihoods of fisheries communities1. Create alternative livelihoods by a. Increase in the number of microcredit projects granted. Other line ministries, socio- May 2010 andfacilitating access to credit. professional organizations, financial throughout the plan and institutions, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, and beyond. GCLME NGO/INGOs.2. Improve social infrastructure and a. At least 1 school and 1 hospital built in coastal zone. Other line ministries, socio- May 2010 andservice delivery. professional organizations, financial throughout the plan and institutions, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, and beyond. GCLME NGO/INGOs. b. Increase in the number appropriate infrastructures for May 2010 and fisheries development. throughout the plan and beyond. c. Increase access to potable water. May 2010 and throughout the plan and beyond. d. Number of school children attending 30%. 19
  • 21. Objective 4: Enhance fisheries governance issues.1. Stakeholders consultation In the a. Number of stakeholders involved in decision- making. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment/ January 2010 andestablishment and the implementation Hydrocarbons, fishermen throughout the plan andof the fishery management plan (co- organizations, research beyond.management). institutes/CECAF, industries, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, GCLME NGO/INGOs. b. Number of consultative meetings held with the January 2010 and stakeholders. throughout the plan and beyond. c. Increase the number of fishers using responsible fishing January 2010 and by 20 %. throughout the plan and beyond.2. Regional and sub regional a. Number of regional and sub regional problems solved Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, January 2010 andcollaboration in sustainable resources through collaboration betwee n countries. fishermen organizations, research throughout the plan andmanagement. institutes/CECAF, SRFC, COREP, beyond. FCWC, GCLME NGO/INGOs and international agencies. b. Number of attendance of member countries in regional Throughout the plan and and sub regional meetings, conferences, training beyond. workshops increasing by 50%. c. Number of data sharing among member countries Throughout the plan and increase by 20%. beyond.3. Create and promote existing socio- a. At least 1 organization established in respective. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan andprofessional organizations. fishermen organizations/ fishing beyond. communities, research institutes/CECAF, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, GCLME NGO/INGOs and International agencies. 2.9. CONCLUSION This management framework addresses transboundary issues. Countries are expected to operationalize the framework, first by ensuring that it is validated by stakeholders at national level; and secondly by elaborating “Country Specific Action Plans” to give effect to the contents of the management framework. 20
  • 22. CHAPTER THREEFramework for Management of Shrimp Fishery in the GCLMERegion3.1. Description of Shrimp Fisheries in the GCLME RegionShrimps are caught in the shallow and deep waters by artisanal and shrimp trawlersrespectively. Main shrimp caught in the GCLME region are Panaeus monodon, P.kerathurus, P. notialis and P. atlantica, Parapenaeus longirostris and Aristeus varidens.The Scientific Sub-Committee of the FAO Fishery Committee for the East CentralAtlantic (CECAF) at its fifth session in December 2007 reported that the main shrimpstocks in the region were either fully exploited or overexploited. Representatives ofmember countries of the GCLME region, at their November 2009 workshop in Douala,Cameroon, on the formulation and implementation of fisheries management plans,confirmed that shrimp production in their respective countries was decreasing bothin quantity and quality, further evidence that the shrimp resources were beingoverexploited. In Angola, catches of deep sea shrimps were estimated at 6,000 MT in1990 but the catches have since been erratic and showing a general decline. Shrimptrawlers are producing more by-catches and discards and the fishery is reported to becollapsing in some countries. In Ghana, for example, more than 90 per cent ofproduction is by-catch. In Sierra Leone industrial fishery shrimp production has beenstagnant around 1,400 MT annually.The shrimp fishery is subjected to excessive pressure particularly by illegal,unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, although there are signs fishing capacity byGCLME countries is reducing. In Angola the fleet comprised 43 trawlers in 2003 butdropped to 35 in 2008, while in Ghana it has dropped from a high of 13 vessels in 1997to only 2 in 2008. In Sierra Leone, the number of licensed shrimp trawlers havedeclined from a peak of 84 in 1980s to 24 in 2007.Another characteristic of the fishery is the infringement of regulations pertaining tofishing grounds. In many countries shrimp trawlers are expected to operate beyond 21
  • 23. 30 m depth but this is hardly respected; resulting in conflicts with the artisanalfisheries sector, destruction of sensitive habitats and high by-catch rates.Furthermore, fishery policy decisions in some countries, for example Angola, througha bilateral fishing agreement with the European Union, adversely affected the fishery.The agreement has now been suspended.3.2. Purpose/Overall ObjectiveSustainable exploitation of the shrimp resources while conserving biodiversity3.3. Management Objective v Reduce volume of by-catch vhabitat and environment Preserve v Improve quality and quantity of catch3.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThis management framework will cover Panaeus monodon, P. kerathurus, P. notialisand P. atlantica, Parapenaeus longirostris and Aristeus varidens in the GCLME region.However, since the fisheries resources are multi-species in nature and are exploitedby multi-gear, it is implied that in implementing this framework countries will take intoaccount associated fisheries in the shrimp fishery.The principal shrimp producing countries in the region are Angola, Cameroon, Gabon,Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. These are the partner countries in theimplementation of this framework.3.5. Operation of Management FrameworkThe management framework will cover a period of two years from, January 2010 toDecember 2011, and will be subjected to review by the authorized ministry ofmember countries, contingent on any major changes in the exploitation state of thesefish resources. Relevant data generated from the data collection scheme will beanalyzed by research institutes in the region and an annual report on the state of theresources and management regime will be produced by fisheries directors in theregion. The annual reports would be shared or exchanged between fisheriesinstitutions in the region.3.6. Review of Management FrameworkThe management framework will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and researchcentres in the region. Review will be based on the performance indicators.3.7. Key Policy DriversThe main goals of the LMEs projects are the recovery of the dwindling resources in the 22
  • 24. region and to support member countries to take necessary actions towards theirrecovery. The outcomes of this management framework will contribute to these goalsin connection with shrimp fishery in the major shrimp producing countries (Angola,Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) of GCLME. It also aims toachieve outcomes that are consistent with broader government objectives for themanagement of marine living resources with a view to meeting the objectives of the2002 Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on SustainableDevelopment, in particular the rebuilding of fish stocks and the application of theEcosystem-Based Fisheries Management principle. In this respect, other key policydrivers for the management framework are the FAO Code of Conduct for ResponsibleFisheries, Ecological Sustainable Development, the Precautionary Approach, andIntegrated Management.3.8. RationaleThe shrimp fishery of which the main species are Penaeus monodon; Penaeusnotialis; Penaeus Kerathurus; Parapeneopsis atlantic and Aristeus varidens,Parapenaeus longirostris (the two latter are deep sea species), plays a pivotal role inthe economic development of several countries in the GCLME region. However, thefishery has major ecological and human issues such as high by-catch rates of high-valued fin fish species, including juveniles and habitat degradation by trawl gear. Inaddition, limited knowledge concerning stock status and removal of large predators,leading to trophic cascades and distortion in ecosystem functioning, as well ascompetition and conflicts among artisanal and industrial fisheries, are majorproblems that countries need to tackle. The Fishery Committee for the EasternCentral Atlantic (CECAF) Scientific Sub-Committee reports that all the importantshrimp fisheries in the GCLME area are either fully exploited or overexploited.From 2002 to 2008, FAO conducted a worldwide project to deal with issues andconstraints in shrimp fishery and, in the process, introduced selective devices such asBy-catch Reduction Devices (BRDs) and Turtle Excluding Devices (TED). Two GCLMEcountries - Cameroon and Nigeria - were partners with FAO in that project. In view of the present precarious state of the fishery, as well as the ecological,biodiversity and economic importance of shrimp fishery, countries of the GCLMEregion desirous of rebuilding shrimp fishery stocks have developed the followingframework for the sustainable exploitation of the shrimp fishery while conservingbiodiversity. 23
  • 25. Shrimp Fishery in GCLME Region (Log Frame) Objective # 1 Reduce volume of by-catchActions Performance Participants Reference Points Decision Indicators RulesIntroduction of Reduced volume Fisheries Current shrimp Compulsoryselective devices in and composition of Department, production as use of thethe fisheries. by-catch and research baseline data. BRD by discards by 15%. institutes, shrimp regional fisheries Current volume trawlers Reduced percent of bodies such as of by-catch. within a by-catch to total COREP. specific catch (75% to 60%). Establish current time frame biomass. (maximum 2 years). Regulation of cod end mesh size (at least 50mm).Set up the observer Mapping of the Fisheries Determine Compulsoryprogramme. fishing grounds. departments, percent fleet for observers Navy (Port implementation on selected No landing of authorities, in Nigeria, boats (at juveniles shrimps. Marine Police, Cameroon, least 25% operators). Gabon, Ghana, coverage). Sierra Leone (5%) and training for Angola.Provide alternative Some operators Fisheries Start inmeans of livelihood involved in Department, Januaryby introduction of collection of shells, NGOs, Ministry 2010 andother profitable exportation of sea of Employment, continueoccupation. cucumbers, etc. research through life institutes, of Plan. Reduced number of financial licensed shrimp institutions, trawlers. banks. Reduced pressure on shrimp stocks. 24
  • 26. Objective # 2 Preserve habitat and environmentIdentification of Number of MPAs Research institutes, Established CompulsoryMarine Protected created (at least one regulatory body, minimum size of use of theAreas (MPAs) and year in each country). Ministry of individual species BRD by theregulate. Environment, NGOs of shrimp (each shrimp and civil society country. trawlers organizations. within a specific time frame (maximum 2 years).Identification of Area for MPAs Research institute, Octoberfishing grounds for established. regulatory body, 2010licensing purposes. Ministry of Environment, NGOs and civil society organizations.Identification of Closed area and Research institutes Octoberbreeding grounds and closed season and Fisheries 2010seasons for closure. established. Department.Introduction of Number of vessels Research institute Regulation ofselective devices in having selective and Fisheries cod endthe fisheries. devices. Department. mesh size (at least 50mm).Enforcement of Reduction of by-catch Fisheries Regulation ofregulations and Department, Navy, cod endpenalties. Increase in biomass Marine Police and mesh size (at and shrimp the law courts. least 50mm). production.Improvement of Increase in quality of Fisheries CompulsoryMonitoring Control shrimp Department, observer onand Surveillance sponsors, Navy, selected(MCS) programme (all Improvement in the Marine Police, boats (atcountries. control of fishers. artisanal fishers. least 25% coverage).Sensitization of stake Four sensitization Fisheries Start Januaryholders on fora for stakeholders Department, NGOs, 2010 andenvironmental issues organized in a year. CSOs. continueand resource control. through life Ease in enforcement of Plan. of regulations. 25
  • 27. Objective # 3 Improve quality and quantity of catch Determination of Increase in biomass Research Established Compulsory use abundance and shrimp institutes, minimum size of of the BRD by (biomass), fishing production. Fisheries individual the shrimp effort and Department, legal species of trawlers within regulations. and legislative shrimp (each a specific time bodies. country). frame (maximum 2 years). Carry out observer Reduced volume Fisheries/ Established Compulsory programme and composition of surveillance current observer on (Determine % fleet by-catch and departments biomass. selected boats for discards. (Navy, Port (at least 25% implementation) - Authorities, Established coverage. Nigeria, Cameroon, Increase in quality marine police, fishing effort. Gabon, Ghana (5%) (size) of shrimp. emigration). Determination and Angola of capacities of (training). Reduced % of by- shrimp vessels catch to total catch (maximum 300 (75% to 60%). GRT). Identification of Closed area and Research October 2010 fishing grounds for closed season institutes and licensing purposes. established. Fisheries Department. Identification of Research institute October 2010 breeding grounds and Fisheries and seasons for Department. closure. Improvement of Reduced % of by- Fisheries/ October 2010 Monitoring Control catch to total catch surveillance and Surveillance (75% to 60%). departments (MCS) programme (Navy, Port (all countries). Increase in quality authorities, (size) of shrimp. Marine Police). Introduction of Reduced volume Fisheries/ May 2010 selective devices in and composition of surveillance the fisheries by-catch and departments discards. (Navy, port authorities, Increase in quality Marine Police. (size) of shrimp. Reduced % of by- catch to total catch (75% to 60%). 26
  • 28. 3.9. ConclusionThis management framework addresses transboundary issues. Countries areencouraged to take steps to operationalize the framework by having stakeholders ofthe sector validate its contents. Countries should also develop “Country SpecificAction Plans” on shrimp fishery. As expressed by participants at the workshop, the GCLME project should explore thepossibility of assisting the countries concerned in implementing this frameworkthrough the facilitation of working group meetings of the principal shrimp producingcountries (Recommendation #1 of the GCLME Regional Workshop on the Formulationand Implementation of Fisheries Management Plans). 27
  • 29. CHAPTER FOURManagement Framework for Small Pelagic fishery of Central Gulfof Guinea4.1. Description of the FisheryPelagic stocks such as Sardinella manderensis, S. aurita, Ethmalosa fimbriata, andIllisha africana are transboundary species between Nigeria, Cameroon, EquatorialGuinea, Sao Tome and Principe, making their sustainable management by individualcountries difficult. These pelagic stocks in the sub region are fully exploited due toexcessive fishing pressures as well as destruction of the resources through pollution;degradation of habitats; use of destructive fishing gear and methods; non-complianceto regulations; absence of management plans; and poor synergy between key actors.Catch figures with respect to the area in question (Central Gulf of Guinea) provides thefollowing estimates for the three species: 32,842 MT for S. manderensis, 3,745 MT forS. aurita, and 57,032 MT for E. fimbriata. These stocks contribute significantly tonational food and nutrition security; as well as employment and wealth creation,especially the poor fisher community. The fishers targeting these species live inremote and poor environments, and constitute the vulnerable segment of thepopulation and are generally migrants. It is estimated that 1.8 million persons areinvolved in this fishery. The total fishing effort is estimated at 10,000 canoes for SaoTome and Cameroon.There is no concerted or joint effort for the sustainable management of theseresources. Furthermore, whereas there is better knowledge of the demersal fin fishresources through regular stock assessments, our understanding of the pelagicspecies, especially in the inshore area between 0-20m depths, is very limited becausestock assessments have not generally been undertaken in this zone due to the lack ofappropriate research vessels. The resources could, therefore, inadvertently bedepleted. 26
  • 30. 4.2. Overall ObjectiveSustainable management of the pelagic stocks within the coastal region of CentralGulf of Guinea (Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria and Sao Tome and Principe).4.3. Specific Management Objectives §Improve knowledge of the state of the resources §Maximize benefits to the four countries through improved management of the small pelagic fishery §Strengthen cooperation in the management of the small pelagic fishery in Central Gulf of Guinea4.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThe small pelagic fishery of Central Gulf of Guinea is exploited principally by artisanal(small-scale) harvesters. The principal species in the context of this managementframework are: Sardinella manderensis, S. aurita, Ethmalosa fimbriata, IllishaAfricana4.5. Operation of Management FrameworkThis management framework shall be implemented for two years (January 2010through December 2011) inclusive, subject to annual reviews and amendments thatare considered necessary by the competent authorities of the four countries, partnersto this framework. Relevant data generated from the data collection scheme will beanalyzed by research institutes in the region and an annual report on the states of theresources and management regime will be produced by the directors of fisheries inthe respective countries. The annual reports are to be shared or exchanged amongfisheries institutions in the region.4.6. Review of Management FrameworkThe management framework will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and researchcentres in the sub region. Review will be based on the performance indicators.4.7. Key DriversKey drivers identified for the development and implementation of this managementframework include: the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, thePrecautionary Approach, the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries, Ecological SustainableDevelopment, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on SustainableDevelopment 2002, and Integrated Coastal Zone Management.4.8. Strategies §Conduct stock assessment of the pelagic resources 29
  • 31. §Develop a management framework for each resource § better use of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee working groups Make §Strengthen the capacities and capability of research Institutes §Strengthen collaboration between fisheries research institutes and fisheries administrations § already established organizations such as COREP and FCWC to facilitate Use the implementation of joint management measures §Develop appropriate system of fisheries statistics and data collection and set up joint database §Jointly fund the convention for the harmonization of interventions and procedures on Monitoring, Control and Surveillance/Vessel Monitoring Systems § joint action for the improvement of the livelihood of fisher folk Take § up appropriate actions for the restoration and protection of degraded Set areas §Jointly implement the management action plan4.9. Special ConsiderationsThis management framework involves fisheries research, management andgovernance. The following specific activities are considered essential for thesuccessful outcome of the framework: vof stock assessment once a year Conduct v two technical/scientific meetings a year, which could be virtual Organize meetings v management meetings once a year, in the fringes of COREP annual Organize meetings v the management framework at least once a year Re-evaluate 30
  • 32. 4.9.1. Presentation of the Management Framework Fisheries Research Component Actions Performance Participants Timeline Indicators 1) Conduct Number of stock • Fisheries Two surveys /year stock assessment and research (Jan-March. & July- assessment results. Institutes Aug.) 2011. of the • Fisheries pelagic Department stocks. • National Institute of Statistics 2) • Number of • Fisheries Training in specific Strengthen staff trained research subject areas from the • Increase in the institutes April 2010 and capacities number of • Trainers ongoing. and researchers capability of • Number of research relevant Institutes equipments and coastal acquired surveillance units. Table 2: Fisheries Management Component Performance Participants Timeline Indicators Develop a Framework developed • Fisheries January 2010 management for every fishery. Department framework • Fisheries for each research resource. institutes • Operators • NGOs, civil society organization • Processors • COREP, FCWC 31
  • 33. Use already • Number of • COREP, FCWC Start with annualestablished joint meetings • Ministers meeting of bodies inorganizations organized • Directors of 2010.such as • Reports of the fisheries andCOREP and meetings researchFCWC to • Resolutions institutesimplement and decisionsjoint onmanagement managementmeasures.Develop and Base line data • Fisheries Start May 2010 andharmonize developed, Joint Department ongoing.fisheries database developed. • StatisticianStatistics and • Researcherdata Number of published • Fisheries agentscollection; statistical data. andand set up Stakeholders. Number of collectorsjoint trained.database.Jointly fund • Number of • Fisheries March 2010.the data Departmentconvention exchanged • Fisheries MCS Annual funding andfor the • Establishment units actions on quarterlyharmonizatio of VMS • Navy basis.n of the • Number of • Marine Policeinterventions trained • Operatorand surveillance organizationprocedures officers • Fisheries NGOs,on • Number of civil societyMonitoring, poachers organizations,Control and arrestedSurveillance/ • Number ofVessel penalties andMonitoring payments.Systems.32
  • 34. Take joint • Number of • Fisheries Start in March 2011action for landing sites, Department and ongoing.the jetties, • Ministries ofimprovemen schools, works andt of the hospitals, fish housing,livelihood of markets environmentfisheries • Number of • Ports Authoritycommunities credit as well as other. schemes line ministries established as appropriate • Number of training workshops organized • Number of community- based surveillance committees establishedSet up • Number of • Fisheries Start in Novemberappropriate degraded Department 2010 and ongoing.actions for areas • Ministries ofthe identified environmentrestoration • Number of • Scientist andand areas under researchprotection of restoration institutesdegraded • Number of • Fishingareas. sensitization communities meetings and • Number of organizations. alternative energy sources developed • Number of ovens developed 33
  • 35. Governance Component Jointly • Designation of • Fisheries Start January 2010- implement national focal Department the point • Research management • Number of institutes framework. coordination • Ministries of meetings environment, • Activity and Finance Evaluation • Operators reports • Fishermen • Improvement • Fisheries NGOs of stocks • Port Authorities • Navy, Marine Police4.9.2. Conclusions and RecommendationsIn view of the fact that this management framework addresses transboundary issuesand has not been developed with inputs from other stakeholders of the sector, it isessential to have its contents validated at national level by the appropriatestakeholders. Countries should also endeavour to develop “Country Specific ActionPlans” to operationalize the management framework, effectively.Participants at the GCLME workshop on the formulation and implementation offisheries management plans in November 2009 recommended (Recommendation#6) that the GCLME project should provide assistance to enable the completion ofthe process on the harmonization of legislation and common approaches to theutilization of MCS-VMS systems in the sub region, as this would contribute to bettercompliance and enforcement of management measures and the preservation ofthe environment. 34
  • 36. CHAPTER FIVEAction Plan for Conservation and Management of SharedSardinella Resources of Angola, Congo Republic, Congo DR andGabon5.1. Description of the FisheriesThe Sardinella species (Sardinella maderensis and Sardinella aurita) are importantcommercial and artisanal fisheries in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, theRepublic of Congo and Gabon. These species together with other small pelagicfisheries are important sources of employment, income and food security forthousands of fishers and their dependents as well as many other inhabitants in the subregion and beyond. All the known coastal habitats are utilized by the small pelagicspecies including the Sardinella and some of the species are known to occupy morethan one of the habitats for part of their life history. Some of these habitats arethreatened by land-based pollution, by oil spills, by urbanization and by mangrovedeforestation.Results from several studies indicate that these resources are distributed throughoutthe southern sub region of Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME). Thestudies also show that the main spawning/breeding grounds are off southern Gabon(in Mayumba) and sometimes in Congo; and that the fish move south to grow inAngolan waters and are, indeed, transboundary shared stocks. Although commercialcatch information is available, such data from artisanal fisheries are sparse. Totalcatches are around 400,000 MT, while the total estimated biomass is about 600,000MT. Assessments of the Sardinellas indicate that the resources are underexploited.However, there is need for caution if the fishery is to be developed, particularly in viewof the uncertainty about the magnitude of catches taken by artisanal fisheries. Theartisanal fishery sector is a virtual open access, resulting in excessive effort over theyears. Among the four countries, Angola has the more elaborate structure for the 35
  • 37. administration of its fisheries. However, the other three have in place fisheries lawsand regulations to ensure the sustainable management of their fisheries. Theseregulations are generally ignored, in part because of ineffective enforcement. Angolaand Gabon are progressing in monitoring and implementing effective managementfor some for these important species.5.2. PurposeSustainable exploitation of the shared small pelagic stocks while conservingbiodiversity in order to:Avoid overfishing and the possible collapse of the fishery, and provide a foundation foran ecosystem-based management of the fishery.5.3. Specific Objectives •Increase knowledge and understanding of the fishery •Enhance the governance of the Sardinella fishery •Minimize the impacts of fishing operations on the fisheries habitats and the ecosystem •Improve decision-making in relation to management of the Sardinella fishery through effective information and communication network5.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThe Action Plan for the shared small pelagic in the sub region of the south involvesSardinella maderensis and Sardinella aurita. The Plan emphasizes improving fisheriesresearch, fisheries management and institutional arrangements.5.5. Operation of Management FrameworkThe Action Plan will cover the period January 2010 through December 2011. In orderto operationalize the Plan, its contents will be validated by stakeholders in each of thepartner countries. Each partner to this framework will develop “Country SpecificAction Plans” to facilitate the implementation of this cooperative sub regional plan.The Action Plan will be subjected to review, at least once yearly, by the authorizedministry of member countries, contingent on any major changes in the exploitationstate of these fisheries resources. Relevant data generated from the data collectionscheme will be analyzed by research institutes in the region and an annual report onthe state of the resources and management regime will be produced by fisheriesdirectors in the respective countries. The annual reports are exchanged betweenfisheries institutions in the region.5.6. Review of Management FrameworkThe Action Plan will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and research centres in the 36
  • 38. sub region. The review will be based on the performance indicators.5.7. Key Policy DriverThe management framework will be consistent with guiding principles for thesustainable exploitation and development of the resources such as the United NationsFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries,the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, and the Plan of Implementation ofthe 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development, Integrated Coastal ZoneManagement, and Precautionary Approach.5.8. RationaleDuring the past decade the four countries have taken steps to enhance cooperation,improve their knowledge and exchange experience with regards the Sardinellafishery. Examples of such activities include workshops organized under the auspices ofFAO in 1997 and by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization(UNIDO)/GCLME in 2006, as well as participation in activities of the R/V DR. FridtjofNansen Research Programme on surveys of the fishery resources of Eastern Gulf ofGuinea.Following the 2006 workshop, it became apparent that the countries needed to workmore closely to attend to some of the important recommendations taken at theworkshop, and to cooperation in generating timely and reliable scientific informationand data in support of management. The countries also needed to establish aninstitutional arrangement to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experienceamong the countries and to agree on processes to enhance the governance of thefishery, including effective compliance and enforcement apparatus. Consequently, atthe 2nd UNIDO/GCLME sponsored workshop held in Luanda, Angola, 5-7 September2007, the participants agreed to elaborate an Action Plan that would serve as a roadmap to move the fishery forward on agreed schedule of shared responsibilities amongthe participating States, and stakeholders within each State. At the GCLME regionalworkshop on the formulation and implementation of fisheries management plans inthe GCLME area, at Douala, Cameroon, 2-7 November 2009, representatives of thefour concerned countries updated the Action Plan.The Sardinella resources are transboundary stocks and makes significant socio-economic contributions to these countries. The countries will be losing very importantopportunities, now and in the future, in terms of overfishing and the possible collapseof the fishery, if they fail to manage these stocks jointly and, indeed, the fisheriesunder their national jurisdictions. 37
  • 39. 5.9. Log Frame for Management of Sardinella Stocks of the SouthStrategy 1: Fisheries ResearchTake all reasonable steps to increase knowledge and understanding of the fishery,and minimize impacts of fishing operations on fishing habitats and ecosystem. ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS 1. Synthesize and evaluate Benchmark Scientist, March - July 2010. available literature and data document on the managers and on the shared Sardinella status of the NGOs. resources. resources. 2. Collect catch and effort Reports and fish Research and Initiate action in statistics (artisanal, semi- journal with data fisheries march 2010 in the industrial and industrial). collected. administration Congo Rep, staff as well as strengthened in stakeholders of all Gabon and DRC countries. and continuing and improving in Angola. 3. Implement biological Sampling results Researchers with Initiate action in sampling system on fish (gonadosomatic involvement of march 2010 in the landing sites (selection of fish index, length appropriate Congo Rep and landing sites). frequency of the stakeholders. Gabon, catches, age of strengthened in first maturity, DRC and content stomach). continuing and improving in Angola. 4. Establish a functioning Artfish software Statisticians under July 2010 database in each country. working in each research country. institution (Angola) and administration (Gabon, Congo Rep and DRC). 5. Undertake/participate in R/V Fridtjof Researchers from Second semester annual transboundary cruises Nansen report the four countries. of each year. (survey design for the sub available under region). EAF-Nansen project and GCLME. 38
  • 40. Comments:The research priorities are oriented around the most compelling issues. Thesepriorities, each with equal weight, focus on understanding critical processes in thefishery. It is hoped that applying the outcome of the knowledge would contribute tothe effective management of the fishery and better stewardship and responsibleresource use.Strategy 2: Fisheries ManagementTake all reasonable steps to enhance the governance of the Sardinella fishery andensure the resources are managed in a responsible manner. ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS 1. Exchange information on the fleet Vessel Fisheries March 2010 authorized to trawl for pelagic fish in registration directorate the four countries. databank available in all four countries. 2. Strengthen cooperation among MCS system Personnel of MCS Initiate action Countries with regard MCS (use of VMS, working in the units (Maritime in 2010; to be vessel registers, at sea checks of vessels, countries force in DR Congo, operational logs and catch by patrol, Observers on (control boats, Congo and by July 2012. board, port inspections, exchange of VMS). Gabon), and information, etc). surveillance directorate technicians in Angola. 3. Harmonization of fisheries Regulations and Fisheries Initiate regulations (prevent excessive international administration discussion in increasing of fishing vessels in the sub conventions staff with September region). applied, and no participation of 2010. significant researchers and increase of the other Completion fleet in the stakeholders. by 2012. countries. 4. Exchange views and information on Availability of Fisheries Long-term fishing access agreements targeting fishing directorate staff activity that pelagic resources based on the results agreements, with involvement should start in of IGCC/WWF workshop. IGCC/WWF of research and 2010 with workshop report stakeholders. concrete and other results by regulations 2012. shared among countries. 39
  • 41. 5. Cooperate in preventing activities Progress reports Fisheries Long-term that undermine efforts for sustainable of cooperation. administration, activity that management of shared stocks research should start in (Implement the appropriate provisions institutions and 2010 with of IPOA-IUU). industrial sector. concrete results by 2012. 6. Utilize COREP as coordinating COREP workshop Minister of 2010 committee of Sardinella and report. fisheries in each communicate this to IGCC Secretariat. country. 7. Promote minimizing impacts of Decrease in • Fisheries Ongoing, fishing operations on fisheries habitats mangroves administra long-term by using ecosystem approach to exploitation. tion activity, start fisheries. • Research in 2010. institution • MCS staff in each of the four countriesComments:The current management regime is not up to the challenge of administering theresources. Management of resources is uncoordinated and not comprehensive,compliance and enforcement is ineffective, in part because of the isolated nature inwhich the various management systems have been developed in the respectivecountries. Implementation of the above priority actions would lay the foundation foran effective and coordinated management of the fisheries.Strategy 3: Institutional ArrangementsTake steps to put in place a cooperative management arrangement and improvedecision-making in relation to management of the Sardinella fishery through aneffective information and communication network. 40
  • 42. ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS1. Establish national focal point (NFP) NFPs appointed Research and fisheries April 2010for Sardinella under CECAF scientific directors.subcommittee working group for thesouth.2. Strengthen linkages between Progress reports Directors of fisheries Ongoingfinance and fisheries as well as by each country and of research in each with firstenvironment institutions. at CECAF and country. report at COREP. the CECAF and COREP.3. Promote effective involvement of Reports at CECAF Directors of fisheries Ongoing;stakeholders in marine stewardship. and COREP on and of research in each first participation of country. reporting stakeholders in at the activities. CECAF and COREP.4. Improve capacity-building in the Reports by NFP NFPs in close Ongoingfisheries sector (training of research at CECAF. collaboration with thestaff and fisheries managers, MCS directors of fisheriesstaff, organization of workshops and and of researchseminars on emerging issues, etc)5. Adoption of sub regional Progress reports Ministers Firstmanagement measures based on of COREP. measuresactivities of CECAF scientific working adopted ingroup (JSWG) for the south. 2010.6. Establish the sub regional Progress Report Directors of fisheries Initiatecooperative management for at COREP. with active discussionimplementation decisions of COREP on involvement of NFPs in 2008shared Sardinella resources. put in place with first meeting in 2009.7. Create a website for the cooperative Discussed at next Lead person and NFPs. By end ofmanagement of shared Sardinella meeting of Group 2010.resources in the sub region. and lead person appointed. 41
  • 43. Comments:Decision-makers are hampered by a lack of science-based information to help themmanage the fishery. It is foreseen that sound science will enable the JSWG to translatethe results, effectively, in ways that are useful to resource managers, policymakers,and the general public. In addition, the increased trust and cooperation between thecountries, through the activities of the Joint Scientific Working Group, theManagement Coordination Committee, when established, and the effectiveparticipation of other stakeholders, should result in a greater sense of stewardship inthe public and translate research results into effective decision-making tools formanagement.5.9.1 ConclusionThe four countries have in place fisheries laws and regulations as well as structuredfisheries administrations and research institutions, particularly in Angola and CongoRepublic. This Action Plan is about action and making demonstrable progress in themanagement of their fisheries, particularly the transboundary Sardinella fishery.The Plan provides a coordinated leadership through the CMA, emphasizes the needfor good science and is forward-looking, recognizing the value of advancingpartnerships across governments and stakeholders towards managing the resourcesin a sustainable way.In pursuing this agenda the countries are laying the foundation for ecosystem-basedmanagement of their fisheries, maximizing the potential of their fisheries throughsafe and sustainable development of these resources and with stakeholderconsideration for the interest of different ocean users. 42
  • 44. CHAPTER SIXManagement Framework for Small Pelagic Fishery of WesternGulf of Guinea6.1. Description of the FisheriesSmall pelagic resources, including Sardinella maderensis, Sardinella aurita, Ethmalosafimbriata, Decapterus punctatus, Scomber japonicus, Engraulis guineensis, Trachurustrachurus, Trachurus trecae, are migratory species within Western Gulf of Guinea.They are, therefore, shared stocks between Benin, Togo, Ghana and Côte dIvoire.Acoustics surveys have shown that of these species, Sardinella maderensis andSardinella aurita are the most commonly shared stocks among the four countries. S.aurita lives in upwelling areas where the water is cold and high in salinity, whereas S.maderensis prefers warm water close to the coast where the water depth is less than50 metres.The pelagic stocks are targeted mainly by the artisanal fisheries subsector and to alimited extent by semi-industrial fisheries. The artisanal fishery operates in estuaries,bays and inshore waters, and the fishing activities are largely concentrated in areasless than 20 km from the coast and a depth of less than 40 metres. This fishery Country Production (MT) Fishing Effort (j) S. aurita S. maderensis Côte 5 453 186 1 603 d’Ivoire Ghana 70 672 21 384 Artisanal fishery: 573 912 Semi-industrial fishery: 3 410 Togo 2 499 1 316 42 569 Benin - 1 687 41 647 Total 78 624 24 573 663 141 43
  • 45. The landings of the main pelagic species have been experiencing fluctuations in totalcatch productions in the GCLME area as a whole. There has been a decrease in thetotal landings from 430,000 MT in 2003 to 354,000 MT in 2004. On the whole, thetotal landings have been fluctuating around 330,000 MT during the period 1990 to2005. The Scientific Sub-Committee of the Fishery Committee for the East CentralAtlantic (CECAF) reports that the main small pelagic stocks in the region are fullyexploited.6.2. Overall ObjectiveSustainable management of small pelagic fishery of Western Gulf of Guinea (Benin,Togo, Ghana and Côte dIvoire)6.3. Specific Objectives a) Update the knowledge on the management of Sardinella shared stocks. b) Establish an allocation system of Sardinella shared stocks. c) Building of human and institutional capacities.6.4. Operation of FrameworkThe management framework will operate for two years, from April 2010 to March2012. The framework will be validated by stakeholders at national level and executedunder the auspices of the Fishery Committee for the West Central Gulf of Guinea(FCWC). A harmonized database will be established and regularly replenished bynational fisheries administrations (fisheries departments and research institutions).The database will be hosted at the FCWC Secretariat. The management frameworkwill be improved with advancement in knowledge and management. However, nomajor departure from the stated management arrangements for a given year willoccur unless so directed by the FCWC Coordination Committee.6.5. Key DriversThe management framework will be consistent with guiding principles for thesustainable exploitation and development of the resources such as the FAO Code ofConduct for Responsible Fisheries, Ecosystem approach to Fisheries Management,Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Approach to Fisheriesand the Precautionary Approach.6.6. RationaleThe small pelagic species are important in the ecosystem as a link between plankton(which they feed upon) and fish feeding species for which these pelagic serve as food.Acoustic surveys conducted in the area and analyses by the CECAF Scientific Sub- 44
  • 46. Committee indicate decreases in landings, as well as the fact that the main smallpelagic stocks are fully exploited. In order to contribute to the rebuilding of thesestocks, the four countries have agreed to cooperate in the management of theseshared stocks. Objective 1 : Update the knowledge on management of Sardinella shared stocks ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS 1.1. • Harmonized • Ministries of Before June 2010. Define the database is fisheries elements of a available • Research harmonized • Nature of institutes database for information - FCWC, FAO sustainable (fishing effort, management of size frequency in stocks of all segments of Sardinella. fishing, catches) 1.2. • Reliability and • Ministries of From march 2010 Provide consistency of fisheries and ongoing). “complete” information • Research information to provided the institutes the database. basis of • Fisheries harmonized data communities • NGOs 1.3. • Degree of • Working groups From March 2010 Effective use of consulting the of scientists and ongoing. information in database • Ministries of database. • Meetings of fisheries working groups • Others (students, using information investors, etc) from the database Objective 2 : Establish mechanisms for an allocation system of Sardinella shared stocks ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS 2.1. Undertake study • Report of the • CPCO (secrétariat Before end of on mechanisms prospective général) September 2010 for allocation of study available • National & quotas among international countries. consultants 2.2. Adoption of the • Document • FCWC 4t h ministerial proposals of the containing Coordination conference of prospective study. proposals for Committee FCWC (Nov./Dec. establishing an • FCWC ministerial 2010) allocation conference sharing system 45
  • 47. Objective 3 : Building human and institutional capacities ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS 3.1. • Ministries of Training and • Workshop reports fisheries From sensitization of • Number of • Research January stakeholders. sensitization institutions 2010 and meetings • Fisheries ongoing. organized communities • Number of • NGOs persons trained • National 3.2. contributions • FCWC Funding of research • Funding request • Ministries of From activities. • Donor fisheries January contributions • Ministries of 2010 and economy/ ongoing. planning • Other line ministries • Donors 3.3. • FCWC From June Monitoring and (se cretariat 2011 and evaluating the • Evaluation • Ministries of ongoing. implementation of missions fisheries collaborative - Improvements • Research management plan. in management institutes6.7. ConclusionThis management framework addresses transboundary issues. Countries areexpected to operationalize the framework first by ensuring that it is validated bystakeholders at national level; and secondly by elaborating “Country Specific ActionPlans” to give effect to the contents of the management framework. 46
  • 48. CHAPTER SEVENManagement Framework for Small Pelagic Resources in NorthernGulf of Guinea7.1. Brief Description of the FisheriesSmall pelagic stocks in Northern Gulf of Guinea are shared stocks among Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. These pelagic stocks are targeted by both theindustrial and artisanal fisheries subsector. The artisanal fishery operates in estuaries,bays and inshore waters, and the fishing activities are largely concentrated in areas 15-45 km from the coast and a depth of less than 40 metres. This fishery comprises avariety of dugout and planked canoes. The fishing crafts employ diverse range offishing gear, which include cast nets, ring nets, drift nets, and set nets. This fisherycontributes significantly to the total national productions of the four countries region.It is estimated that 70 per cent of the fish consumed by average nationals of thesecountries is derived from this fishery. The industrial fishery sector, which is foreign-dominated, is characterized by multinational fishing fleets that comprise shrimpers,fish trawlers, canoe support, etc. These fleets operate in deep waters, although theshrimpers mostly operate in inshore waters.The landings of the main pelagic species have been experiencing fluctuations in thetotal catch productions in the GCLME region as a whole. There has been a decrease inthe total landings from 430,000 MT in 2003 to 354,000 MT in 2004. On the whole, thetotal landings have been fluctuating around 330,000 MT during the period from 1990to 2005. Most of the stocks are reported by the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee to befully exploited.7.2. Purpose/Overall ObjectiveSustainable management of the shared small pelagic stocks of Northern Gulf ofGuinea 47
  • 49. 7.3. Specific Objectives vthe shared small pelagic stocks in the sub region (north) To restore v To strengthen sub regional cooperation in resources management v the livelihoods of fishers in the region To improve v To strengthen knowledge of the fishers towards responsible fishing7.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThe management framework of the shared small pelagic in the sub region (north)involves Sardinella maderensis, Sardinella aurita, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Scrombrids,Decapterus rhonchus, Decapterus punctatus, Trachurus trachurus, trachurus trecae.7.5. Operation of the Management FrameworkThe management framework will cover a period of two years, from January 2010 toDecember 2011; that is the life of the specific actions in this management plan is twoyears which will be subjected to review. It must be noted that this management plan isongoing. In order to operationalize the framework, the contents will be validated bystakeholders in each of the partner countries. Each partner to this framework willdevelop “Country Specific Action Plans” to facilitate the implementation of thiscooperative management framework. The framework will be subjected to review, atleast once a year, by the authorized ministry of member countries, contingent on anymajor changes in the exploitation state of these fish resources. Relevant datagenerated from the data collection scheme will be analyzed by research institutes inthe region. Annual reports on the status of the resources and management regime willbe produced by fisheries directors in the respective countries. The annual reports areshared or exchanged between fisheries institutions in the region.7.6. Review of the Management FrameworkThe management framework will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and researchcentres in the sub region. Review will be based on the performance indicators.7.7. Key Policy DriversThe management framework will be consistent with guiding principles for thesustainable exploitation and development of the resources such as the FAO Code ofConduct for Responsible Fisheries, Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management,and the Plan of Implementation of the 2002 World Summit for SustainableDevelopment (WSSD), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), andPrecautionary Approach. 48
  • 50. 7.8. RationaleThe pelagic resources which include Sardinella maderensis, Sardinella aurita,Ethmalosa fimbriata, Scrombrids, Decapterus rhonchus, Decapterus punctatus,Trachurus trachurus, trachurus trecae in Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone andLiberia are considered to be one stock and are highly migratory within the coasts ofthese countries. The resources are considered to be shared among these countries.They are targeted by both industrial and artisanal fisheries. The Mackerel, HorseMackerel and Sardinella aurita are largely targeted by the industrial fishing trawlers.Sardinella maderensis occur inshore and are mainly targeted by artisanal fisheries.These are subjected to excessive exploitation pressure as they are exploited byartisanal and industrial fishers using indiscriminate and destructive fishing gear,including nets with small meshed sizes.Recent assessment by the Scientific Working Group in the CECAF region has indicatedthat these species are fully exploited. Thus, they recommended that managementoption be taken to salvage further depletion.In view of the above, and considering the shared nature of these stocks in the fourcountries, the following management strategies are being put in place:7.9. Management Strategies ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS A To avoid overexploitation of the shared small pelagic stocks in the sub region (North) 1 To reduce fishing •Moratorium on new • Ministry of Jan. 2010- effort. license Fisheries/Environ 2011 •Reduce the number ment of licensed vessels by • Fishers June 2010 10 percent organization June 2010 •Establish TAC for the • Research sub region institutes •Increase mesh size to 40 mm in the sub region 2 Strengthen the •Increase the number • Ministry of Jan, 2010 observer programme. of fisheries Observers Fisheries/Environ onboard by 10 ment percent • Fishermen organization • Research institutes 49
  • 51. 3 Establish effective and • Number of illegal • Ministry of Jan. 2010 harmonized MCS. vessels reduced by Fisheries/Environ 25 per cent ment • Number vessels using • Fishers VMS organization • Research institutes • Navy • Community surveillanceB To strengthen sub regional cooperation in resources management1 Establishment of sub •Undertake at least • Member Aug. 2010 regional pelagic one fisheries countries fisheries surveys. assessment survey • Research per year Institutions, SRFC, CECAF, GCLME • International agencies (FAO, World Bank, etc)2 Promotion of data •The number of • Member March exchange between the Scientific and countries 2010 – four countries management reports • Research Dec. 2011 published each year Institutions •Number of study tour (IMBO, CNSHB, made each year CIPA), • SRFC, CECAF, GCLME • International agencies (FAO, World Bank, etc)3 Promotion of •Number of exchange • Member March collaboration between visits made per year countries 2010 – Research Institutions in •The number of • Research Dec. 2011. the four Countries scientific report institutions (IMBO, CNSHB, CIPA). published per each (IMBO, CNSHB, •The number of CIPA) feedback conference • SRFC, CECAF, made per year GCLME • International agencies (FAO, World Bank, etc) Promotion of •Number of training • Member March collaboration between visits made among countries 2010 – research institutions countries each • Research Dec. 2011. and fisheries •Number study tours institutions administrations. made each year (IMBO, CNSHB, •Number CIPA)50
  • 52. C To improve the livelihoods of fishers in the four countries 1 Create alternative •Number of • Other line April 2010 livelihoods by microcredit projects ministries, Socio- – Dec. facilitating access to granted professional 2011 credit organizations • Financial institutions • SRFC, COREP, FCWC, GCLME • NGO/INGOs 2 Improve social • Number of schools, • Other line April 2010 infrastructure and hospitals built and ministries – Dec. service delivery. access to potable • Socio- 2011 water facilities in professional coastal zone of the Organizations four countries built • Financial each year institutions • Number of children • SRFC, COREP, attending schools FCWC, GCLME and disease outbreak • NGO/INGOs. each year D To strengthen knowledge of the fishers towards responsible fishing 1 Promotion of •Number of • SRFC, COREP, Jan. 2010 – stakeholder consultations FCWC, GCLME Dec.2011. consultation on organized • NGO/INGOs. fisheries governance at •Number of fishes national and sub organizations trips regional level. arranged between the countries Jan. 2010 – Dec. 2011. 2 Promotion of •Number of • SRFC, COREP, stakeholder consultations FCWC, GCLME consultation on organized at country • NGO/INGOs. fisheries governance at level and national and international level international level •Number of sub regional conference held7.9.1. ConclusionThis management framework addresses transboundary issues. Countries areexpected to operationalize the framework, first by ensuring that it is validated bystakeholders at national level; and secondly by elaborating “Country Specific ActionPlans” to give effect to the contents of the management framework. 51
  • 53. ANNEXE A: List of ParticipantsATERLIER REGIONAL DU GEMCG SUR LA FORMULATION ET LA MISE EN OEUVRE DESPLANS DAMENAGEMENT DES PECHERIES.GCLME REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OFFISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANSDOUALA 2 – 7 NOVEMBRE 2009№ NAME AND INSTITUTION/ADDRES EMAIL TELEPHONE FAX TITLE S 1. Maria Intituto Naconal mariasantos35@hotmail. + 244 222 +244 222 Esperanca Pires deInvestigacao com, 44519/ 44519 des Santos Pesqueria (INIP) esperancamaria2000@ya 912 243 214 Regional Rua Morthalia hoo.com.br Coordinator Mohamed YLMA de Luanda P. O. Box 2601 Luanda, Angola 2. Pierre Nolasque Ministry of Livestock , PierreMeke@yahoo.com + 237 79 65 +237 22 Meke Soung Fisheries and Animal 46 20/ 22 14 05, Chef de Brigade Industries (MINEPIA) 99 93 25 53 22 31 30 Brigade of Control and 48 Surveillance of Fisheries Activities – DPA – Yaoundé, Cameroon 3. André DESC – MINEPIA mounchikpou@yahoo.fr, + 237 75 58 +237 22 Mounchikpou B. P. 15219 Yaoundé, fodep@yahoo.fr 25 48 20 61 69 Charge d’etude Cameroun /22 00 61 Assistant 69/ 22 206169 4. Collins Angwe Research Station for caangwe@yahoo.ca +237 77 56 Researcher Fisheries 74 79 PMB 77 Limbe, Cameroon 5. Lucien Centre de Recherche lumaloueki@yahoo.fr + 242 638 + 242 943 Maloueki DGRST 7870 981 Chef de Labo B.P. 1286 Pointe Oceanographie Noire, et de Biologie République du Congo des Pêches 6. Mathieu Ministère de mongolu2003@yahoo.fr +243 895 Mongolu Bongu l’Environnement, 258 717/ Expert Biologie Conservation de la 815 15 3610 des Pêches. Nature et Tourisme. B.P. 12348 Kinshasha I, DR CONGO 52
  • 54. 1.Serge Donald Service de donaldelse@yahoo.fr, +225 07 22 Deleuse Surveillance des donaldelse@hotmail.fr 15 95/ 21 Chef de Pêches 35 63 15 Service Direction des productions halieutiques 18 B.P. 2790 Abidjan 18, Côte d’Ivoire2.Jean de Dieu Direction General doumambila@yahoo.fr +241 066 Doumambila des Pêches et de 111 40/ Directeur des l’Aquaculture 72 14 12 / Pêches B.P. 9498 Libreville, 74 89 92/ Artisanales Gabon 07 00 59 373.Patricia Fisheries patmark3@yahoo.com +233 244 Markwei Commission 27 27 91 Deputy Ministry of Food and Director of Agriculture Fisheries P.O. Box 630 Accra, Ghana4.Sankoumba Ministère de la sankdiaby@yahoo.fr +224 65 46 Diaby Peche et de 95 66 Inspecteur l’Aquaculture General B. P. 307 Adjoint charge Conakry, Guinea de l’amenagemen t des pêches5.Abrigo Menda Ministère de la abrigo68@ymail.com + 245 63 46 Chercheur Pêche 588 Guinea Bissau6. Aquatic Resources, areolaf@yahoo.com, + 234 Nigerian Agricultural folukenke@yahoo.com 803 320 Quarantine Services 5882/ Enugu Liaison Office 805 960 Abuja Central, 8259 Abuja, Nigeria Foluke O. Areola National President fison2ki@yahoo.com +234– 1 – Fisheries Society of 794 4217 Nigeria Niomr Old College Wilmot Point Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria 53
  • 55. 1.Virgina Direction Générale virginiacarvalho998@h +239 22 20 Godinho de la pêche otmail.com 91/ Chef de Ministerio de virginiacarvalho999@y 90 76 55 Service Economia ahoo.com.br sanitaire de C.P. 59, Banro 3de produits de la feverieira pêche Sao Tome et Principe 2.Ibrahim Turay Ministry of Fisheries turay.ib1264@yahoo.c +232 334 Acting and Marine om 541 96, Principal Resources – Jomo 783 359 69 Fisheries Kenyatta Road Officer Brookfields, Freetown, Sierra Leone 3.Sedzro kossi Ministère de peche@laposte.tg +228 221 Maxoe l’Agriculture, de ksedzro69@hotmail.co 34 70, Chef de l’Elevage et de la m 907 03 33 Division de Pêche Peche et de Direction de Pêche l’Aquaculture et de l’Aquaculture B.P. 1095 Lome, Togo 4.Benedict Satia University of bsatia@hotmail.com +1 425 877 Washington 1323 School of Marine Affairs 17404 13 Avenue SE Bothell WA 98012, USA 5.Kwame k Fisheries Kwame.koranteng@fao + 39 0657 +35 065 Koranteng Management & .org 056 007 705 Conservation 3020 Service (FIMF) FAO of the United Nations Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00153 Rome, Italy 6.Amadou Ministère de wassouniamadou@yah +237 22 23 Wassouni l’Environnement et oo.fr 60 12, Directeur de la Protection de 99 75 14 84 National GEM la Nature (MINEP) CG Cameroun B.P. 320 Yaoundé, Cameroun54
  • 56. 1.Brad Brown 11266 SW 166 TER JABARIBRAd@Aol.com +1 305 336 +1 MIAMI, FL 33157 5104 305 253 USA 49912.Oumarou Fisheries Expert njifonjo@gmx.fr + 237 77 61 Njifonjou GCLME 91 49 RCU + 233 54 Accra, Ghana 24 01 2373.Collins Bruno MINEP mboufack@yahoo.fr + 237 99 74 Mboufack B.P. 320 Yaoundé, 07 38 Cameroun4.Ayuk Comité sk_ayuk@yahoo.fr +237 77 01 Scholastica d’Organisation 98 29 Agbor IRAD Batoke PMB 77 Limbe, Cameroun5.Léopold Comité mewouande@yahoo.fr + 237 77 57 Mewouande d’Organisation 02 87 / 96 IRAD Batoke 51 55 30 PMB 77 Limbe, Cameroun6.Yiagnigni Comité arccommando@yahoo. + 237 75 30 Arouna d’Organisation com 89 66 IRAD Batoke PMB 77 Limbe, Cameroun 55