Lecture- nationalist movements in africa


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Lecture- nationalist movements in africa

  1. 1. Lecture - Professor Chee Nationalist Movements in Africa
  2. 2. Nationalist Movements in Africa Questions to consider: oWhat is nationalism? oWhat inspired nationalist movements? oWho were the nationalist leaders? oWhat kind of political philosophies did they adapt? oHow did they organize? oHow did the cold war influence them?
  3. 3. Said on the Intersections of Imperialism and Culture "Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation and acquisition… Out of imperialism, notions about culture were classified, reinforced, criticised or rejected." Edward Said. Culture & Imperialism. 1994
  4. 4. Pan-Africanism A set of ideas and ideologies (the social, cultural, political, economic, material, and spiritual aspects), uniting all Africans throughout the world. Linked by a common experience of oppression and slavery, the movement promotes negritude, or a sense of African pride, and worked towards self- determination
  5. 5. Pan-Africanism o Back to Africa/separatism (Liberia & Sierra Leone) o Black advancement and improvement (U.S.) o African unity (Africa)
  6. 6. Back to Africa: African emigration to Sierra Leone & Liberia Late eighteenth century or the 1700s – African Americans (like Paul Cuffe and Prince Hall (and later Olaudah Equiano from the West Indies/England)) advocated for African emigration new settlements in the West African coast, Sierra Leone and Liberia.
  7. 7. Back to Africa: Sierra Leone o 1792 – Sierra Leone Company – helped British & American Blacks settle o 1808 - became a British colony
  8. 8. Back to Africa: Liberia o Settled by the American Colonization Society o Freed African American Slaves from the early nineteenth century (1821-22)
  9. 9. African elite, European in Culture? o Christian o European educated o Economic, cultural, and social benefits during colonial rule Frantz Fanon. Black Skin, White Mask. Peau noire, masques blancs. 1953 Psychologist from Martinique, France & later, Algeria 1925-61 Fanon
  10. 10. Sierra Leone: Horton Addresses Debate on West African Self-Rule o Igbo Slave freed by the British in Sierra Leone o British educated Medical Doctor in the British military o Horton addresses a debate in the British Parliament in the 1860s, opportunity for African self-rule o discusses the complex ethnic and political situation that exist in this region, i.e. history, size of population, level of British involvement James “Africanus” Horton 1835-1882
  11. 11. African States Before Colonization
  12. 12. African States Before Colonization: Example of Nigeria: English Becomes the Official Language 1.North – Hausa-Fulani (Fulbe) Sokoto Caliphate 2.Igbo – Lower Niger 3.Yoruba (around Lagos) city-states
  13. 13. African States After Colonization o Europeanization of the Economy o Europeanization of African culture o Development of African Elite o Urbanization
  14. 14. Africans inspired by the World War I and Ideals Broader consequences • Dollar cost - African governments had to pay out heavy taxes. No exact figures  • Cost to African businesses –British/French traders to benefit during the war. o colonies became natural extensions of tensions among European nations o 1 million Africans conscripted – British army alone, many killed o Influenced by ideologies of o collective security & shared deterrence – o preventing aggression & rights to self-determination
  15. 15. Black Advancement & Improvement: DuBois starts the NAACP o an American Harvard Ph.D. started the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) o promotes the advancement of Blacks. o also started pan-African congresses or conferences beginning around WWI. o After the fifth pan-African congress, Nkrumah from Ghana takes over WEB DuBois (1868-1963)
  16. 16. Black Advancement & Pan-African Unity: Garvey starts UNIA o a Jamaican o Africa for the Africans o called on people of African heritage from around the globe to return and establish a pan-African state o started UNIA – Universal Negro Improvement Association. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)
  17. 17. African Unity – Three Giants on Negritude: Senghor, Césaire & Damas Negritude – origins w Francophone African (& Caribbean) students in Paris in the 1930s “Blackness” – celebrated African culture based on emotion, considered superior to European empiricism and scientifically driven society Léopold Senghor Senegal President (1960-80) Poet Aimé Césaire from Martinique Léon Gontran Damas from Guiana, First African selected to the French Assembly (1948-51) their personal friendship also a symbolic encounter between Africans & the Diaspora
  18. 18. Jean-Paul Sartre’s Introduction announces Negritude Officially "Orphée Noir". Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache. ed. Léopold Senghor. Paris. Presses Universitaires de France, 1948.
  19. 19. The French Assembly Elects First African, 1948: Léon Damas from Guiana (South America) Léon Gontran Damas (1912–1978) One of the French Parisian 1930s philosophers who promoted negritude
  20. 20. Ethiopia: Where European Imperialism Failed Modernization allowed it to remain independent, other than the brief period of Italian occupation during World War II
  21. 21. Recall World War II (1931-1945) o Asia - 1931, Japanese invade Manchuria, & 1937, Nanjing o Africa - 1935 – Italians in Ethiopia o Europe - 1939 – Germany’s annexation of Poland 60 million died in this war, compared to 9 million in WWI (only 11 countries were not involved) Italian soldiers on their way to Eritrea, 1935
  22. 22. Emperor Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari) • May 1936, Haile Selassie asked the League of Nations to take action to save Ethiopia from Italian aggression • The League took no action until after the fall of France in 1940
  23. 23. WWII – 60-70 million killed • 2 times California’s population • Which countries had the most casualties? Nagasaki
  24. 24. Death toll of 60-70 million Majority civilians, not soldiers • Soviet Union - 20+ • Chinese – 15 • European Jews – 6-10? • Germany – 8 • Poland – 6 • Japan – 2
  25. 25. United Nations Charter in September 1945
  26. 26. WWII & Consequences for Africa 1. Europe fatigued & very poor 2. US & SU became super powers (and begins the cold war conflict) 3. Colonized Asian countries demanded independence. Africans were inspired, finding themselves on a stronger moral ground.
  27. 27. George Orwell served in the British Indian Police in Burma (Myanmar) in the 1920s
  28. 28. Indentured Laborers • From the 1820s • 2.5 million between 1820 and 1914 from Asia & the Pacific islands • Indian indentured laborers exported to Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana, Curacao, South Africa, Kenya, Uganda, Mauritius, Seychelles
  29. 29. Southern African Languages Zulu Xhosa Khoi/San Dutch, English Cape Malay (mix of Indonesian & others) Griqua Tamil/Hindi
  30. 30. Gandhi in South Africa
  31. 31. Decolonization Worldwide
  32. 32. African Urbanization
  33. 33. Decolonization of Africa 1957 – Ghana gains independence first
  34. 34. Psalm 23, African Morning Post. Accra, Ghana The European merchant is my shepherd And I am in want He maketh me to lie down in cocoa farms He leadeth me beside the waters of great need The general managers and profiteers frighten me Thou preparedst a reduction in my salary In the presence of my creditors Thou anointest my income with taxes My expense runs over my income And I will dwell in a rented house forever!
  35. 35. 1957 – Ghana first African country to gain independence, from England “Seek ye first the political kingdom” •1949 - Started the Convention People’s Party (CPP) •1957 - won independence for Ghana (the former Gold Coast) from the British in 1957. •Ousted as Ghana President in 1966 •Promoted Negritude—a pride in African traditions •Led the Organization of African Unity from 1961+ (which eventually becomes the African Union. Kwame Nkrumah First President
  36. 36. Settler States (Countries with Significant European Populations) o Algeria – 1 million+ o Kenya – 60K o Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) – 150K o South Africa – millions+
  37. 37. Early Nationalists: Kenya & Harry Thuku o Started the East African Association in 1921, and the nationalist movement in Kenya, o not just as Kikuyu but as an East African, o motivated by Europeans displacing Africans from their land from 1915- 1920 o Upset over the white settler state’s attempt to control African labor with the kipande or pass system o arrested from 1922-1930 Harry Thuku (1895-1970)
  38. 38. Settler State of Kenya: British Settlers Create a Plantation Economy o 1940s – 60K white settlers settle in the colony’s finest agricultural region to create tea & coffee plantations o Africans like the Kikuyu evicted from their land, becoming squatters/wage workers, o 1950s – Africans turned to violence, as political action attempts were rebuffed
  39. 39. Kenya 1940s & 50s: “Mau Mau” or “Land and People’s Party” A Nationalist Movement? or a Settler Perceived Terrorist Movement? oMau Mau movement killed 30 white settlers, o1000 African collaborators
  40. 40. What is Mau Mau? A Nationalist Movement? or a Settler Perceived Terrorist Movement? 16-year old Otieno talked of the oath involved four sets of purposes 1.fight for land stolen by white settlers 2.take a gun, valuables or money from white settlers or black collaborators 3.kill anyone against the movement, even if it’s family 4.complete secrecy
  41. 41. British Targeted Jomo Kenyatta & The Kenya African Union Easier to attack an organization 1952 - British declared state of emergency 1952 Kenyatta & other nationalist leaders arrested 1960 – British lifted the state of emergency 1963 – Kenya gains independence & Kenyatta became the first Prime Minister 1964–1978 –Kenyatta became the first President
  42. 42. Great Britain PM Harold Macmillan makes his famous “Wind of Change” speech February 3, 1960 Capetown to an all-white South African parliament
  43. 43. Egyptian Victory over the British & French with the 1956 nationalization of the Suez Gamal Abdel Nasser
  44. 44. Organization of African Unity with Egyptian President Nasser Official by 1963, but organization starts in 1958, with Nasser of Egypt 1958 – Nasser led the “Eight States African Conference”: Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United Arab Republic
  45. 45. 1958 – Nasser led the “Eight States African Conference” Competing with the oCasablanca Group oUnited Arab Republic oMonrovia Group Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United Arab Republic
  46. 46. African Unity: Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana o Promoted Negritude—a pride in African traditions o Led the Organization of African Unity from 1961+ (which eventually becomes the African Union.
  47. 47. African Unity: African Americans to Africa o 1961 - W.E.B. Dubois renounces his U.S. citizenship to Ghana o 1964 – Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El- Shabazz) makes a pilgrimage to Africa o Stokely Carmichael of “Black Power” changes name to Kwame Toure (Kwame Nkrumah & Sekou Toure)
  48. 48. An American in South Africa: Robert F. Kennedy’s “Ripple of Hope” Speech, 1966 University of Cape Town, South Africa June 6th, 1966
  49. 49. 1963 - Organization of African Unity
  50. 50. Julius Nyerere & African Democracy Ujamaa or self-reliance
  51. 51. Steve Biko & Black Consciousness -1970s Black pride – psychological, social and political, as the first step toward revolution I write what I like, The Testimony of Steve Biko Steve Biko (1946-1977) founder of the Black South African Students’ Organization (SASO)
  52. 52. French West Africa?
  53. 53. 1940s – Era of Mass Party Creation Felix Houphouet-Boigny, Cote D’Ivoire 1946 – RDA - Rassemblement Democratique Africain to unify nationalists in French Africa 1947 – faced numerous pressures by the French who attempted to oust “communists” including Houphouet-Boigny. French eased pressures after Houphouet-Boigny agreed to disassociate from the Communist party.
  54. 54. French Government weakened o Vietnam, 1954 o Suez Crisis of 1956 (Britain, US, & France’s war with Egypt over the nationalization of the Suez), o the Algerian War, 1958-62
  55. 55. French Loses Indochina & Vietnam Again in 1954 U.S. Involvement in Vietnam, 1954-1973o French occupation (1887-1940), & o Japanese occupation (1940-45) o 1945 - French reassert control after WW II o 1954 - Ho (Vietnamese) defeat the French o 1954 – Vietnam divided at 17th parallel o 1954 – war begins between HO (North) & the US & Diem (South) Two pictures of the same leader Ho, how are the two portrayed?
  56. 56. French Algerian War Begins in 1954: Algeria Gains Independence by 1962 The Battle of Algiers 1958 oFrench lost ½ million troops o1962 – French granted Algeria independence
  57. 57. Egyptian Victory over the British & French with the 1956 nationalization of the Suez Gamal Abdel Nasser
  58. 58. Frantz Fanon on the psychological effects of colonialism & revolution o Psychologist from Martinique (Caribbean), o Educated in France, o Appointed to a hospital in Algiers, just as war was starting o observed the psychological effects & the relationship between former colonizer and former colonized Frantz Fanon. Peau noire, masques blancs (Black Skin, White Masks). 1953 1925-61 Fanon
  59. 59. 1958: 12 French African colonies would vote “Oui ou Non” on continuing French Rule Guinea’s Sekou Toure said “non!” “poverty in liberty to riches in slavery” Ahmed Sékou Touré 1958-84 First President Guinea
  60. 60. French Destroyed Guinean Infrastructure as They Left the Country o all government bureaucracies and more importantly infrastructure, o communications o transport, including o telephone o railroad systems. Guinea only survived because of Soviet and Ghanaian aid.
  61. 61. 1960 – “The Year of Africa” 17 countries (mostly French) receive independence 1. Benin (Dahomey) 2. Burkino Faso 3. Cameroon 4. Central African Republic 5. Chad 6. Congo 7. Cote d’Ivoire 8. Democratic Republic of the Congo 9. Gabon 10. Madagascar 11. Mali 12. Mauritania 13. Niger 14. Nigeria 15. Senegal 16. Somalia 17. Togo
  62. 62. Patrice Lumumba & the Cold War President Eisenhower ordered Allen Dulles, director of the CIA, to assassinate Patrice Lumumba, first elected leader of the former Belgian Congo UN investigation concludes that Lumumba, Mpolo and Okito were assassinated on January 17, 1961 Why? Lumumba viewed as: oanti-Belgium oPro-socialist oPro-Communist or an enemy of the U.S. oUncompromising regarding the Katangan secession Patrice Lumumba (1925-61), first elected former Belgian Congo Prime Minister 1960-1961
  63. 63. Was the question over Communism? Or Marx & Engel. Communist Manifesto. 1848
  64. 64. Or Maoism? in China? o Peasants at the center
  65. 65. Or the Role of Superpowers? Power Politics & US & SU Alliances?
  66. 66. South Africa Gains Independence in 1910 for Afrikaners, or 1994 for Africans Nelson Mandela First President from 1994-99 “Inauguration Speech, 1994”
  67. 67. Nationalist Movements Inspired by othe Great War, World War II o    The Pan-African/Diaspora influence o     the success of Asian nationalist movements o     The appeal of socialism or communism Led by an o     Emerging class of urban intellectuals, with European & Christian educations oNationalist Movements caught in the role of the Cold War as the U.S. funded anti-communist regimes, S.U. funded nationalist movements in opposition to the U.S.
  68. 68. Grace Chee May 2015© Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee. You may want to read your primary sources, text, and other readings/videos on Etudes modules