Lecture 4   islamic empires - modern shorter 9.12
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Lecture 4 islamic empires - modern shorter 9.12 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Modern World History Lecture: the Islamic World Professor Chee Questions to consider: Did Islamic empires decline? If so, why? Think about both internal and external factors that bring about this change.
  • 2. Islamic empires, 1500-1800 Ottoman (Turks), Safavid (Persia), Mughal (India) Empires Origins with the Turkish speaking nomads of Central Asia
  • 3. Brief Introduction to the Origins of Islam Islam means “submission” to God, or Allah Muhammad (570-632) “seal of the prophets” Tokapi Palace, Istanbul, 1595
  • 4. 622 – The hijra flight or migration to Medina First umma – Muslim community
  • 5. 632–Muhammad’s Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
  • 6. Ka’ba o a reflection of a house of worship in heaven on earth, in Mecca o built by Abraham and his son Ishmael), according to Muslims
  • 7. Abraham & Ishmael: The Sacrifice of Ishmael (versus Isaac) in the Judaeo-Christian story unknown date, Shiraz
  • 8. Hagar & Ishmael Abrahamic Tradition
  • 9. 650s Compilation of the Quran or Koran LACMA Museum
  • 10. Sunni & Shia: Two Major Muslim Groups Sunni – majority – argues that the leadership can be held by any true believer Shi’i/Shia – caliph/leadership must be in the hands of the family of Muhammad Abu Bakr chosen over Ali, Muhammad’s cousin & brother-in-law, creating the Sunni/Shii split
  • 11. The Expansion of Islam, 632-733 C.E.
  • 12. 660-750 Umayyad Dynasty – Damascus (Syria) Empire spread because of their tolerance for Jews & Christians, but they had to pay a tax called Jizya
  • 13. Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria (c. 705-15)
  • 14. 711 Moors (North African Muslims) invade Iberia (Spain) Al-Andalus
  • 15. Who were the Moors? “Berbers” from North Africa who became Muslims called the “Islamization of Africa” Stanley and the White Heroes in Africa (H. B. Scammel, 1890)Modern picture
  • 16. Eighth century – Cordoba, Spain, a Great Medieval City, Moors built the Mezquita
  • 17. Cordoba - Mezquita
  • 18. Cordoba - Mezquita
  • 19. Cordoba – Moor Rule
  • 20. Cordoba – Moor rule
  • 21. Cordoba – Jewish Quarter – Moor Rule
  • 22. Cordoba –Mezquita/Cathedral Reconquista 1236
  • 23. 750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty - Baghdad c. 800
  • 24. 750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty - Baghdad c. 1210
  • 25. The Crusades 1098-1492 Europeans waged a set of religious wars against the Muslim, Jewish, and Protestants in Southwest Asia & Europe
  • 26. Who are the Turks? Nomads from Central and Western Asia
  • 27. Turks o Nomads from Central Asia (agriculture not possible) o clan-based, fluid governance o trade – long distance caravan routes o military – excellent o Hired to serve in the Abbasid army Seljuk Royal Figure – Twelfth century?
  • 28. Turkish empires & neighbors c. 1210 C.E The Ottoman Empire (1289-1923)
  • 29. Seljuk Turk Ruler Tughril Beg Seizes Baghdad 1055 – Seljuk Turks rule with Abbasid puppet rulers (Turks converted to Islam in the tenth century because of Abbasid influence) 1071 - Turks start conquering the Byzantine (Roman) empire (with the Battle of Manzikert) Tughril tower
  • 30. Tamerlane or Timur the Lame (c. 1336-1405) Turkish conqueror with Mongol roots oBorrowed Khan’s model to conquer Asia, Anatolia, India, and parts of China in the Fourteenth Century
  • 31. Tamerlane's Empire c. 1405
  • 32. After Tamerlane’s Death, Empire Falls into Three Parts: Ottoman (Turkey) Mughal (India) Safavid (Persia)
  • 33. Ottoman Empire 1289-1923 Ottoman Empire (Turkey) 1280-1326 Osman Bey – founder of the Osmanli or Ottoman dynasty 1451-1481 r. Mehmed II the Conqueror 1453 Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Mehmed converts Hagia Sophia to a mosque 1516 Turks conquer Cairo & Egypt 1520-1566 r. Suleyman (Solomon) the Magnificent (& Harem) 1550-57 builds the Suleymaniye or the Grand Mosque of Istanbul 1610s Sultan Ahmed builds the Blue Mosque or the Sultan Ahmed Mosque – Turkey’s national mosque 1680s Ottomans pushed back from Vienna, stops Ottoman expansion 1800s Ottoms lose Greece, Serbia & Egypt 1908“Proclamation of the Young Turks” Powerful empire, with great contributions to art & architecture
  • 34. Osman Bey starts the Ottoman Empire o Osman Bey (1258-1324) charismatic leader from Anatolia starts the empire o Followers known as Osmanlis (Ottomans) or o Ghazis – warriors of the faith o Declares independence from Abbasid Saljuq sultan in 1299 o Attacks Byzantine (Roman) empire w slave troops
  • 35. Ottoman Conquests •1350s Ottomans conquer parts of Europe, the Balkans - Peasants unhappy with Byzantines & welcome the Ottomans
  • 36. Mehmed II Captures Constantinople, 1453 Play Guillaume DuFay 2-13 Lamentatio sanctae Matris Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae Sultan Mehmed II (“Mehmed the Conqueror”) 1432-81
  • 37. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (originally built sixth century) Ottomans renamed the city Istanbul, capital of the empire
  • 38. Hagia Sophia – Sixth Century, Roman
  • 39. Suleyman the Magnificent (reign 1520-66) Expands the Ottoman Empire with the Egyptian navy oBecomes a threat to Europe’s Hapsburgs (Vienna) oConquers Safavids (Persia)
  • 40. Ottomans Built Stunning Architecture Blue Mosque - 1616
  • 41. Blue Mosque – Blue Tiles
  • 42. The Safavid Empire (Persia) 1501-1722 Safavid dynasty (former Persian empire) 1501-1524 r. of Shah Ismail (founder of the Safavid dynasty & Twelver shiism) 1588-1629 r. of Shah Abbas the Great (Shah of Shahs, also known for converting Christians to Islam)
  • 43. The Safavid Empire (Persia) 1501-1722 Safavid dynasty (former Persian empire) 1501-1524 r. of Shah Ismail (founder of the Safavid dynasty & Twelver shiism) 1514 Battle of Chaldiran 1588-1629 r. of Shah Abbas the Great (Shah of Shahs, also known for converting Christians to Islam)
  • 44. Shah Ismail Starts the Safavid Empire with Twelver Shiism as the Official State Religion, by Force o young military leader, r. 1501- 1524 o Empire called Safavid, after Safi al-Din (1252-1334), Sufi thinker o proclaims official religion: Twelver Shiism
  • 45. Twelver Shiism (Blend of Shiism & Turkish militancy) o Wear distinctive red hats, called qizilbash (“red heads”) o Believe that there are twelve imams after Muhammad o 12th imam in hiding, ready to take power one day (maybe Ismail was the 12th ?) o Military liked the idea as they felt respected
  • 46. Shiite Pilgrims at Karbala (near Baghdad, Iraq) considered a gateway into heaven
  • 47. Ottomans Defeat the Safavids (Persia) Battle of Chaldiran (1514) o Selim the Grim attacks Safavids o Religiosity – Safavids refuse to use gunpowder o Ottoman gunpowder technology allow for victory
  • 48. Shah Abbas the Great (r. 1588-1629) revitalizes weakened Safavid empire o Reforms the military & administration o Expands trade
  • 49. Shah Abbas Moves Capital to Isfahan City
  • 50. Isfahan Mosque • ? Original date? • Rebuilt at the end of the 16th century by Shah Abbas
  • 51. Isfahan Courtyard
  • 52. Isfahan Bazaar • Shah Abbas expands trade
  • 53. Grave of Hafez Beloved 14th Century Poet, Shiraz, Safavid Empire
  • 54. The Mughal Empire or South Asia – Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan
  • 55. The Mughal Empire or South Asia – Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan 1526-1858 Mughal dynasty - [moo-guh l] Mo•ghul (mŏŏ-gŭl', mō-) (India) 1498 Portuguese Vasco da Gama arrives at Calicut, Southwest India 1526 Babur (descendant of Tamerland & Genghis Khan) seizes Delhi and starts the Mughal dynasty 1556-1605 Reign of Akbar 1608 English arrive – Surat, SW India 1628-1657 r. of Emperor Shah Jahan 1639 English build fort at Madras – Southeast India 1648 Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal (for his wife) (English imitation in 1815 – Royal Pavilion @Brighton, after the British victory over Napoleon at Waterloo) 1659-1707 r. of Aurangzeb 1739 Persians sack Delhi 1757 Battle of Plassey – British East India Company conquer Bengal area 1770s famines lead to 1/3 population loss, under BEIC tax administration 1858 British crown colonizes India
  • 56. Babur the Tiger, Founds the Mughal Empire Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the Tiger), Turk & Mongol a Chagatai Turk (with ties to Chinggis Khan & Tamerlane), oSoldier of fortune oFounds Mughal (Persian for Mongol) dynasty oinvades northern India, 1523, with gunpowder technology oConquers Delhi in 1526 oExpands through most of the Indian subcontinent
  • 57. The Architect of the Mughal Empire, Akbar & the “Divine Faith” o Akbar ((r. 1556-1605) o Created the largest & greatest Indian Empire in 2000 years, o conquered the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar o Created a centralized government o Wins fear and respect after throwing Adham Khan, army general out the window twice o (Second time just to make sure he was dead) o Religiously tolerant, promoted “Divine Faith” with Emperor as ruler, allowed for syncretic form of Islam & Hinduism
  • 58. Shah Jahan – Taj Mahal – 1632-50 Tomb for wife, Mumtaz Mahal, 18 year project, 21K workers
  • 59. Aurangzeb Expands the Empire & Attempts to Crush Hinduism Aurangzeb (r. 1659-1707) oExpands Mughal empire into southern India oHostile to Hinduism o Demolished Hindu temples, replaced with mosques o Tax on Hindus to encourage conversion
  • 60. Common Elements of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires • Empires based on military conquest (“gunpowder empires”) • Prestige of dynasty dependent on piety and military prowess of the ruler – Close relations with Sufism, ghazi tradition • Steppe Turkish traditions – Issuance of unilateral decrees – Intra-family conflicts over power • 1595 Sultan massacres 19 brothers (some infants), 15 expectant women (strangulation with silk)
  • 61. Population Growth 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1500 1600 1700 1800 Mughal Safavid Ottoman
  • 62. Religious Diversity • Ottoman Empire: Christians, Jews • Safavid Empire: Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians • Mughal Empire: Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Christians, Sikhs • Mughal Akbar most tolerant – Received Jesuits politely, but resented Christian exclusivity – Enthusiastic about syncretic Sikhism, self-serving “Divine Faith”
  • 63. Women and Politics • Women officially banned from political activity • But tradition of revering mothers, 1st wives from Chinggis Khan • Süleyman the Magnificent defers to concubine Hürrem Sultana – Originally Roxelana, Ukrainian woman – Convinces husband to murder eldest son in favor of her own child
  • 64. Agriculture and Trade • American crops effect less dramatic change in Muslim empires – Coffee, tobacco important – Initial opposition from conservative circles, fearing lax morality of coffee houses • Population growth also reflects territorial additions and losses • Trade with English East India Company, French East India Company, and Dutch VOC
  • 65. Status of Religious Minorities • Non-Muslim protected people: dhimmi – Payment of special tax: jizya – Freedom of worship, property, legal affairs • Ottoman communities: millet system of self- administration • Mughal rule: Muslims supreme, but work in tandem with Hindus – Under Akbar, jizya abolished – Reaction under Aurangzeb
  • 66. Capital Cities • Istanbul cultural capital of Ottoman empire, massive monumental architecture • Rededication of Hagia Sofia church as Aya Sofiya mosque • Ishafan major Persian city • Akbar builds magnificent Fatehpur Sikri – Chooses site without sufficient water supply, abandoned – Taj Mahal example of Mughal architecture
  • 67. Deterioration of Imperial Leadership • Ottoman princes become lazy through luxury – Selim the Sot (r. 1566-1574) – Ibrahim the Crazy (r.1640-1648) • Attempts to isolate them compounds the problem • Religious tensions between conservatives and liberals intensify – Role of women • Wahhabi movement in Arabia denounces Ottomans as unfit to rule – Force destruction of observatory, printing press • Safavid Shiites persecute Sunnis, non-Muslims and even Sufis
  • 68. Economic and Military Decline • Foreign trade controlled by Europeans • Military, administrative network expensive to maintain – Janissaries mutiny when paid with debased coinage, 1589, other revolts follow • Unproductive wars • European military technology advances faster than Ottomans can purchase it
  • 69. Cultural Conservatism • Europeans actively studying Islamic cultures for purposes of trade, missionary activities • Islamic empires less interested in outside world • Swiftly fell behind in technological development – E.g. Jews from Spain establish 1st printing press in Anatolia in late 15th century – But printing of books in Turkish and Arabic forbidden until 1729 • Handwritten books preferred, but weak levels of dissemination
  • 70. Study Guide Print/Take notes on Study Guide and think about terms/questions Questions to consider: Did Islamic empires decline? If so, why? Think about both internal and external factors that bring about this change.