Lecture-   nationalist movements in africa
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Lecture- nationalist movements in africa

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nationalist movements Africa

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Lecture-   nationalist movements in africa Lecture- nationalist movements in africa Presentation Transcript

  • Lecture- Nationalist Movements in Africa
  • Nationalist Movements in Africa Questions to consider: What is nationalism? What inspired nationalist movements? Who were the nationalist leaders? What kind of political philosophies did they adapt? How did they organize? How did the cold war influence them?
  • African States Before Colonization
  • African States After Colonization • Europeanization of the Economy • Development of African Elite • Urbanization
  • Edward Said. Culture & Imperialism. 1994 "Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation and acquisition… Out of imperialism, notions about culture were classified, reinforced, criticised or rejected." Edward W. Said.
  • Pan-Africanism A set of ideas and ideologies (the social, cultural, political, economic, material, and spiritual aspects), uniting all Africans throughout the world. Linked by a common experience of oppression and slavery, the movement promotes negritude, or a sense of African pride, and worked towards selfdetermination
  • Pan-Africanism •Back to Africa/separatism •Black advancement •African unity in Africa
  • Back to Africa Late eighteenth century or the 1700s – African Americans (like Paul Cuffe and Prince Hall (and later Olaudah Equiano from the West Indies/England)) advocated for African emigration new settlements in the West African coast, Sierra Leone and Liberia.
  • DuBois starts the NAACP to promote Black Advancement • an American Harvard Ph.D. started the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) • promotes the advancement of Blacks. • also started pan-African congresses or conferences beginning around WWI. • After the fifth pan-African congress, Nkrumah from Ghana takes over WEB DuBois (1868-1963)
  • Garvey starts UNIA for Black advancement • a Jamaican • Africa for the Africans • called on people of African heritage from around the globe to return and establish a pan-African state • started UNIA – Universal Negro Improvement Association. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)
  • Sierra Leone • 1792 – Sierra Leone Company – helped British & American Blacks settle • 1808 - became a British colony
  • James “Africanus” Horton 1835-1882 o Igbo Slave freed by the British in Sierra Leone o British educated Medical Doctor and served in the British military o Horton addresses a debate in the British Parliament in the 1860s, how to govern West Africa o Excited about opportunity for African self-rule? o discusses the complex ethnic and political situation that exist in this region o history, size of population, level of British involvement o balance between optimism and realism
  • Liberia • Settled by the American Colonization Society • Freed African American Slaves from the early nineteenth century (1821-22)
  • 1925-61 Fanon African elite •Christian •European educated •Economic, cultural, and social benefits during colonial rule Frantz Fanon. Black Skin, White Mask. Peau noire, masques blancs. 1953 Psychologist from Martinique, France & later, Algeria
  • Africans inspired by the World War I and Ideals •colonies became natural extensions of tensions among European nations •1 million Africans conscripted – British army alone, many killed Broader consequences • Dollar cost - African governments had to pay out heavy taxes. No exact figures  • Cost to African businesses –British/French traders to benefit during the war.
  • Woodrow Wilson & the League of Nations with 14 Points • collective security & shared deterrence – • preventing aggression & rights to selfdetermination
  • Senghor, Césaire, Damas & Negritude Negritude – origins w Francophone African (& Caribbean) students in Paris in the 1930s “Blackness” – celebrated African culture based on emotion, considered superior to European empiricism and scientifically driven society Léopold Senghor Senegal President (1960-80) their personal friendship also a symbolic encounter between Africa and the African Diaspora Poet Aimé Césaire from Martinique Léon Gontran Damas from Guiana, First African selected to the French Assembly (1948-51)
  • Léon Damas from Guiana (South America) first African elected to the French Assembly 1948-51 One of the French Parisian 1930s philosophers who promoted negritude Léon Gontran Damas (1912–1978)
  • Jean-Paul Sartre’s Introduction announces Negritude Officially "Orphée Noir". Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache. ed. Léopold Senghor. Paris. Presses Universitaires de France, 1948.
  • Nigeria 1. North – HausaFulani (Fulbe) Sokoto Caliphate 2. Igbo – Lower Niger 3. Yoruba (around Lagos) city-states
  • Recall World War II (1931-1945) • Asia - 1931, Japanese invade Manchuria, & 1937, Nanjing • Africa - 1935 – Italians in Ethiopia • Europe - 1939 – Germany’s annexation of Poland 60 million died in this war, compared to 9 million in WWI (only 11 countries were not involved) Italian soldiers on their way to Eritrea, 1935
  • Ethiopia: Where European Imperialism Failed Modernization allowed it to remain independent, other than the brief period of Italian occupation during World War II
  • Emperor Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari) • May 1936, Haile Selassie asked the League of Nations to take action to save Ethiopia from Italian aggression • The League took no action until after the fall of France in 1940
  • WWII – 60-70 million killed • 2 times California’s population • Which countries had the most casualties? Nagasaki
  • Death toll of 60-70 million Majority civilians, not soldiers • • • • • • Soviet Union - 20+ Chinese – 15 European Jews – 6-10? Germany – 8 Poland – 6 Japan – 2
  • United Nations Charter in September 1945
  • WWII & Consequences for Africa 1. Europe fatigued & very poor 2. US & SU became super powers (and begins the cold war conflict) 3. Colonized Asian countries demanded independence. Africans were inspired, finding themselves on a stronger moral ground.
  • George Orwell served in the British Indian Police in Burma (Myanmar) in the 1920s
  • Indentured Laborers • From the 1820s • 2.5 million between 1820 and 1914 from Asia & the Pacific islands • Indian indentured laborers exported to Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana, Curacao, South Africa, Kenya, Uganda, Mauritius, Seychelles
  • Southern African Languages Zulu Xhosa Khoi/San Dutch, English Cape Malay (mix of Indonesian & others) Griqua Tamil/Hindi
  • Gandhi in South Africa
  • Decolonization Worldwide
  • African Urbanization
  • Decolonization of Africa 1957 – Ghana gains independence first
  • Psalm 23, African Morning Post. Accra, Ghana The European merchant is my shepherd And I am in want He maketh me to lie down in cocoa farms He leadeth me beside the waters of great need The general managers and profiteers frighten me Thou preparedst a reduction in my salary In the presence of my creditors Thou anointest my income with taxes My expense runs over my income And I will dwell in a rented house forever!
  • 1957 – Ghana first African country to gain independence “Seek ye first the political kingdom” •1949 - Started the Convention People’s Party (CPP) •1957 - won independence for Ghana (the former Gold Coast) from the British in 1957. •Ousted as Ghana President in 1966 •Promoted Negritude—a pride in African traditions •Led the Organization of African Unity from 1961+ (which eventually becomes the African Union. Kwame Nkrumah First President
  • Settler States (Countries with Significant European Populations) o o o o Algeria – 1 million+ Kenya – 60K Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) – 150K South Africa – millions+
  • Kenya & Harry Thuku o Started the East African Association in 1921, and the nationalist movement in Kenya, o not just as Kikuyu but as an East African, o motivated by Europeans displacing Africans from their land from 1915-1920 o Upset over the white settler state’s attempt to control labor with the kipande or pass system o arrested from 1922-1930 Harry Thuku (1895-1970)
  • Settler State: Kenya 1940s – 60K white settlers in the colony’s finest agricultural region – central highlands, evicting Kikuyu from the land, and turning them into squatters/wage workers, to create monopolies on tea & coffee 1950s – Africans turned to violence, as political action attempts were rebuffed
  • Kenya 1940s & 50s: “Mau Mau” or “Land and People’s Party” Mau Mau movement killed 30 white settlers, 1000 African collaborators
  • What is Mau Mau? Not clear 16-year old Otieno talked of the oath involved four sets of purposes 1.fight for land stolen by white settlers 2.take a gun, valuables or money from white settlers or black collaborators 3.kill anyone against the movement, even if it’s family 4.complete secrecy
  • British Targeted Jomo Kenyatta & The Kenya African Union Easier to attack an organization 1952 - British declared state of emergency 1952 Kenyatta & other nationalist leaders arrested 1960 – British lifted the state of emergency 1963 – Kenya gains independence & Kenyatta became the first Prime Minister 1964–1978 –Kenyatta became the first President
  • Great Britain PM Harold Macmillan makes his famous “Wind of Change” speech February 3, 1960 Capetown to an all-white South African parliament
  • Organization of African Unity Official in 1963, but organization starts in 1958, with Nasser of Egypt
  • 1958 – Nasser led the “Eight States African Conference” Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United Arab Republic Competing with the oCasablanca Group oUnited Arab Republic oMonrovia Group
  • Kwame Nkrumah on African Unity • Promoted Negritude—a pride in African traditions • Led the Organization of African Unity from 1961+ (which eventually becomes the African Union.
  • African Americans & Africa o 1961 - W.E.B. Dubois renounces his U.S. citizenship to Ghana o 1964 – Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik ElShabazz) makes a pilgrimage to Africa o Stokely Carmichael of “Black Power” changes name to Kwame Toure (Kwame Nkrumah & Sekou Toure)
  • 1963 - Organization of African Unity
  • Julius Nyerere & African Democracy Ujamaa
  • Steve Biko & Black Consciousness -1970s Black pride – psychological, social and political, as the first step toward revolution
  • French West Africa?
  • 1940s – Era of Mass Party Creation 1946 – RDA - Rassemblement Democratique Africain to unify nationalists in French Africa 1947 – faced numerous pressures by the French who attempted to oust “communists” including Houphouet-Boigny. French eased pressures after Houphouet-Boigny agreed to disassociate from the Felix Houphouet-Boigny, Communist party. Cote D’Ivoire
  • French Government weakened o Suez Crisis of 1956 (Britain, US, & France’s war with Egypt over the nationalization of the Suez), o the Algerian War, 1958-62 o the Vietnam War, 1954+
  • Egyptian Victory with the nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956 Gamal Abdel Nasser
  • The Battle of Algiers 1958 French lost ½ million troops 1962 – French granted Algeria independence
  • Frantz Fanon on the psychological effects of colonialism & revolution o Psychologist from Martinique (Caribbean), o Educated in France, o Appointed to a hospital in Algiers, just as war was starting o observed the psychological effects & the relationship between former colonizer and former colonized 1925-61 Fanon Frantz Fanon. Peau noire, masques blancs (Black Skin, White Masks). 1953
  • 12 African colonies would vote “Oui ou Non” on continuing relationship to the French Guinea’s Sekou Toure said “non” “poverty in liberty to riches in slavery” Ahmed Sékou Touré 1958-84 First President Guinea
  • French Destroyed Guinean Infrastructure as They Left the Country o all government bureaucracies and more importantly infrastructure, o communications o transport, including o telephone o railroad systems. Guinea only survived because of Soviet and Ghanaian aid.
  • 1960 – “The Year of Africa” 17 countries (mostly French) receive independence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Benin (Dahomey) Burkino Faso Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Congo Cote d’Ivoire Democratic Republic of the Congo Gabon Madagascar Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Senegal Somalia Togo
  • Patrice Lumumba & the Cold War President Eisenhower ordered Allen Dulles, director of the CIA, to assassinate Patrice Lumumba, first Congo President UN investigation concludes that Lumumba, Mpolo and Okito killed on January 17, 1961 Why? Lumumba viewed as: oanti-Belgium oPro-socialist oPro-Communist or an enemy of the U.S. oUncompromising regarding the Katangan secession
  • Was the question over Communism? Or Marx & Engel. Communist Manifesto. 1848
  • Or Maoism? in China? • Peasants at the center
  • Or the Role of Superpowers, US & SU
  • South Africa Gains Independence in 1910 for Afrikaners, or 1994 for Africans Nelson Mandela First President from 1994-99 “Inauguration Speech, 1994”
  • Nationalist Movements Inspired by othe Great War, World War II o    The Pan-African/Diaspora influence o     the success of Asian nationalist movements o     The appeal of socialism or communism Led by an o     Emerging class of urban intellectuals, with European & Christian educations Nationalist Movements caught in the role of the Cold War
  • Grace Chee 2013 Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee. You may want to read your primary sources, textbook, and other readings/videos on Etudes modules