Lecture 9 - the cold war


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Lecture 9 - the cold war

  1. 1. Professor Chee Lecture on the Cold War
  2. 2. 2 Definition of the cold war (1947-1991) conflict between two superpowers, the U.S. and the S.U. which polarized the world into spheres of influence for the two superpowers, along political, ideological and economic hostile lines. Both countries refrained from direct armed conflict in Europe, but not in Africa, Asia, Latin America.
  3. 3. Calvin & Hobbes on the Cold War
  4. 4. 4 Origins of the Cold War o US, USSR, Great Britain unnatural allies during World War II o Tensions submerged until close of war o Yalta and Potsdam Conferences (1945) o Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt o Decided on USSR declaration of war vs. Japan, setting up of International Military Tribunal o Free elections for Eastern Europe o Stalin arranges pro-communist governments in Eastern European countries o 1946: “Iron Curtain” Churchill speech
  5. 5. Tensions since the Russian Civil War 1918-20, when the Allies Supported the Monarchists or Whites o Reds (Bolsheviks) Russian Communist Party, led by Trotsky o Whites (Monarchists & others) supported by the Allies – Britain, France, Japan & the U.S. 10 million+ died, not including those to disease & starvation
  6. 6. 1917 February & October Revolutions Spuured by a Devastated Russia, especially during WWI o Russia was unprepared for WWI o army ill-led & ill-armed o ¼ of the soldiers only had arms – ¾ picked up rifles of dead soldiers o 1914-16 – first 2 years of the war, 2 mil soldiers killed/161 mil population o Bread rationing begins in March 1917, women march o 1917 February - “Peace, Bread” o Duma establishes a provisional government o Monarch Nicholas II to abdicate
  7. 7. 7 The Bolshevik Revolution – October Revolution of 1917 10 days that shook the world! Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks o Leads a bloodless coup with promises of peace o 1917 October - “Peace, land and Bread” “All Power to the Soviets!” o Treaty with Germany, Treaty of Brest Litovsk, worse than Versailles, Russia gives up Poland, the Ukraine, Finland & the Baltic provinces
  8. 8. 8 Demands of the Civil War led to Lenin’s War Communism “dictatorship of the proletariat” - State appropriation or state controlled ownership of banks, businesses, churches & monasteries o Industrial production dropped 90% o Lenin backtracks and implements free market reforms, New Economic Policy (NEP) 1921, returning small business and small farmer ownership back. o 1922 – Lenin & Communists created a new state – USSR – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics o Lenin dies in 1924
  9. 9. 9 Stalin, a Different Kind of Totalitarian Ruler & the Second Russian Revolution, Industrialization Stalin, “man of Steel,” Georgian o Leads Soviet Union by 1928 the “Great Leap Forward” or the Great Leap Backwards o Five Year Plan - Massive collectivization of agriculture o 3 million farmers starved o 1934 – Great Purge – 3 million Soviets died either directly or indirectly from the purge, another 8 million in labor camps Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) Time Man of the Year, 1939 & 1942
  10. 10. Truman Doctrine (1947): to limit the spread of Communism through Containment The 33rd U.S. President Harry Truman (1945-53) oWorld divided into free and enslaved states oUS to support all movements to contain Communism o$350 million to Greece, $50 million to Turkey
  11. 11. 11 Truman Doctrine (1947)- limit the spread of communism through containment o World divided into free and enslaved states o US to support all movements to contain Communism o $350 million to Greece, $50 million to Turkey
  12. 12. Port World War II Occupied Germany, 1945- 1949
  13. 13. Construction of the Berlin Wall 1962
  14. 14. oNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949 oWarsaw Treaty Organization (Warsaw Pact), 1955 oNuclear proliferation oEnd of 60s: Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) The Arms Race
  15. 15. Great Migrations: African Americans Move North & West to work for the Military Industry, 1940–60
  16. 16. The Military-Industrial Complex in Los Angeles
  17. 17. The Military Industrial Complex: Defense Spending as a Percentage of U.S. Output, 1940–2004
  18. 18. David Halberstam. The Fifties. Villard Books, 1993. American in the fifties, “… was a mean time. The nation was ready for witch-hunts. We had come out of World War Two stronger and more powerful and more affluent than ever before, but the rest of the world, alien and unsettling, seemed to press closer now than many Americans wanted it to.” David Halberstam. The Fifties. Villard Books, 1993, p.9
  19. 19. Identification Necklaces for Students, Just in case of war Americans Feared War
  20. 20. McCarthyism & Joseph Raymond "Joe" McCarthy, Republican U.S. Senator Wisconsin (1947 – 1957)
  21. 21. Cold War Illusions September 1950, a defected Russian colonel Kyril Kalinov’s “How Russia Built the North Korean Army,” was a Fake CIA Operative story
  22. 22. Globalization of the Cold War, The Korean War: U.S. Calls it, “the Forgotten War” China, “the War to Resist U.S. Aggression & Aid Korea” o Japan annexed Korea in 1910, after defeating the Russians o U.S. & the S.U. divided Korea along the 38th parallel after WW II o 1948 two Koreas: o South - Republic of Korea (capital Seoul) – Syngman Rhee – propped by the U.S. o North - People’s Democratic Republic of Korea (capital Pyongyang)- Kim Il Sung – supported by China & the S.U.
  23. 23. o 1950 - North invades the South, captures Seoul (with Chinese & Soviet approval) o US drives North Korea back, captures Pyongyang & the entire peninsula o Chinese troops, 300K, push USA back to 38th o ceasefire in summer 1953 o No peace treaty, o 3 million killed o continued tensions Globalization of the Cold War, Korean War, 1950–1953
  24. 24. 26 Post-Korean War Legacies o North Korea – develops a closed, totalitarian state with a Kim Il Sung personality cult government. Since then, his son, Kim Jong Il, & grandson, Kim Jong Un o NK remains isolated from the West o South Korean governments led by military dictatorships propped by the U.S. government until 1987, 1 year before the 88 Olympics (one of the fastest growing countries economically) o Korea only becomes a democracy in 1987
  25. 25. The Cold War in Cuba What happens when the US supported candidate does not win, again? o Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (U.S. supported) o Fidel Castro overthrows Batista in a 1959 revolution o U.S. retaliates by boycotting Cuban sugar o Castro builds a relationships with the Soviet Union
  26. 26. 28 Bay of Pigs: Failed U.S. Invasion of Cuba, April 1961 o The American CIA arms & sends 1,500 Cubans into Bay of Pigs to spur revolution o force destroyed in 3 days, without American air support o US embarrassed o Castro & Cuba looks good
  27. 27. Cuban Missile Crisis: Near Brink of Nuclear War, October 1962 Highly tense, second by second crisis that the world followed along via radio & television o October 1962 Soviets begin assembling missiles in Cuba o Kennedy publicly challenges USSR o Back door diplomacy o Soviets concede, o US guarantees never to invade Cuba again, and withdrew missiles from Turkey o US Secretary of State Dean Rusk: “Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first” o End result: Policy of détente, or releasing of tensions
  28. 28. Cold War Détente? Khrushchev moves toward peace with US o Reduction in hostility between nuclear superpowers o Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (1972, 1979) Fidel Castro & Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1953 –1964
  29. 29. 31 Brezhnev Doctrine - 1968 The right to invade any socialist country threatened by elements “hostile to socialism” Leonid Brezhnev General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 1977-82
  30. 30. 32 U.S. Defeat in Vietnam, 1954-1973 o French reassert control after WW II o Vietnam resist the French o Fall of Dien Bien Phu - Ho Chi Minh defeats France in 1954 o Geneva Peace Conference in 1954 – Vietnam divided at 17th parallel o U.S. Supports Ngo Dinh Diem & anti-Communist South o Civil war between Ho’s North & Diem’s US Supported South
  31. 31. Vietnamese Protest French Occupation France – 1887-1940 and again from 1945-54 U.S. Involvement began in 1954, to contain communism and assist the French, and escalated, from Presidents o Eisenhower, o Kennedy, o Johnson, o Nixon and o Ford
  32. 32. Escalation and De-escalation 1962-1972: U.S. “Special Advisors“ to Vietnam the cost of the war in 1968 alone was $88,000 million while the combined spending on American education, health and housing that year was $24,000 million
  33. 33. An Extremely Unpopular War: American Anti-Vietnam Protests
  34. 34. American Cold War Countercultural Protests o Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb – Critique of nuclear power policies o Massive anti-Vietnam protests o Rock and Roll as counterculture o Watergate Scandal (1972-1974) – President Nixon orders illegal wiretaps, discovered and forced to resign 1974
  35. 35. 1973 - US finally withdrew 1975 - the war finally ended! 1976 - Vietnam unified as one country Cost in human suffering? - 58K Americans killed - Nearly 2 million Vietnamese killed, - another 4 million Vietnamese died due to chemicals? sprayed over 13% of the country to defoliate US Withdrew from Vietnam 1973
  36. 36. Genocide in Cambodia US also bombed Cambodia in 69, 70, and destabilized the country so that an extreme regime like the Khmer Rouge, thrived and grew under the instability, leading to the genocide in Cambodia 1.5-3 million estimated killed, or 25% of Cambodia’s population
  37. 37. Soviet setbacks in Afghanistan 1978-1996 9 year struggle between Pro-Soviet Marxists vs US backed Muslim Warrior Muhajideens o Who wins? Neither side but humiliating for the Soviets. o pro-Soviet PDPA – People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, attempted too much Marxist reform too quickly, Muslim backlash. o US CIA backed Mujahideens or Islamic warriors (as well as China, India and Pakistan – who got involved because of the millions of refugees living in their borders) o UN ceasefire in 1988 – Soviet withdrawal in 1989.
  38. 38. Post Cold War Legacies in Afghanistan o Fast forward to 1994 – the Taliban, an extremely religious & radical student army – attempt to unify Afghanistan. o 1996 – proclaimed a new Islamic state o 2004- US starts war with the Taliban for harboring al queda
  39. 39. 41 The Space Race: A Positive & Nonviolent aspect of cold war rivalry o Initial Soviet successes: 1957: Sputnik, first satellite 1961: Yuri Gagarin orbits space’ o US sets up NASA, lands Apollo XI on the moon, July 1969
  40. 40. Revolutions in Eastern, Central Europe 1989 o Polish trade union Solidarity movement forces multiparty elections, 1989 o Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania follow o The “Velvet Revolution” o Bloodless revolutions
  41. 41. East Germany decides to open the Berlin Wall, Ordinary People Tear It Down, 1989
  42. 42. East & West Germany reunite (1990)
  43. 43. 45 End of the Cold War o President Ronald Reagan (in office 1981-1989) deeply opposes USSR o The “evil empire” o Promotes massive military spending, beyond Soviet economy to keep up o Strategic Defense Initiative (“star wars”)
  44. 44. End of the Cold War Mikhail S. Gorbachev General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985-90) President of the Soviet Union (1990-91) o Reforms under Gorbachev o Economic o Social o Perestroika: “restructuring” o Glasnost: “openness” o Nationalist sentiments, long suppressed, come to the surface
  45. 45. the Soviet Union Collapses into 15 Separate States
  46. 46. Grace Chee 2015 Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee Please check out the primary sources, text, and other readings/videos as assigned