Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project       FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANSA GUIDE TO FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION  P...
Interim Guinea Current Commission /    Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project   FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS ANDIMPLE...
TABLE OF CONTENTSChapter One                                                         PageWorkshop Proceedings, Recommendat...
2.7.     Key Policy Drivers                                             172.8.     Rationale                              ...
5.2.   Purpose                                                      365.3.   Specific Objectives                          ...
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSBRD       By-catch Reduction DeviceCECAF     Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central A...
FORWARDFish was plentiful in many coastal markets along the Guinea Current. Alas! Today fishare far fewer, much smaller an...
CHAPTER ONEWorkshop Proceedings, Recommendations and Conclusions1.1.    IntroductionA regional workshop on the formulation...
1.1.2 Conduct and Organization of the WorkshopThe workshop was conducted in a participatory and iterative manner. All the ...
•   Participants also understood the constraints in formulating management        frameworks or plans, a factor that contr...
regional approaches for resolving the adverse effects of using beach seines in      that eco-region.      v      The GCLME...
In view of the ecological, biodiversity and economic importance of shrimp fishery, aswell as the paramount importance for ...
1.4.1. JustificationDuring the past decade the four southern countries of GCLME (Angola, the CongoRepublic, Congo DR and G...
with a common interest in the management of fish stocks. For each of theseorganizations, policy directives are given and d...
shop recommend that:The GCLME should take steps to strengthen collaboration with projects addressingecosystem-based region...
1.8.    Elaboration of Country-Specific Action PlansParticipants at the GCLME Regional Workshop on the Formulation andImpl...
CHAPTER TWOFramework for Management of Sciaenidae and Sparidae FisheryCommunities in the GCLME Region2.1.     Brief Descri...
2.3.    Management Objectives    Ø status of the Sciaenid and Sparid fish stocks in the GCLME region    Improve    Ø ecosy...
spawn in coastal areas and spend their adult lives in deep waters. Some are multiplespawners. It is a high-valued export s...
ACTIONS                                     PERFORMANCE INDICATORS                                        PARTICIPANTS    ...
Objective 4: Enhance fisheries governance issues.1. Stakeholders consultation In the       a. Number of stakeholders invol...
CHAPTER THREEFramework for Management of Shrimp Fishery in the GCLMERegion3.1.    Description of Shrimp Fisheries in the G...
30 m depth but this is hardly respected; resulting in conflicts with the artisanalfisheries sector, destruction of sensiti...
region and to support member countries to take necessary actions towards theirrecovery. The outcomes of this management fr...
Shrimp Fishery in GCLME Region (Log Frame) Objective # 1 Reduce volume of by-catchActions                Performance      ...
Objective # 2 Preserve habitat and environmentIdentification      of    Number of MPAs           Research institutes,     ...
Objective # 3 Improve quality and quantity of catch Determination of        Increase in biomass    Research               ...
3.9.    ConclusionThis management framework addresses transboundary issues. Countries areencouraged to take steps to opera...
CHAPTER FOURManagement Framework for Small Pelagic fishery of Central Gulfof Guinea4.1.    Description of the FisheryPelag...
4.2.    Overall ObjectiveSustainable management of the pelagic stocks within the coastal region of CentralGulf of Guinea (...
§Develop a management framework for each resource      § better use of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee working groups  ...
4.9.1. Presentation of the Management Framework        Fisheries Research Component Actions         Performance           ...
Use already         •   Number      of    •   COREP, FCWC     Start with annualestablished             joint meetings    •...
Take      joint   •   Number       of    •   Fisheries        Start in March 2011action      for       landing sites,     ...
Governance  Component  Jointly           •   Designation of     •   Fisheries         Start January 2010-  implement      ...
CHAPTER FIVEAction Plan for Conservation and Management of SharedSardinella Resources of Angola, Congo Republic, Congo DR ...
administration of its fisheries. However, the other three have in place fisheries lawsand regulations to ensure the sustai...
sub region. The review will be based on the performance indicators.5.7.    Key Policy DriverThe management framework will ...
5.9.   Log Frame for Management of Sardinella Stocks of the SouthStrategy 1:   Fisheries ResearchTake all reasonable steps...
Comments:The research priorities are oriented around the most compelling issues. Thesepriorities, each with equal weight, ...
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS
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IGCC/GCLME FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS

  1. 1. Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANSA GUIDE TO FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION Proceedings of the GCLME Regional Workshop, Douala, 2009
  2. 2. Interim Guinea Current Commission / Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS ANDIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES IN THE GCLME Proceedings of the GCLME Regional Workshop, Douala, 2009 Edited by: Dr. Mohamed B.D. Seisay Mr. Olu Sarr Supervised by: Dr. Stephen Maxwell Donkor Designed by: Yvonne A. Botwe
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSChapter One PageWorkshop Proceedings, Recommendations and Conclusions Table of Contents Abbreviations and Acronyms Foreword1.1 Introduction 71.1.1. Workshop Objectives 71.1.2 Conduct and Organization of the Workshop 81.1.3. Main Outcomes 81.1.4. Outlook and Recommendations 91.2. Context, Justification and Recommendations for Suggested Outlook Actions 101.2.1. Convene Meeting of Major Shrimp Producing Countries 101.3. Sub regional Approaches for Beach Seine Fisheries 111.4. Strengthen Institutional Arrangements in the Management of Small Pelagic Resources 111.4.1. Justification 111.5. Strengthen Cooperation between GCLME Project and Sub regional Fisheries Organizations 121.6. Strengthen collaboration between the GCLME Project and the EAF-Nansen Project 131.7. Harmonization of legislation and utilization of MCS-VMS systems 141.8. Elaboration of country specific Action Plans 151.9. Conclusion 15Chapter TwoFramework for the Management of Sciaenidae and Sparidae FisheryCommunities in the GCLME Region2.1. Brief Description of the Fishery 162.2. Purpose/overall Objective 162.3. Management Objectives 172.4. Scope of Management Framework 172.5. Operation of the Management Framework 172.6. Review of the Management Framework 17
  4. 4. 2.7. Key Policy Drivers 172.8. Rationale 172.9. Conclusion 20Chapter ThreeFramework for the Management of Shrimp Fishery in the GCLME Region3.1. Description of the shrimp fisheries in the GCLME region 213.2. Purpose/overall Objective 223.3. Management Objective 223.4. Scope of Management Framework 223.5. Operation of Management Framework 223.6. Review of Management Framework 223.7. Key Policy Drivers 223.8. Rationale 233.9. Conclusion 27Chapter FourManagement Framework for Small Pelagic fishery of the Central Gulf ofGuinea4.1. Description of the Fishery 284.2. Overall Objective 294.3. Specific Management Objectives 294.4. Scope of Management Framework 294.5. Operation of Management Framework 294.6. Review of Management Framework 294.7. Key Drivers 294.8. Strategies 294.9. Special considerations 304.9.1. Presentation of the Management Framework 314.9.2. Conclusions and Recommendations 34Chapter FiveAction Plan for Conservation and Management of Shared SardinellaResources of Angola, Congo Republic, Congo DR and Gabon5.1. Description of Fisheries 35
  5. 5. 5.2. Purpose 365.3. Specific Objectives 365.4. Scope of Management Framework 365.5. Operation of Management Framework 365.6. Review of Management Framework 365.7. Key Policy Driver 375.8. Rationale 375.9. Log Frame for the Management of Sardinella Stocks of the South 385.9.1. Conclusion 42Chapter SixManagement Framework for Small Pelagic Fishery of the Western Gulf ofGuinea6.1. Description of the Fisheries 436.2. Overall Objective 446.3. Specific Objectives 446.4. Operation of the Framework 446.5. Key Drivers 446.6. Rationale 446.7. Conclusion 46Chapter SevenManagement Framework for Small Pelagic Resources in the Northern Gulfof Guinea Region7.1. Brief Description of the Fisheries 477.2. Purpose/Overall Objective 477.3. Specific Objectives 487.4. Scope of the Management Framework 487.5. Operation of the Management Framework 487.6. Review of the Management Framework 487.7. Key Policy Drivers 487.8. Rationale 497.9. Management Strategies 497.9.1. Conclusion 51ANNEXE A: List of Participants 52
  6. 6. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSBRD By-catch Reduction DeviceCECAF Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central AtlanticCNSHB Centre National des Sciences Halieutiques de BoussaraDFID Department for International DevelopmentEAF Ecosystem Approach to Marine Fisheries in Developing CountriesGCLME Guinea Current Large Marine EcosystemFAO Food and Agricultural Organization of the United NationsFCWC Fishery Committee for the West Central Gulf of GuineaJSWG Joint Scientific Working GroupICZM Integrated Coastal Zone ManagementIGCC Interim Guinea Current CommissionIPOA International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of SharksIUU Illegal, unreported and unregulatedMCS-VMS Monitoring, Control and Surveillance – Vehicle Monitoring SystemsMPA Marine Protected AreaNORAD Norwegian Agency for Development CooperationR/V Research VesselSRFC Sub regional Fisheries CommissionTED Turtle Excluding DeviceUNIDO United Nations Industrial Development OrganizationWSSD World Summit for Sustainable DevelopmentWWF World Wide Fund for Nature
  7. 7. FORWARDFish was plentiful in many coastal markets along the Guinea Current. Alas! Today fishare far fewer, much smaller and more expensive.One of the long-term aims of the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem project isthe recovery of such depleted living resources in the region and provision of sustainedsupplies of this protein source for human consumption. Management of living marineresources is an urgent transboundary issue with serious implications for food security.It is a task requiring prudent ecosystem-based management of marine areas andrestoration of degraded coastal habitats.Some 150 million people living along the coastal zone forming part of the GCLMEregion are counting on their governments and scientists to lead such managementaction. It would help enhance long-term national and regional food security, restorefishing as a vital economic activity and so help secure livelihoods.The GCLME SAP Development project places considerable emphasis on buildingregional capacity for a science-based regional ecosystem approach to achieving theseaims. This book provides frameworks for the management of a variety of livingresources once abundant in the Gulf of Guinea area; actions being taken; what thestakeholders need to accomplish immediately; and sets out strategic fisheriesmanagement objectives.While stocks of marine living resources may recover slowly, application of the fisheriesmanagement plans contained in this book are a starting point and could go a long way tohalting the present decline.Stephen Maxwell Donkor, Ph.DExecutive Secretary and Regional Project Coordinator,Interim Guinea Current Commission
  8. 8. CHAPTER ONEWorkshop Proceedings, Recommendations and Conclusions1.1. IntroductionA regional workshop on the formulation and implementation of fisheriesmanagement plans organized by the Project EGRAFO4001-BL 1758 “Combating LivingResources Depletion and Coastal Area Degradation in the Guinea Current LargeMarine Ecosystem (GCLME) through Ecosystem-based Regional Actions” was held inDouala, Cameroon, from 2 to 7 November 2009. The workshop was opened by Dr.Wassouni Amadou, director of the environment, Ministry of the Environment ofCameroon and National GCLME director.Experts from 13 of the 16 GCLME countries and partners of the Project participated atthe workshop. The representatives from Benin, Equatorial Guinea and Liberia wereunable to attend. Besides the fisheries expert of the GCLME Project, Dr. OumarouNjifonjou, and the principal resource person/consultant to the workshop, Dr. BenedictP. Satia, a representative of the United States National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration, (Dr. Bradford Brown); as well as Dr. Kwame Koranteng, arepresentative, and coordinator of the EAF-NANSEN Project of the Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations), provided technical assistance at theworkshop. The list of participants is given as Annex A.1.1.1. Workshop ObjectivesThe workshop had the following objectives: v Improve understanding of the status of the resources in GCLME area v knowledge on the principles of developing fisheries management Enhance plans v individual skills of participants in developing plans Improve the v collaboration among and between countries in the management Strengthen of resources 7
  9. 9. 1.1.2 Conduct and Organization of the WorkshopThe workshop was conducted in a participatory and iterative manner. All the maindocuments were available to participants at least two weeks before the meeting,making it possible for participants to acquaint themselves with the contents of thedocuments before the workshop; and thus reducing time devoted to lecture-typepresentations. The workshop was 15 per cent lecture and 85 per cent hands-onexercises. Prior to the workshop, a questionnaire survey on management practices inthe GCLME area was conducted, analyzed and the results made available to allparticipants. The questionnaire survey facilitated efforts by participants at theworkshop to: Ø state of fisheries management in the region Assess the Ø Mainstream and guide discussion on “Development of Fisheries Management Plans” Ø the thought process of participants in relation to elements and Stimulate strategies that are often used in the development of fisheries management plansIn addition, participants worked in small groups. The groups were based on the naturalsubdivision of the GCLME region into four sub-ecoregions. The rationale of working insmall groups was to: § Enhance the participatory nature of the workshop, as all participants have ample opportunity to contribute to the groups efforts § Provide a means of engendering broader and deeper discussion on concepts and issues, relating to the formulation of plans § Encourage cooperation among and between countries in the region § Further encourage the development of individual skills among participants through hands-on exercisesParticipants had the opportunity to prepare and make presentations on the state offisheries management in their respective countries with emphasis on transboundaryissues and the available data and statistics on the sector.A wrap-up session was held at the end of the workshop. During the sessionparticipants determined the main outcomes; ways to enhance the outputs of theworkshop; and evaluated the overall context and organization of the workshop(logistics, quality of materials made available, presentation and conduct of theworkshop, the usefulness and potential effects of the workshop on participantsoutput, etc).1.1.3. Main OutcomesThe main outcomes are the following: • Participants appreciation of the importance of developing management frameworks was greatly increased 8
  10. 10. • Participants also understood the constraints in formulating management frameworks or plans, a factor that contributes to the limited number of management plans on the fish stocks in the area • Collaboration among and between countries on several aspects of the fisheries sector, particularly fisheries management, was enhanced • The individual technical skills of participants was improved and they were able, as part of the learning process, to develop management frameworks on: Øfishery Shrimp Ø fin fish fishery Demersal Ø Small pelagic fishery (four different stocks) on the basis of naturally determined eco-regionsParticipants pointed out that the workshop had other secondary outcomes such as: §Affording them the opportunity to be informed of recent developments of the sector in the region §Created awareness among them of weaknesses in fisheries governance and the high rate of by-catch in the fisheries including their adverse ecological and financial effects §Demonstrated the need for greater cooperation and collaboration among countries, on issues related to the fisheries including the exchange of information in the region §Enabled them to better appreciate the importance of having good statistics on the fisheries sector, to involve stakeholders and adopt a participatory and iterative process not only in developing fisheries management frameworks but in other aspects of their work § need to ensure management frameworks are kept as simple as possible, The undertake risks assessments and cost-benefit analysis in developing management frameworks1.1.4. Outlook and RecommendationsThe following are seven priority areas that were identified for action to enhance,further, the outcomes of the workshop: v GCLME Project should convene a meeting of the major shrimp countries in the GCLME region in order to facilitate the exchange of information and experiences on transboundary issues related to the sustainable management of this very important resource. v should assist countries of Western Gulf of Guinea to find sub The Project 9
  11. 11. regional approaches for resolving the adverse effects of using beach seines in that eco-region. v The GCLME Project should continue to provide assistance to strengthen institutional arrangements in the management of small pelagic fisheries in the southern zone to ensure the sustainable development of the resources. v Project should take steps to strengthen collaboration with sub The GCLME regional fisheries bodies in the area, as well as the FAO Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF), for the effective implementation of management advice/decisions. v Project should initiate action to strengthen collaboration with The GCLME projects addressing ecosystem-based regional actions and in particular the FAO/NORAD EAF-Nansen Project with a view to avoiding duplication, create synergies and for cost-effectiveness. v Project should provide assistance to enable the completion of the The GCLME process on the harmonization of legislation and approaches to the utilization of MCS-VMS systems in the sub region, as this would contribute to better compliance and enforcement of management measures. v should develop country-specific action plans in order to Countries operationalize the sub regional management frameworks developed or elaborated during the workshop.1.2. Context, Justification and Recommendations for Suggested Outlook Actions1.2.1. Convene Meeting of Major Shrimp Producing CountriesThe shrimp fishery of which the main species are Penaeus monodon; Penaeus notialis;Penaeus kerathurus; Parapeneopsis atlantic and Aristeus varidens, Parapenaeuslongirostris (the two latter are deep sea species), plays a pivotal role in the economicdevelopment of Angola, Cameroon, Guinea, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. However, thefishery has major ecological and human issues such as high by-catch rates of high-valued fin fish species including juveniles and habitat degradation by trawl gear. Inaddition, limited knowledge concerning stock status and removal of large predatorsleading to trophic cascades and distortion in ecosystem functioning, as well ascompetition and conflicts among artisanal and industrial fisheries, are majorproblems that countries need to tackle. From 2002 to 2008, FAO initiated a worldwideproject to attend to issues and constraints in shrimp fishery and in the processintroduced selective devices such as By-catch Reduction Devices and Turtle ExcludingDevices. Two GCLME countries - Cameroon and Nigeria - were partners with FAO inthat project. 10
  12. 12. In view of the ecological, biodiversity and economic importance of shrimp fishery, aswell as the paramount importance for countries to exchange information andexperiences on transboundary issues of this very important resource, participants atthe GCLME at the workshop recommend that:The GCLME Project should convene a meeting of a working group made up of themajor shrimp producing countries in the GCLME region (Angola, Cameroon, Guinea,Nigeria and Sierra Leone) to discuss and find appropriate solutions to issues relatedto shrimp fishery.1.3. Sub regional Approaches for Resolving the Adverse Impacts of UsingBeach Seines in the Fisheries of Western Gulf of GuineaSeveral fisheries communities in Benin, Côte dIvoire, Ghana and Togo use beachseines along the coasts, in breeding and grow-out areas as well as sensitive or fragileecosystems. A significant portion of the catch is juveniles, thus this fishing practice iscontributing to the destruction of the reproductive base of the fishery. The use of thisfishing gear is, therefore, creating tensions and conflicts between fishers and thefisheries administrations responsible for enforcing management measures. It isrecognized that if the issue is not properly addressed it could adversely affect thelivelihoods of the fisheries communities or lead to the migration of fishers from onecountry to another, thereby increasing fishing pressure (effort) on resources. It was inthis context that the DFID/FAO Sustainable Fisheries Livelihood Programme - inconsultation with Benin, Ghana and Togo - initiated activities on resolving the problemof using beach seines in the fisheries. In 2003 through 2004, a study on the biologicaland socio-economic impacts of beach seine fishing in the three countries wasundertaken. However, the DFID/FAO project ended before countries were able to puttogether the outcomes in their different countries and agree on a sub regionalapproach to resolve the issue.In order to find a durable solution to this destructive fishing practice, whose negativeimpacts are not only biological but ecological and socio-economic, and bearing inmind that much of the activities have already been undertaken, the workshoprecommends that:The GCLME Project should assist countries of Western Gulf of Guinea to completework and adopt sub regional approaches for resolving the adverse effects of usingbeach seines in that region.1.4. Strengthen Institutional Arrangements in the Management of SmallPelagic Resources (Sardinella spp.) in the South 11
  13. 13. 1.4.1. JustificationDuring the past decade the four southern countries of GCLME (Angola, the CongoRepublic, Congo DR and Gabon) have taken steps to enhance cooperation, improvetheir knowledge and exchange experience with regards the Sardinella fishery.Examples of such activities include workshops organized under the auspices of theFAO in 1997 and by UNIDO/GCLME in 2006 and 2007, as well as participation inactivities of the R/V DR. Fridtjof Nansen Research Programme on surveys of the fisheryresources of Eastern Gulf of Guinea.Following the 2006 workshop, it became apparent that the countries needed to workmore closely together to address some of the important recommendations taken atthe workshop, and to forge cooperation in science to generate timely and reliableinformation and data in support of management; to establish an institutionalarrangement to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience between thecountries; and to agree on processes to enhance the governance of the fishery,including effective compliance and enforcement apparatus. Consequently, at theSecond UNIDO/GCLME sponsored workshop held in Luanda, Angola, 5-7 September2007, the participants agreed to elaborate an Action Plan that would serve as a roadmap to move the fishery forward on an agreed schedule of shared responsibilitiesamong the participating States and stakeholders within each State. The Action Planwas updated at this workshop and an important component of it is the putting in placeof an institutional arrangement to ensure good governance of the resources so thatthese transboundary stocks continue to make significant socio-economiccontributions to these countries, while ensuring the health and well-being of theecosystem. The participants at the workshop recommend that:The GCLME Project should continue to provide assistance to strengthen institutionalarrangements in the management of small pelagic fisheries in the southern zone toensure the sustainable development of the resources.1.5. Strengthen Cooperation between GCLME Project and Sub regionalFisheries Organizations, as well as with CECAF.The GCLME area has three sub regional fisheries organizations: the Regional FisheryCommittee for the Gulf of Guinea in the south, whose members are Angola,Cameroon, Congo Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea,Gabon and Sao Tome and Principe; the Fishery Committee for the West Central Gulfof Guinea covering the countries between and including Nigeria to Liberia; and theSub-Regional Fisheries Commission (of which the three northern members of GCLME(Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone) are members. These fisheries organizationshave been established, in the main, to facilitate cooperation between the countries 12
  14. 14. with a common interest in the management of fish stocks. For each of theseorganizations, policy directives are given and decisions are taken at the Conference ofMinisters which, in principle, meet once a year.Country representatives at the Interim Guinea Current Commission (IGCC), the policyand decision-making structure for the GCLME, are generally the ministers in-charge ofthe environment, who may or may not have competence in fisheries matters in theirrespective countries. To ensure that fisheries matters, particularly those related tomanagement, are properly executed it is considered essential that the GCLME Projectshould establish strong working relationships with the three sub regional fisheriesorganizations, as well as CECAF, whose Scientific Subcommittee is responsible forassessing the state of fishery resources, and provide management advice. Allcountries of the GCLME are members of CECAF and play an active role in the CECAFScientific Subcommittees Working Party for the South, whose area of competence isthe GCLME area. Participants at the workshop recommend that:The GCLME project should take steps to strengthen collaboration with sub regionalfisheries bodies in the area as well as CECAF for the effective implementation ofmanagement advice/decisions.1.6. Strengthen Collaboration between the GCLME and the EAF-NansenProjectsThe participants at the workshop recalled that FAO is currently executing, with thefinancial assistance of NORAD, a global project “Strengthening the Knowledge Basefor and Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Marine Fisheries in DevelopingCountries” whose acronym is EAF-Nansen. The immediate objective of the FAOs EAF-Nansen project is to provide fisheries research institutions and managementadministrations with additional knowledge on their ecosystems for their use inplanning and monitoring and to further the acceptance of the key principles of theEAF; the GCLME project aims, inter alia, at recovery and sustenance of depletedfisheries and restoring degraded habitats.The participants at the workshop noted the complementarities between the GCLMEand EAF-Nansen projects. They remarked that it was critical that these two projectswork together to avoid overlaps and to ensure effective synergies that wouldmaximize benefits to the coastal countries, as well as improve the productiveefficiency of both projects in achieving their respective objectives. The workshopexpressed the view that the two projects could strengthen their working relationshipthrough such instruments as a memorandum of understanding at agency (FAO andUNIDO) levels for collaboration between the two projects. Participants at the work 13
  15. 15. shop recommend that:The GCLME should take steps to strengthen collaboration with projects addressingecosystem-based regional actions and in particular the FAO/NORAD EAF-NANSENProject, with a view to avoiding duplication, create synergies and for cost-effectiveness.1.7. Complete Work on the Harmonization of Legislation and Approachesto the Utilization of MCS-VMS Systems in the Sub region.In the past decade marine capture fisheries from the region stagnated, and most ofthe important demersal resources were either fully exploited or overexploited. At thesame time, fishing effort is increasing and it is estimated that 500 trawlers arecurrently operating within the area. Several of the fleets are engaged in illegal,unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, resulting in a loss of about US $30 billionannually to the countries, not to mention the ecological, social and economic impactsof such activity. Many factors contribute to the prevalence of this phenomenon in theGCLME area, among them is weak governance and poor monitoring and enforcementsystems - for example, Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) and VehicleMonitoring Systems (VMS).In January 2006, the GCLME Project and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) jointlyorganized in Accra, Ghana, a regional workshop on “Promoting Sustainable FisheriesAccess Arrangements in the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Countries”. Oneof the positive outcomes of the workshop was the initiative taken by countries inCentral Gulf of Guinea to harmonize their fisheries legislation and seek commonapproaches to improve on monitoring and enforcement of management measuresand reduce the high rate of IUU fishing, estimated at over 40 per cent. The countries(Benin, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe andTogo) have held three meetings, and with the help of FAO have harmonized theirlegislation. The countries, however, need assistance to meet and agree on theharmonized legislation and explore ways and means to collaborate in the use of theirMCS-VMS systems, which many of the countries acquired following the 2006GCLME/WWF workshop. Participants at the GCLME workshop on the formulation andimplementation of fisheries management plans recommend that:The GCLME Project should provide assistance to enable the completion of theprocess on the harmonization of legislation and common approaches to theutilization of MCS-VMS systems in the sub region, as this would contribute to bettercompliance and enforcement of management measures. 14
  16. 16. 1.8. Elaboration of Country-Specific Action PlansParticipants at the GCLME Regional Workshop on the Formulation andImplementation of Fisheries Management Plans (Douala, Cameroon, November2009) developed management frameworks on shrimp fishery, on demersal fin fishfishery (Sciaenidae and Sparidae communities) as well as sub regional frameworks onthe management of small pelagic fishery at sub regional levels (concerning 2-4countries). These plans address transboundary issues. In order to operationalize theseplans at national level, it was agreed that participants ensure the plans are validatedby representatives of stakeholders and that a process for implementing the actionscalled for in these frameworks be elaborated, including a clear definition of the rolesof the administration and stakeholders should be put in place. The participants at theworkshop agreed that one of the most important elements in the process ofoperationalizing the management frameworks that emphasize transboundary issueswas “Country Specific Action Plans”. The workshop recommends that:Each country of the GCLME should develop and implement “Country-Specific Plansof Actions” to ensure the implementation, as appropriate, of the contents of thetransboundary management frameworks developed at the workshop.1.9. ConclusionAll the participants contributed actively to the outcome of the workshop. In theirresponses to the Evaluation Questionnaire of the workshop, they indicated that theorganization, logistics and conduct of the workshop was very good. All indicated thatthe objectives of the workshop were met, and that the knowledge they had acquiredwould contribute to improving their output in their respective countries. Participantsalso emphasized the need to monitor the extent to which the outputs of the workshopwere being used, and requested that due consideration be given to therecommendations coming from the workshop. 15
  17. 17. CHAPTER TWOFramework for Management of Sciaenidae and Sparidae FisheryCommunities in the GCLME Region2.1. Brief Description of the FisheryThe marine fisheries in the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem are exploited byboth the artisanal and industrial fisheries. The fisheries resources are multi-species innature and comprise both demersal and pelagic fish as assemblages. They areexploited by artisanal and industrial fishing fleets. One species/family that constitutesa high percentage in catch landings within the GCLME region is the Sciaenid family. Itplays an important role in the socio-economic development of the fishermen and foodsecurity.The Sciaenid family constitutes Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Pseudotolithus typus,and Pseudotolithus brachygnathus. These species are inshore demersal resources andlargely distributed inshore and can occur in estuaries and brackish waters. They thrivein a wide-range of salinity. The species can easily grow to about 30 cm in total length,and lengths in excess of 40 cm have been found. The species has a shoaling behaviourand migrates along the shore. It is found in greatest abundances from August toNovember in most areas in the region.They are exploited by demersal fish trawlers, and the shrimp trawlers take a largeproportion of them as by-catch. In addition, these species are taken in a variety ofartisanal fishing gear including ring nets, drift nets, beach seines, hook and line, etc.,and it has been supporting an export oriented onshore processing outfit thatexclusively targets croakers.2.2. Purpose/Overall Objective“Sustainable management of the Sciaenidae and Sparidae fish stocks in the GuineaCurrent Large Marine Ecosystem”. 16
  18. 18. 2.3. Management Objectives Ø status of the Sciaenid and Sparid fish stocks in the GCLME region Improve Ø ecosystem wellbeing of the region Enhance Ø the socio-economic welfare (livelihood) of the fisheries communities Improve Ø fisheries governance. Enhance2.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThis management framework will cover the Sparids (Pagrus caeruleostictus, Pagellusbellottii, Dentex angloensis, Dentex congoensis, Dentex canariensis, dentexmacrophthalmus) and Sciaenids species (Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Pseudotolithustypus, Pseudotolithus brachygnathus) in the GCLME region. However, since thefisheries resources are multi-species in nature and are exploited by multi-gear, it isimplied that the management plan will cover all demersal resources in the GCLMEregion.2.5. Operation of Management FrameworkThe management framework will cover a period of two years, from January 2010 toDecember 2011, and it will be subjected to review by the authorized ministry ofmember countries, contingent on any major changes in the exploitation state of thesefish resources. Relevant data generated from the data collection scheme will beanalyzed by research institutes in the region and annual reports on the state of theresources and management regime will be produced by fisheries directors in theregion. The annual reports would be shared or exchanged between fisheriesinstitutions in the region.2.6. Review of Management FrameworkThe management framework will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and researchcentres in the region. Review will be based on the performance indicators.2.7. Key Policy DriversThe management framework will be consistent with guiding principles for thesustainable exploitation and development of the resources such as the United NationsFood and Agriculture Organizations (FAO) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries,Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management; the Plan of Implementation of theWorld Summit on Sustainable Approach to Fisheries and the Precautionary Approach.2.8. RationaleThe Sparid family, which constitutes Pagrus caeruleostictus, Pagellus bellottii, Dentexangloensis, Dentex congoensis, Dentex canariensis, Dentex macrophthalmus, form animportant element in the demersal catch landings in the GCLME region. Most of them 17
  19. 19. spawn in coastal areas and spend their adult lives in deep waters. Some are multiplespawners. It is a high-valued export species, most of which are deep water dwellersand are largely exploited by industrial fishing vessels and hook and line artisanalfisheries using powered motorized craft, with insulated boxes. The bulk of the speciesis caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the region.Unlike the Sparids that mostly live in deep waters, the Sciaenid family, whichcomprises Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Pseudotolithus typus, Pseudotolithusbrachygnathus, are found exclusively in inshore coastal waters. They are commerciallyexploited by both artisanal and industrial fisheries subsectors in the inshore areas andform a critical portion of the demersal catch landings in the GCLME region. The bulk ofthe species are also caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the region, and over thelast 20 years the juvenile mortality of these species has been increasing as a result ofincrease in the by-catch rate in the shrimp fishery. In addition, this situation isaggravated by the indiscriminate use of destructive fishing methods and illegal fishingmesh in spawning and nursery areas by artisanal and industrial fisheries.Furthermore, the removal of mangrove vegetation for fish smoking, boat building,etc., has degraded spawning and nursery habitats, thereby causing possible stockrecruitment failure or disturbance is stock recruitment. The excessive exploitation ofthese species as a result of effort pressure and desire to catch fish has considerablyincreased the fishing mortality over the years. The Sparid species/family of fishesconstitutes high percentage in catch landings within the GCLME region and plays animportant role in the socio-economic development of the fishers and food security.Recent estimates by the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee on the basis of workundertaken by the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee Demersal Working Group (South)have indicated that both the Sciaenidae and Sparidae species are either fully exploitedor overexploited in the region.In view of the above, and considering the importance of the sciaenid and Sparids stockto the sustainable economic development and the ecosystem well-being of thisregion, it is necessary to develop a management framework with a view to restoringthe stock and the ecosystem integrity of the region, hence the proposed managementframework. 18
  20. 20. ACTIONS PERFORMANCE INDICATORS PARTICIPANTS TIMELINEObjective 1: Improve the status of the Sciaenid and Sparid stocks in the GCLME region1. Reduction of the fishing effort. a. Moratorium on new licenses. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Begins in January 2010 maritime transport administration. and throughout the plan The Navy, research Insztitutes. and beyond. b. Reduction of fishing vessels licensed (5%). January 2010 and throughout the plan and beyond. c. Restriction of vessel sizes limitation (TGB). Throughout the plan and beyond.2. Reduction of by-catch and discards. Reduction by 20% during the life of the management plan Research institutes, Ministry of March 2010 and reduction of by-catch rate from 75% to 60%. Fisheries (Fisheries Observers), the throughout the plan and Navy and appropriate NGOs. beyond.3. Control me sh size regulations. a. Decreased number of fishing gears with inappropriate Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan and mesh sizes by 10%. maritime transport administration. beyond. The Navy/ fishers organizations. b. Increase in the average size of fish landed.4. Prohibition of fishing in spawning Reduction in incidences of infraction reduced by 10% and Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan andareas. reduction in the use of trawl gears in spawning and Navy/ fishers organizations. beyond. nursery area by 5%.5. Enforcement of landing obligation in Increase use of designated landing sites and fishing ports. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan andauthorized landing sites and ports. Navy, custom officers beyond.Objective 2: Enhance ecosystem wellbeing in the region1. Reduce pressure on mangrove and a. Reduce exploitation pressure on mangrove by 5%. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan andother fragile habitats spawning and Navy/ fishers organizations. beyond.nursery areas. b. Reduction in the use trawl gears in spawning and nursery area by 5%.2. Creation of the marine protected area. a. Initiate the process of establishing of at least one (1) Ministry of March 2010 and MPA in each country. Fisheries/Environment/Forestry, throughout the plan and Navy, fishermen organizations, beyond. research institutes, NGO/INGOs.3. Reduce land-based pollution. a. Decrease in the levels of pollutants in coastal water by Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan and 5%. fishermen organizations, research beyond. institutes/CECAF, industries, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, GCLME, rural development, NGO/INGOs.Objective 3: Improve the livelihoods of fisheries communities1. Create alternative livelihoods by a. Increase in the number of microcredit projects granted. Other line ministries, socio- May 2010 andfacilitating access to credit. professional organizations, financial throughout the plan and institutions, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, and beyond. GCLME NGO/INGOs.2. Improve social infrastructure and a. At least 1 school and 1 hospital built in coastal zone. Other line ministries, socio- May 2010 andservice delivery. professional organizations, financial throughout the plan and institutions, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, and beyond. GCLME NGO/INGOs. b. Increase in the number appropriate infrastructures for May 2010 and fisheries development. throughout the plan and beyond. c. Increase access to potable water. May 2010 and throughout the plan and beyond. d. Number of school children attending 30%. 19
  21. 21. Objective 4: Enhance fisheries governance issues.1. Stakeholders consultation In the a. Number of stakeholders involved in decision- making. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment/ January 2010 andestablishment and the implementation Hydrocarbons, fishermen throughout the plan andof the fishery management plan (co- organizations, research beyond.management). institutes/CECAF, industries, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, GCLME NGO/INGOs. b. Number of consultative meetings held with the January 2010 and stakeholders. throughout the plan and beyond. c. Increase the number of fishers using responsible fishing January 2010 and by 20 %. throughout the plan and beyond.2. Regional and sub regional a. Number of regional and sub regional problems solved Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, January 2010 andcollaboration in sustainable resources through collaboration betwee n countries. fishermen organizations, research throughout the plan andmanagement. institutes/CECAF, SRFC, COREP, beyond. FCWC, GCLME NGO/INGOs and international agencies. b. Number of attendance of member countries in regional Throughout the plan and and sub regional meetings, conferences, training beyond. workshops increasing by 50%. c. Number of data sharing among member countries Throughout the plan and increase by 20%. beyond.3. Create and promote existing socio- a. At least 1 organization established in respective. Ministry of Fisheries/Environment, Throughout the plan andprofessional organizations. fishermen organizations/ fishing beyond. communities, research institutes/CECAF, SRFC, COREP, FCWC, GCLME NGO/INGOs and International agencies. 2.9. CONCLUSION This management framework addresses transboundary issues. Countries are expected to operationalize the framework, first by ensuring that it is validated by stakeholders at national level; and secondly by elaborating “Country Specific Action Plans” to give effect to the contents of the management framework. 20
  22. 22. CHAPTER THREEFramework for Management of Shrimp Fishery in the GCLMERegion3.1. Description of Shrimp Fisheries in the GCLME RegionShrimps are caught in the shallow and deep waters by artisanal and shrimp trawlersrespectively. Main shrimp caught in the GCLME region are Panaeus monodon, P.kerathurus, P. notialis and P. atlantica, Parapenaeus longirostris and Aristeus varidens.The Scientific Sub-Committee of the FAO Fishery Committee for the East CentralAtlantic (CECAF) at its fifth session in December 2007 reported that the main shrimpstocks in the region were either fully exploited or overexploited. Representatives ofmember countries of the GCLME region, at their November 2009 workshop in Douala,Cameroon, on the formulation and implementation of fisheries management plans,confirmed that shrimp production in their respective countries was decreasing bothin quantity and quality, further evidence that the shrimp resources were beingoverexploited. In Angola, catches of deep sea shrimps were estimated at 6,000 MT in1990 but the catches have since been erratic and showing a general decline. Shrimptrawlers are producing more by-catches and discards and the fishery is reported to becollapsing in some countries. In Ghana, for example, more than 90 per cent ofproduction is by-catch. In Sierra Leone industrial fishery shrimp production has beenstagnant around 1,400 MT annually.The shrimp fishery is subjected to excessive pressure particularly by illegal,unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, although there are signs fishing capacity byGCLME countries is reducing. In Angola the fleet comprised 43 trawlers in 2003 butdropped to 35 in 2008, while in Ghana it has dropped from a high of 13 vessels in 1997to only 2 in 2008. In Sierra Leone, the number of licensed shrimp trawlers havedeclined from a peak of 84 in 1980s to 24 in 2007.Another characteristic of the fishery is the infringement of regulations pertaining tofishing grounds. In many countries shrimp trawlers are expected to operate beyond 21
  23. 23. 30 m depth but this is hardly respected; resulting in conflicts with the artisanalfisheries sector, destruction of sensitive habitats and high by-catch rates.Furthermore, fishery policy decisions in some countries, for example Angola, througha bilateral fishing agreement with the European Union, adversely affected the fishery.The agreement has now been suspended.3.2. Purpose/Overall ObjectiveSustainable exploitation of the shrimp resources while conserving biodiversity3.3. Management Objective v Reduce volume of by-catch vhabitat and environment Preserve v Improve quality and quantity of catch3.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThis management framework will cover Panaeus monodon, P. kerathurus, P. notialisand P. atlantica, Parapenaeus longirostris and Aristeus varidens in the GCLME region.However, since the fisheries resources are multi-species in nature and are exploitedby multi-gear, it is implied that in implementing this framework countries will take intoaccount associated fisheries in the shrimp fishery.The principal shrimp producing countries in the region are Angola, Cameroon, Gabon,Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. These are the partner countries in theimplementation of this framework.3.5. Operation of Management FrameworkThe management framework will cover a period of two years from, January 2010 toDecember 2011, and will be subjected to review by the authorized ministry ofmember countries, contingent on any major changes in the exploitation state of thesefish resources. Relevant data generated from the data collection scheme will beanalyzed by research institutes in the region and an annual report on the state of theresources and management regime will be produced by fisheries directors in theregion. The annual reports would be shared or exchanged between fisheriesinstitutions in the region.3.6. Review of Management FrameworkThe management framework will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and researchcentres in the region. Review will be based on the performance indicators.3.7. Key Policy DriversThe main goals of the LMEs projects are the recovery of the dwindling resources in the 22
  24. 24. region and to support member countries to take necessary actions towards theirrecovery. The outcomes of this management framework will contribute to these goalsin connection with shrimp fishery in the major shrimp producing countries (Angola,Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) of GCLME. It also aims toachieve outcomes that are consistent with broader government objectives for themanagement of marine living resources with a view to meeting the objectives of the2002 Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on SustainableDevelopment, in particular the rebuilding of fish stocks and the application of theEcosystem-Based Fisheries Management principle. In this respect, other key policydrivers for the management framework are the FAO Code of Conduct for ResponsibleFisheries, Ecological Sustainable Development, the Precautionary Approach, andIntegrated Management.3.8. RationaleThe shrimp fishery of which the main species are Penaeus monodon; Penaeusnotialis; Penaeus Kerathurus; Parapeneopsis atlantic and Aristeus varidens,Parapenaeus longirostris (the two latter are deep sea species), plays a pivotal role inthe economic development of several countries in the GCLME region. However, thefishery has major ecological and human issues such as high by-catch rates of high-valued fin fish species, including juveniles and habitat degradation by trawl gear. Inaddition, limited knowledge concerning stock status and removal of large predators,leading to trophic cascades and distortion in ecosystem functioning, as well ascompetition and conflicts among artisanal and industrial fisheries, are majorproblems that countries need to tackle. The Fishery Committee for the EasternCentral Atlantic (CECAF) Scientific Sub-Committee reports that all the importantshrimp fisheries in the GCLME area are either fully exploited or overexploited.From 2002 to 2008, FAO conducted a worldwide project to deal with issues andconstraints in shrimp fishery and, in the process, introduced selective devices such asBy-catch Reduction Devices (BRDs) and Turtle Excluding Devices (TED). Two GCLMEcountries - Cameroon and Nigeria - were partners with FAO in that project. In view of the present precarious state of the fishery, as well as the ecological,biodiversity and economic importance of shrimp fishery, countries of the GCLMEregion desirous of rebuilding shrimp fishery stocks have developed the followingframework for the sustainable exploitation of the shrimp fishery while conservingbiodiversity. 23
  25. 25. Shrimp Fishery in GCLME Region (Log Frame) Objective # 1 Reduce volume of by-catchActions Performance Participants Reference Points Decision Indicators RulesIntroduction of Reduced volume Fisheries Current shrimp Compulsoryselective devices in and composition of Department, production as use of thethe fisheries. by-catch and research baseline data. BRD by discards by 15%. institutes, shrimp regional fisheries Current volume trawlers Reduced percent of bodies such as of by-catch. within a by-catch to total COREP. specific catch (75% to 60%). Establish current time frame biomass. (maximum 2 years). Regulation of cod end mesh size (at least 50mm).Set up the observer Mapping of the Fisheries Determine Compulsoryprogramme. fishing grounds. departments, percent fleet for observers Navy (Port implementation on selected No landing of authorities, in Nigeria, boats (at juveniles shrimps. Marine Police, Cameroon, least 25% operators). Gabon, Ghana, coverage). Sierra Leone (5%) and training for Angola.Provide alternative Some operators Fisheries Start inmeans of livelihood involved in Department, Januaryby introduction of collection of shells, NGOs, Ministry 2010 andother profitable exportation of sea of Employment, continueoccupation. cucumbers, etc. research through life institutes, of Plan. Reduced number of financial licensed shrimp institutions, trawlers. banks. Reduced pressure on shrimp stocks. 24
  26. 26. Objective # 2 Preserve habitat and environmentIdentification of Number of MPAs Research institutes, Established CompulsoryMarine Protected created (at least one regulatory body, minimum size of use of theAreas (MPAs) and year in each country). Ministry of individual species BRD by theregulate. Environment, NGOs of shrimp (each shrimp and civil society country. trawlers organizations. within a specific time frame (maximum 2 years).Identification of Area for MPAs Research institute, Octoberfishing grounds for established. regulatory body, 2010licensing purposes. Ministry of Environment, NGOs and civil society organizations.Identification of Closed area and Research institutes Octoberbreeding grounds and closed season and Fisheries 2010seasons for closure. established. Department.Introduction of Number of vessels Research institute Regulation ofselective devices in having selective and Fisheries cod endthe fisheries. devices. Department. mesh size (at least 50mm).Enforcement of Reduction of by-catch Fisheries Regulation ofregulations and Department, Navy, cod endpenalties. Increase in biomass Marine Police and mesh size (at and shrimp the law courts. least 50mm). production.Improvement of Increase in quality of Fisheries CompulsoryMonitoring Control shrimp Department, observer onand Surveillance sponsors, Navy, selected(MCS) programme (all Improvement in the Marine Police, boats (atcountries. control of fishers. artisanal fishers. least 25% coverage).Sensitization of stake Four sensitization Fisheries Start Januaryholders on fora for stakeholders Department, NGOs, 2010 andenvironmental issues organized in a year. CSOs. continueand resource control. through life Ease in enforcement of Plan. of regulations. 25
  27. 27. Objective # 3 Improve quality and quantity of catch Determination of Increase in biomass Research Established Compulsory use abundance and shrimp institutes, minimum size of of the BRD by (biomass), fishing production. Fisheries individual the shrimp effort and Department, legal species of trawlers within regulations. and legislative shrimp (each a specific time bodies. country). frame (maximum 2 years). Carry out observer Reduced volume Fisheries/ Established Compulsory programme and composition of surveillance current observer on (Determine % fleet by-catch and departments biomass. selected boats for discards. (Navy, Port (at least 25% implementation) - Authorities, Established coverage. Nigeria, Cameroon, Increase in quality marine police, fishing effort. Gabon, Ghana (5%) (size) of shrimp. emigration). Determination and Angola of capacities of (training). Reduced % of by- shrimp vessels catch to total catch (maximum 300 (75% to 60%). GRT). Identification of Closed area and Research October 2010 fishing grounds for closed season institutes and licensing purposes. established. Fisheries Department. Identification of Research institute October 2010 breeding grounds and Fisheries and seasons for Department. closure. Improvement of Reduced % of by- Fisheries/ October 2010 Monitoring Control catch to total catch surveillance and Surveillance (75% to 60%). departments (MCS) programme (Navy, Port (all countries). Increase in quality authorities, (size) of shrimp. Marine Police). Introduction of Reduced volume Fisheries/ May 2010 selective devices in and composition of surveillance the fisheries by-catch and departments discards. (Navy, port authorities, Increase in quality Marine Police. (size) of shrimp. Reduced % of by- catch to total catch (75% to 60%). 26
  28. 28. 3.9. ConclusionThis management framework addresses transboundary issues. Countries areencouraged to take steps to operationalize the framework by having stakeholders ofthe sector validate its contents. Countries should also develop “Country SpecificAction Plans” on shrimp fishery. As expressed by participants at the workshop, the GCLME project should explore thepossibility of assisting the countries concerned in implementing this frameworkthrough the facilitation of working group meetings of the principal shrimp producingcountries (Recommendation #1 of the GCLME Regional Workshop on the Formulationand Implementation of Fisheries Management Plans). 27
  29. 29. CHAPTER FOURManagement Framework for Small Pelagic fishery of Central Gulfof Guinea4.1. Description of the FisheryPelagic stocks such as Sardinella manderensis, S. aurita, Ethmalosa fimbriata, andIllisha africana are transboundary species between Nigeria, Cameroon, EquatorialGuinea, Sao Tome and Principe, making their sustainable management by individualcountries difficult. These pelagic stocks in the sub region are fully exploited due toexcessive fishing pressures as well as destruction of the resources through pollution;degradation of habitats; use of destructive fishing gear and methods; non-complianceto regulations; absence of management plans; and poor synergy between key actors.Catch figures with respect to the area in question (Central Gulf of Guinea) provides thefollowing estimates for the three species: 32,842 MT for S. manderensis, 3,745 MT forS. aurita, and 57,032 MT for E. fimbriata. These stocks contribute significantly tonational food and nutrition security; as well as employment and wealth creation,especially the poor fisher community. The fishers targeting these species live inremote and poor environments, and constitute the vulnerable segment of thepopulation and are generally migrants. It is estimated that 1.8 million persons areinvolved in this fishery. The total fishing effort is estimated at 10,000 canoes for SaoTome and Cameroon.There is no concerted or joint effort for the sustainable management of theseresources. Furthermore, whereas there is better knowledge of the demersal fin fishresources through regular stock assessments, our understanding of the pelagicspecies, especially in the inshore area between 0-20m depths, is very limited becausestock assessments have not generally been undertaken in this zone due to the lack ofappropriate research vessels. The resources could, therefore, inadvertently bedepleted. 26
  30. 30. 4.2. Overall ObjectiveSustainable management of the pelagic stocks within the coastal region of CentralGulf of Guinea (Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria and Sao Tome and Principe).4.3. Specific Management Objectives §Improve knowledge of the state of the resources §Maximize benefits to the four countries through improved management of the small pelagic fishery §Strengthen cooperation in the management of the small pelagic fishery in Central Gulf of Guinea4.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThe small pelagic fishery of Central Gulf of Guinea is exploited principally by artisanal(small-scale) harvesters. The principal species in the context of this managementframework are: Sardinella manderensis, S. aurita, Ethmalosa fimbriata, IllishaAfricana4.5. Operation of Management FrameworkThis management framework shall be implemented for two years (January 2010through December 2011) inclusive, subject to annual reviews and amendments thatare considered necessary by the competent authorities of the four countries, partnersto this framework. Relevant data generated from the data collection scheme will beanalyzed by research institutes in the region and an annual report on the states of theresources and management regime will be produced by the directors of fisheries inthe respective countries. The annual reports are to be shared or exchanged amongfisheries institutions in the region.4.6. Review of Management FrameworkThe management framework will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and researchcentres in the sub region. Review will be based on the performance indicators.4.7. Key DriversKey drivers identified for the development and implementation of this managementframework include: the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, thePrecautionary Approach, the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries, Ecological SustainableDevelopment, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on SustainableDevelopment 2002, and Integrated Coastal Zone Management.4.8. Strategies §Conduct stock assessment of the pelagic resources 29
  31. 31. §Develop a management framework for each resource § better use of the CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee working groups Make §Strengthen the capacities and capability of research Institutes §Strengthen collaboration between fisheries research institutes and fisheries administrations § already established organizations such as COREP and FCWC to facilitate Use the implementation of joint management measures §Develop appropriate system of fisheries statistics and data collection and set up joint database §Jointly fund the convention for the harmonization of interventions and procedures on Monitoring, Control and Surveillance/Vessel Monitoring Systems § joint action for the improvement of the livelihood of fisher folk Take § up appropriate actions for the restoration and protection of degraded Set areas §Jointly implement the management action plan4.9. Special ConsiderationsThis management framework involves fisheries research, management andgovernance. The following specific activities are considered essential for thesuccessful outcome of the framework: vof stock assessment once a year Conduct v two technical/scientific meetings a year, which could be virtual Organize meetings v management meetings once a year, in the fringes of COREP annual Organize meetings v the management framework at least once a year Re-evaluate 30
  32. 32. 4.9.1. Presentation of the Management Framework Fisheries Research Component Actions Performance Participants Timeline Indicators 1) Conduct Number of stock • Fisheries Two surveys /year stock assessment and research (Jan-March. & July- assessment results. Institutes Aug.) 2011. of the • Fisheries pelagic Department stocks. • National Institute of Statistics 2) • Number of • Fisheries Training in specific Strengthen staff trained research subject areas from the • Increase in the institutes April 2010 and capacities number of • Trainers ongoing. and researchers capability of • Number of research relevant Institutes equipments and coastal acquired surveillance units. Table 2: Fisheries Management Component Performance Participants Timeline Indicators Develop a Framework developed • Fisheries January 2010 management for every fishery. Department framework • Fisheries for each research resource. institutes • Operators • NGOs, civil society organization • Processors • COREP, FCWC 31
  33. 33. Use already • Number of • COREP, FCWC Start with annualestablished joint meetings • Ministers meeting of bodies inorganizations organized • Directors of 2010.such as • Reports of the fisheries andCOREP and meetings researchFCWC to • Resolutions institutesimplement and decisionsjoint onmanagement managementmeasures.Develop and Base line data • Fisheries Start May 2010 andharmonize developed, Joint Department ongoing.fisheries database developed. • StatisticianStatistics and • Researcherdata Number of published • Fisheries agentscollection; statistical data. andand set up Stakeholders. Number of collectorsjoint trained.database.Jointly fund • Number of • Fisheries March 2010.the data Departmentconvention exchanged • Fisheries MCS Annual funding andfor the • Establishment units actions on quarterlyharmonizatio of VMS • Navy basis.n of the • Number of • Marine Policeinterventions trained • Operatorand surveillance organizationprocedures officers • Fisheries NGOs,on • Number of civil societyMonitoring, poachers organizations,Control and arrestedSurveillance/ • Number ofVessel penalties andMonitoring payments.Systems.32
  34. 34. Take joint • Number of • Fisheries Start in March 2011action for landing sites, Department and ongoing.the jetties, • Ministries ofimprovemen schools, works andt of the hospitals, fish housing,livelihood of markets environmentfisheries • Number of • Ports Authoritycommunities credit as well as other. schemes line ministries established as appropriate • Number of training workshops organized • Number of community- based surveillance committees establishedSet up • Number of • Fisheries Start in Novemberappropriate degraded Department 2010 and ongoing.actions for areas • Ministries ofthe identified environmentrestoration • Number of • Scientist andand areas under researchprotection of restoration institutesdegraded • Number of • Fishingareas. sensitization communities meetings and • Number of organizations. alternative energy sources developed • Number of ovens developed 33
  35. 35. Governance Component Jointly • Designation of • Fisheries Start January 2010- implement national focal Department the point • Research management • Number of institutes framework. coordination • Ministries of meetings environment, • Activity and Finance Evaluation • Operators reports • Fishermen • Improvement • Fisheries NGOs of stocks • Port Authorities • Navy, Marine Police4.9.2. Conclusions and RecommendationsIn view of the fact that this management framework addresses transboundary issuesand has not been developed with inputs from other stakeholders of the sector, it isessential to have its contents validated at national level by the appropriatestakeholders. Countries should also endeavour to develop “Country Specific ActionPlans” to operationalize the management framework, effectively.Participants at the GCLME workshop on the formulation and implementation offisheries management plans in November 2009 recommended (Recommendation#6) that the GCLME project should provide assistance to enable the completion ofthe process on the harmonization of legislation and common approaches to theutilization of MCS-VMS systems in the sub region, as this would contribute to bettercompliance and enforcement of management measures and the preservation ofthe environment. 34
  36. 36. CHAPTER FIVEAction Plan for Conservation and Management of SharedSardinella Resources of Angola, Congo Republic, Congo DR andGabon5.1. Description of the FisheriesThe Sardinella species (Sardinella maderensis and Sardinella aurita) are importantcommercial and artisanal fisheries in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, theRepublic of Congo and Gabon. These species together with other small pelagicfisheries are important sources of employment, income and food security forthousands of fishers and their dependents as well as many other inhabitants in the subregion and beyond. All the known coastal habitats are utilized by the small pelagicspecies including the Sardinella and some of the species are known to occupy morethan one of the habitats for part of their life history. Some of these habitats arethreatened by land-based pollution, by oil spills, by urbanization and by mangrovedeforestation.Results from several studies indicate that these resources are distributed throughoutthe southern sub region of Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME). Thestudies also show that the main spawning/breeding grounds are off southern Gabon(in Mayumba) and sometimes in Congo; and that the fish move south to grow inAngolan waters and are, indeed, transboundary shared stocks. Although commercialcatch information is available, such data from artisanal fisheries are sparse. Totalcatches are around 400,000 MT, while the total estimated biomass is about 600,000MT. Assessments of the Sardinellas indicate that the resources are underexploited.However, there is need for caution if the fishery is to be developed, particularly in viewof the uncertainty about the magnitude of catches taken by artisanal fisheries. Theartisanal fishery sector is a virtual open access, resulting in excessive effort over theyears. Among the four countries, Angola has the more elaborate structure for the 35
  37. 37. administration of its fisheries. However, the other three have in place fisheries lawsand regulations to ensure the sustainable management of their fisheries. Theseregulations are generally ignored, in part because of ineffective enforcement. Angolaand Gabon are progressing in monitoring and implementing effective managementfor some for these important species.5.2. PurposeSustainable exploitation of the shared small pelagic stocks while conservingbiodiversity in order to:Avoid overfishing and the possible collapse of the fishery, and provide a foundation foran ecosystem-based management of the fishery.5.3. Specific Objectives •Increase knowledge and understanding of the fishery •Enhance the governance of the Sardinella fishery •Minimize the impacts of fishing operations on the fisheries habitats and the ecosystem •Improve decision-making in relation to management of the Sardinella fishery through effective information and communication network5.4. Scope of Management FrameworkThe Action Plan for the shared small pelagic in the sub region of the south involvesSardinella maderensis and Sardinella aurita. The Plan emphasizes improving fisheriesresearch, fisheries management and institutional arrangements.5.5. Operation of Management FrameworkThe Action Plan will cover the period January 2010 through December 2011. In orderto operationalize the Plan, its contents will be validated by stakeholders in each of thepartner countries. Each partner to this framework will develop “Country SpecificAction Plans” to facilitate the implementation of this cooperative sub regional plan.The Action Plan will be subjected to review, at least once yearly, by the authorizedministry of member countries, contingent on any major changes in the exploitationstate of these fisheries resources. Relevant data generated from the data collectionscheme will be analyzed by research institutes in the region and an annual report onthe state of the resources and management regime will be produced by fisheriesdirectors in the respective countries. The annual reports are exchanged betweenfisheries institutions in the region.5.6. Review of Management FrameworkThe Action Plan will be reviewed by fisheries institutions and research centres in the 36
  38. 38. sub region. The review will be based on the performance indicators.5.7. Key Policy DriverThe management framework will be consistent with guiding principles for thesustainable exploitation and development of the resources such as the United NationsFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries,the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, and the Plan of Implementation ofthe 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development, Integrated Coastal ZoneManagement, and Precautionary Approach.5.8. RationaleDuring the past decade the four countries have taken steps to enhance cooperation,improve their knowledge and exchange experience with regards the Sardinellafishery. Examples of such activities include workshops organized under the auspices ofFAO in 1997 and by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization(UNIDO)/GCLME in 2006, as well as participation in activities of the R/V DR. FridtjofNansen Research Programme on surveys of the fishery resources of Eastern Gulf ofGuinea.Following the 2006 workshop, it became apparent that the countries needed to workmore closely to attend to some of the important recommendations taken at theworkshop, and to cooperation in generating timely and reliable scientific informationand data in support of management. The countries also needed to establish aninstitutional arrangement to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experienceamong the countries and to agree on processes to enhance the governance of thefishery, including effective compliance and enforcement apparatus. Consequently, atthe 2nd UNIDO/GCLME sponsored workshop held in Luanda, Angola, 5-7 September2007, the participants agreed to elaborate an Action Plan that would serve as a roadmap to move the fishery forward on agreed schedule of shared responsibilities amongthe participating States, and stakeholders within each State. At the GCLME regionalworkshop on the formulation and implementation of fisheries management plans inthe GCLME area, at Douala, Cameroon, 2-7 November 2009, representatives of thefour concerned countries updated the Action Plan.The Sardinella resources are transboundary stocks and makes significant socio-economic contributions to these countries. The countries will be losing very importantopportunities, now and in the future, in terms of overfishing and the possible collapseof the fishery, if they fail to manage these stocks jointly and, indeed, the fisheriesunder their national jurisdictions. 37
  39. 39. 5.9. Log Frame for Management of Sardinella Stocks of the SouthStrategy 1: Fisheries ResearchTake all reasonable steps to increase knowledge and understanding of the fishery,and minimize impacts of fishing operations on fishing habitats and ecosystem. ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS 1. Synthesize and evaluate Benchmark Scientist, March - July 2010. available literature and data document on the managers and on the shared Sardinella status of the NGOs. resources. resources. 2. Collect catch and effort Reports and fish Research and Initiate action in statistics (artisanal, semi- journal with data fisheries march 2010 in the industrial and industrial). collected. administration Congo Rep, staff as well as strengthened in stakeholders of all Gabon and DRC countries. and continuing and improving in Angola. 3. Implement biological Sampling results Researchers with Initiate action in sampling system on fish (gonadosomatic involvement of march 2010 in the landing sites (selection of fish index, length appropriate Congo Rep and landing sites). frequency of the stakeholders. Gabon, catches, age of strengthened in first maturity, DRC and content stomach). continuing and improving in Angola. 4. Establish a functioning Artfish software Statisticians under July 2010 database in each country. working in each research country. institution (Angola) and administration (Gabon, Congo Rep and DRC). 5. Undertake/participate in R/V Fridtjof Researchers from Second semester annual transboundary cruises Nansen report the four countries. of each year. (survey design for the sub available under region). EAF-Nansen project and GCLME. 38
  40. 40. Comments:The research priorities are oriented around the most compelling issues. Thesepriorities, each with equal weight, focus on understanding critical processes in thefishery. It is hoped that applying the outcome of the knowledge would contribute tothe effective management of the fishery and better stewardship and responsibleresource use.Strategy 2: Fisheries ManagementTake all reasonable steps to enhance the governance of the Sardinella fishery andensure the resources are managed in a responsible manner. ACTIONS PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS TIMELINE INDICATORS 1. Exchange information on the fleet Vessel Fisheries March 2010 authorized to trawl for pelagic fish in registration directorate the four countries. databank available in all four countries. 2. Strengthen cooperation among MCS system Personnel of MCS Initiate action Countries with regard MCS (use of VMS, working in the units (Maritime in 2010; to be vessel registers, at sea checks of vessels, countries force in DR Congo, operational logs and catch by patrol, Observers on (control boats, Congo and by July 2012. board, port inspections, exchange of VMS). Gabon), and information, etc). surveillance directorate technicians in Angola. 3. Harmonization of fisheries Regulations and Fisheries Initiate regulations (prevent excessive international administration discussion in increasing of fishing vessels in the sub conventions staff with September region). applied, and no participation of 2010. significant researchers and increase of the other Completion fleet in the stakeholders. by 2012. countries. 4. Exchange views and information on Availability of Fisheries Long-term fishing access agreements targeting fishing directorate staff activity that pelagic resources based on the results agreements, with involvement should start in of IGCC/WWF workshop. IGCC/WWF of research and 2010 with workshop report stakeholders. concrete and other results by regulations 2012. shared among countries. 39

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