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Lecture 7B - Depression & Russian Revolutions
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Lecture 7B - Depression & Russian Revolutions



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  • 1. Professor Chee, Lecture: The Great Depression & the Russian Revolutions How did the depression change regimes in the U.S., Germany and the Soviet Union?
  • 2. The Great Depression An Age of Anxiety 2
  • 3. Age of Anxiety Writer Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) said to Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), “You are all a lost generation.”
  • 4. European Origins of the Great Depression o Austria/Germany borrow money from USA to pay war debts to France and England o France, England pay debts owed to USA for WWI o System dependent on flow of cash from USA o Investors begin to pull out in 1928 4
  • 5. New Technologies & the Great Depression • Single-export countries devastated by declines due to new technology – Reclaimed rubber destroys rubber-based economies of Dutch East Indies, Malaysia, Ceylon 5
  • 6. Black Thursday (24 October 1929) o market lost 11% of its value o Stock purchases on margin (3%) o Hints of slowdown in Europe o investors begin to sell o Snowball effect o Life savings lost o Black Thursday o 11 Suicides o Black Monday, 13% loss, October 28th, o Black Tuesday, October 29th, 11% loss in the stock market 6
  • 7. US Economic Collapse o Inventory surplus leads to layoffs o Layoffs lead to decreased demand, businesses fail o 1932 industrial production ½ of 1929 levels o 44% of US banks out of business o Deposits lost 7
  • 8. Stock Market Begins to Crash: Black Thursday (24 October 1929) o Stock purchases on margin (3%) o Hints of slowdown in Europe o investors begin to sell o Life savings lost o 11 Suicides 8
  • 9. Agricultural Surpluses & the Great Depression o Overproduction in 1920s o Strongest harvests in 1925, 1929 o Wheat lowest price in 400 years o Farm income drops o less demand for manufactured goods o inventory surpluses o The Dust Bowl, mid-late 30s, mid American prairies 9
  • 10. Unemployed move out west to California Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath
  • 11. World Economic Collapse o Hardest hit: countries dependent on export of manufactured goods for essentials o Japan o Single-export countries o South America 11
  • 12. New US Strategies o Laissez-faire, “planned scarcity” approaches fail o John Maynard Keynes, economist o Stimulate economy by lowering interest rates o encouraging investment, employment o The New Deal of Franklin Delano Roosevelt o WWII Spending 12
  • 13. Franklin Delano Roosevelt & the New Deal 13
  • 14. Social Security, FDR Program
  • 15. Fascism in Italy o Mussolini, former newspaper editor, electoral successes in 1921 o March on Rome October, King Emmanuel III offers him prime ministership o 1926 seizes power as Il Duce, “the leader” Benito Mussolini 17
  • 16. Fascism Originates with Benito Mussolini From “fasces,” Roman symbol of authority - Axe surrounded by wooden rods 1. Primacy of state over individual 2. Distrust of democracy: the Führerprinzip 3. Hostility to Communism 4. Chauvinism 5. Militarism 18
  • 17. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) & the Nazis o 1921 becomes Chair of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) o Attempts to overthrow government in 1923 – Writes autobiography Mein Kampf in jail, massively popular 19
  • 18. Race-based nationalism • • Policies of eugenics – Compulsory sterilization of 30,000 Germans – Abortions illegal for healthy Germans, mandatory for “hereditary ill” and “racial aliens” – “Euthanasia” program kills 200,000 people with physical or mental handicaps between 19391945 Precursors to massacres of Jews, gypsies
  • 19. Consolidation of Power • Nazis become single largest party in parliament, 1930-1932 • Weak president Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) appoints Hitler as Chancellor • Suppresses opposition, abrogates constitutional and civil rights – Makes the Nazis the sole legal party – Destroys train unions – Purges judiciary, civil service of perceived enemies 21
  • 20. Anti-Semitism • • • Influence of 19th-century racism 1935 Nuremburg laws define Jew on racial basis – Prohibits marriages between Jews and non-Jews – Removal of Jews from civil service, schools – Liquidation of Jewishowned businesses or purchase by non-Jews Kristallnacht: major countrywide pogrom on Jews, November 9-10, 1938 – “night of broken glass” 22
  • 21. Russian Revolution: The Bolshevik Revolutions
  • 22. WWI Devastating for Russia: Other European nations survived crises except for Russia: Revolutions 1914-16 – first 2 years of the war, 2 mil soldiers killed/161 mil population 1917 - German-imposed WWI treaty, as bad as the Treaty of Versailles, Russia gave up eastern Poland, the Ukraine, Finland & the Baltic Provinces 1917 – Brought on the Bolshevik Revolution 1918-20 Russian Civil War 24
  • 23. The Russian empire, 1801-1914 o Multilingual empire, o ½ spoke Russian o Serfs emancipated in 1861, but still an angry proletariat o Difficult industrialization o Revolutions met with violence, o Bloody Sunday, 1905 – Starts Soviet worker/soldier Councils 25
  • 24. Russians Weakened with the Crimean War, 1853-1856 • • • • • • Russian attempts at expansion into Caucasus to take control over weakening Ottoman empire territory Threatens to upset balance of power, British & French also other Europeans become involved Russia driven back from Crimea (Ukraine) in humiliating defeat Demonstration of Russian weakness in the face of western technology, strategy The humiliating loss for the Russians in the Crimean War (1853-1856) They could hold their own against the Ottomans, and the Qing Empire, but not western Europe – great Britain and France. Humiliating defeat for them, that led them to start industrialization and to emancipate the serfs. 26
  • 25. Russian Reform: Serfs Emancipated in 1861, but Poverty, Land Huger Persisted o Serfdom source of rural instability and peasant revolt o Tsar Alexander II emancipates serfs in 1861, without alleviating poverty, land hunger o Serfs were forced to pay for lands they had farmed for generations o Limited attempts to reform administration, small-scale representative government o Network of elected district assemblies called zemstvos 27
  • 26. Petrograd (built after Versailles) 1714
  • 27. Industrialization in Russia Brings Development & Massive Discontent o Count Sergei Witte, minister of finance 1892-1903 o Massive railroad construction o Trans-Siberian railroad o But massive industrial discontent – Peasants uprooted from rural lifestyle to work for low wages, long hours 29
  • 28. Radicalization: Revolution of 1905 o Russo-Japanese War of 1905 humiliating defeat for Russia o Japan annexes Korea beginning in 1910, and starts its militarization o Russian social discontent boils over in Revolution of 1905worker march to the winter palace in St. Petersburg, petitioning for an elected assembly, 130 shot o 1905 – created its first parliament, the Duma, & soviets – worker/soldier councils 30
  • 29. Russia was unprepared for WWI Russia – conscripted millions – but could arm only ¼of the military they went to battle regardless & picked up rifles from dead soldiers oarmy ill-led & ill-armed o¼ of the soldiers only had arms – ¾ picked up rifles of dead soldiers o1914-16 – first 2 years of the war, 2 mil soldiers killed, 161 mil Russian population
  • 30. WWI Devastation Spurred 1917 February & October Revolutions o Bread rationing begins in March 1917, women march o 1917 February - “Peace, Bread” o Duma establishes a provisional government o Monarch Nicholas II to abdicate
  • 31. The Bolshevik Revolution – October Revolution of 1917 10 days that shook the world! Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks o Leads a bloodless coup with promises of peace o 1917 October - “Peace, land and Bread” “All Power to the Soviets!” o Treaty with Germany, Treaty of Brest Litovsk, worse than Versailles, Russia gives up Poland, the Ukraine, Finland & the Baltic provinces 33
  • 32. Russian Civil War 1918-20 o Whites (Monarchists & others) supported by the Allies – Britain, France, Japan & the U.S. o Reds (Bolsheviks) Russian Communist Party, led by Trotsky 10 million+ died, not including those to disease & starvation
  • 33. Demands of the Civil War led to War Communism “dictatorship of the proletariat” State appropriation or state controlled ownership of banks, businesses, churches & monasteries o Industrial production dropped 90% o Lenin backtracks and implements free market reforms, New Economic Policy (NEP) 1921, returning small business and small farmer ownership back. o 1922 – Lenin & Communists created a new state – USSR – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics o Lenin dies in 1924 35
  • 34. Stalin and the Second Revolution, Industrialization Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) Time Man of the Year, 1939 & 1942 Stalin, “man of Steel,” Georgian o Leads Soviet Union by 1928 the “Great Leap Forward” or the Great Leap Backwards o Five Year Plan - Massive collectivization of agriculture o 3 million farmers starved o 1934 – Great Purge – 3 million Soviets died either directly or indirectly from the purge, another 8 million in 36 labor camps
  • 35. Grace Chee 2013 Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee. You may want to read your primary sources, textbook, and other readings/videos on Etudes modules