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Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
Lecture 7A - World War I
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Lecture 7A - World War I

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    • 1. Professor Chee, Lecture: WWI Question to consider: why and how did World War I start?
    • 2. Excitement of War Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday Austrian writer Stefan Zweig, describes World War I, as “majestic, rapturous, and even seductive” There was feverish excitement which swept through Austria, a country of 50 million, who thought of war as something romantic, heroic and adventuresome. After nearly half a century of peace, their images of war came from paintings in museums, and the soldiers shouted, “’We’ll be home at Christmas.’”   Robert Graves, Goodbye to All That A British writer recounting his life memoirs. He enlisted two days after England declared war on Germany, to avert going to school. The papers expected the war to be over by December by Christmas, but he was hoping that it would last until October, so he would not have to go to Oxford. He was also furious about German treatment of Belgian neutrality, and even though he knew that much of it was war propaganda, he expected some of it to be true.   Walter Limmer, Letter to his Parents. A German soldier writes a letter to his parents, expressing “excitement, fury and enthusiasm” at the prospect of serving in an army and going to war. 2
    • 3. Erich Maria Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front , 1929 summed up the growing distrust of the older generations and the traditional world when he wrote “While they continued to write and talk, we saw the wounded and dying. While they taught that duty to one’s country is the greatest thing, we already knew that death-throes are stronger. But for all that we were no mutineers, no deserters, no cowards—they were very free with all these expressions. We loved our country as much as they; we went courageously into every action; but also we distinguished the false from true, we had suddenly learned to see. And we saw that there was nothing of their world left. We were all at once terribly alone; and alone we must see it through.”
    • 4. WWI or the Great War o o o o Causes? How did the war start? Who were the players? What were the outcomes?
    • 5. Outcomes of WWI o Large numbers killed –15 million dead (5 million noncombatants), 20 million injured o A very long war - 8/1914 to 11/1918 o Treaty of Versailles – 1919 war reparations o League of Nations – collective security (UN)
    • 6. Reasons for WWI - Nationalism, competition, alliances o Balance of power shifts German unification, 1871 o Second Industrial Revolution o Competition & conflict between Serbia & Austria over Balkan States o Military leadership & egoes – Schlieffen Plan
    • 7. Unification of Germany 1871 Prussian Prime Minister Bismarck goaded France into war – 1870 – Prussians captured Napoleon III, & Paris in 4 months! – France had to pay $1 billion, & give up Alsace & Lorraine – France, very angry & bitter! 1871 –all German states united and into the Second Reich, Second German Empire, with King Wilhelm I of Prussia or William I, as Emperor Germany becomes the strongest power in Europe!
    • 8. Nationalism & Rivalries o Germany – dream of a German empire by annexing Russia & parts of Belgium & France o Serbia – wanted to be a world power o Austria-Hungary – prevent Serbian kingdom state o France – wanted Alsace-Lorraine back o Britain – wanted to preserve its world empire o Russia – wanted to maintain its world power status by protecting fellow Slavs in the Balkans & also wanted to put Germany in their place
    • 9. Nations and Nationalism o “Nation” a type of community, especially prominent in 19th century o Distinct from clan, religious, regional identities o Usually based on shared language, customs, values, historical experience o Sometimes common religion o Idea of nation has immediate relationship with political boundaries 9
    • 10. Types of Nationalism • Cultural nationalism – Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) praises the Volk (“people”) – Literature, folklore, music as expressions of Volksgeist: “spirit of the people” • Political nationalism – Movement for political independence of nation from other authorities – Unification of national lands – Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872), “Young Italy”
    • 11. British Empire – late Nineteenth Century Unification of Germany, 1871 Unification of Italy, 1861
    • 12. Balkan Wars, 1908-1913 (conflict between Serbia & Austria over territories) Central European states o Serbia – wants to become a great nation –felt that Austria was attempting to block Serbia from becoming a great nation & prevent her from acquiring the Baltic states o Austria-Hungary worried about Serbia – that it could be a threat to its empire & needed to be crushed 12
    • 13. Inflexible Alliances: Serbia & Russia Germany & Austria-Hungary “Blank Check” Policy: Austria-Hungary would have German support in case of war with Russia Now we just need a match to spark this war…
    • 14. Immediate Origins of World War I o June 28 1914 Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (1863-1914) o Sarajevo, BosniaHerzegovina o occupied by AustroHungarian Empire 1878, annexed 1908 o Ferdinand in favor of greater Serbian autonomy o Not enough for Serbian extremists 14
    • 15. Gavrilo Princip • Bosnian Serb (1894-1918) • One of seven assassins – First balked, second bungled, attempted suicide • Princip shot Ferdinand, expectant wife Sophie as couple went to hospital to visit victims • Princip swallows ineffective cyanide, captured by mob and tortured • Too young to be executed, sentenced to 20 years in prison, dies of TB 15
    • 16. Larger Causes of World War I 1. Culmination of competing nationalisms - Especially in South, Eastern Europe 1. Rivalry among Empires - Especially between Britain and Germany 1. Inflexible diplomatic alliances - Germany, France, England, Russia 16
    • 17. The Chain Reaction 23 July Austrians issue ultimatum to Serbs 28 July Austrians declare war 29 July Russia mobilizes to defend Serbia 31 July Germany issues ultimatums to Russia, France (because of the Schlieffen Plan) 1 August Germany declares war on Russia, France mobilizes 3 August Germans declare war on France, invade Belgium 4 August Britain declares war on Germany, to help Belgium 17
    • 18. Schlieffen Plan German Chief of Staff 1891-1905 Two war fronts: Russia, & France (through neutral Belgium)
    • 19. World War I & Inflexible Alliances: Allied vs Central Powers o Triple Entente/ Allied Powers Britain, France & Russia & Japan (Italy joins in later) o Triple Alliance/ Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (but Italy switches) the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
    • 20. WWI in Europe & Southwest Asia, 1914-1918 20
    • 21. The First World War (1914-18) •colonies became natural extensions of tensions among European nations •1 million Africans conscripted – British army alone, many killed Broader consequences • Dollar cost - African governments had to pay out heavy taxes. No exact figures  • Cost to African businesses –British/French traders to benefit during the war.
    • 22. Twentieth Century Militarism: Growth of Powerful Militaries w Large Armies o From 1900 +Growth of Large armies – •Russian 1 mil + •French & Germans 900K, •Brits, Austria & Italian armies 250-500K Russia – conscripted millions – but could arm only ¼of the military they went to battle regardless & picked up rifles from dead soldiers o Military conscription (draft) o Primarily young peasants o Generals wanted to flex their military prowess & was INFLEXIBLE!
    • 23. New Military Technology o o o o o Barbed wire Trench warfare Tanks Airplanes Submarines 23
    • 24. Total War: The Home Front o “home front” o Women in the workforce o Government takes over industries 24
    • 25. Animated Propaganda: Sinking of British Lusitania, 7 May 1915, supposed passenger ship carrying arms o 1198 lives lost (128 US)
    • 26. Entry of the United States changed the outcome of the war US Enters the War – April 6, 1917 o US attempted to remain neutral but got involved because of the naval conflict between Germany & Britain and submarine warfare o Gave Allies a psychological boost – after the European Western front defeated, and the withdrawal of Russians because of the Bolshevik revolution 28
    • 27. Women Protesting – US is not a Democracy because women do not have suffrage o1718 Sweden o1902 Australia o1917 – Russia o1918 - Germany & Austria, Britain (right after the war) o 1920 - US o 1944 - France
    • 28. Fall of 1918 - Central Powers exhausted & surrender o Ottomans, AustroHungarians, Germans surrender o Armistice: 11 November 1918 o (Russia left early) 31
    • 29. The Paris Peace Conference o Dominated by France, Great Britain, & U.S. o No Central Powers present o Treaty of Versailles; Article 231 - Germany to accept guilt for causing the war and pay reparations. o German army reduced to 100,000 lost territory to France and Poland o Germany responsible for war reparations o Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points 32
    • 30. Woodrow Wilson & the League of Nations o 14 points o collective security & shared deterrence – o rights to self-determination o 42 original member-states, 26 non-European o Mandate system created to control formerly colonized areas o US left without joining
    • 31. Territorial changes in Europe after WWI 34
    • 32. Territorial changes in Southwest Asia after the Great War European occupation of the Ottoman Empire & the Creation of the Republic of Turkey oTreaty of Sèvres (1920) removes Balkan and Arab provinces, allows for European occupation of south and east Anatolia oMustafa Kemal (Atatürk) leads uprising against Sultanate, creates Republic of Turkey oAllies recognize republic in Treaty of Lausanne (1923) oIntensely secular government, women’s rights 35
    • 33. Post WWI, German Colonies became U.N. Mandates German colonies Mandates oTogo – French/English oCameroun – French/English oNamibia (South Africa) oTanganyika – British oRwanda & Burundi Belgians
    • 34. Grace Chee 2013 Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee. You may want to read your primary sources, textbook, and other readings/videos on Etudes modules

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