Lecture 4 islamic empires - modern shorter 9.12


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Lecture 4 islamic empires - modern shorter 9.12

  1. 1. Modern World History Lecture: the Islamic World Professor Chee Questions to consider: Did Islamic empires decline? If so, why? Think about both internal and external factors that bring about this change.
  2. 2. Islamic empires, 1500-1800 Ottoman (Turks), Safavid (Persia), Mughal (India) Empires Origins with the Turkish speaking nomads of Central Asia
  3. 3. Brief Introduction to the Origins of Islam Islam means “submission” to God, or Allah Muhammad (570-632) “seal of the prophets” Tokapi Palace, Istanbul, 1595
  4. 4. 622 – The hijra flight or migration to Medina First umma – Muslim community
  5. 5. 632–Muhammad’s Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
  6. 6. Ka’ba o a reflection of a house of worship in heaven on earth, in Mecca o built by Abraham and his son Ishmael), according to Muslims
  7. 7. Abraham & Ishmael: The Sacrifice of Ishmael (versus Isaac) in the Judaeo-Christian story unknown date, Shiraz
  8. 8. Hagar & Ishmael Abrahamic Tradition
  9. 9. 650s Compilation of the Quran or Koran LACMA Museum
  10. 10. Sunni & Shia: Two Major Muslim Groups Sunni – majority – argues that the leadership can be held by any true believer Shi’i/Shia – caliph/leadership must be in the hands of the family of Muhammad Abu Bakr chosen over Ali, Muhammad’s cousin & brother-in-law, creating the Sunni/Shii split
  11. 11. The Expansion of Islam, 632-733 C.E.
  12. 12. 660-750 Umayyad Dynasty – Damascus (Syria) Empire spread because of their tolerance for Jews & Christians, but they had to pay a tax called Jizya
  13. 13. Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria (c. 705-15)
  14. 14. 711 Moors (North African Muslims) invade Iberia (Spain) Al-Andalus
  15. 15. Who were the Moors? “Berbers” from North Africa who became Muslims called the “Islamization of Africa” Stanley and the White Heroes in Africa (H. B. Scammel, 1890)Modern picture
  16. 16. Eighth century – Cordoba, Spain, a Great Medieval City, Moors built the Mezquita
  17. 17. Cordoba - Mezquita
  18. 18. Cordoba - Mezquita
  19. 19. Cordoba – Moor Rule
  20. 20. Cordoba – Moor rule
  21. 21. Cordoba – Jewish Quarter – Moor Rule
  22. 22. Cordoba –Mezquita/Cathedral Reconquista 1236
  23. 23. 750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty - Baghdad c. 800
  24. 24. 750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty - Baghdad c. 1210
  25. 25. The Crusades 1098-1492 Europeans waged a set of religious wars against the Muslim, Jewish, and Protestants in Southwest Asia & Europe
  26. 26. Who are the Turks? Nomads from Central and Western Asia
  27. 27. Turks o Nomads from Central Asia (agriculture not possible) o clan-based, fluid governance o trade – long distance caravan routes o military – excellent o Hired to serve in the Abbasid army Seljuk Royal Figure – Twelfth century?
  28. 28. Turkish empires & neighbors c. 1210 C.E The Ottoman Empire (1289-1923)
  29. 29. Seljuk Turk Ruler Tughril Beg Seizes Baghdad 1055 – Seljuk Turks rule with Abbasid puppet rulers (Turks converted to Islam in the tenth century because of Abbasid influence) 1071 - Turks start conquering the Byzantine (Roman) empire (with the Battle of Manzikert) Tughril tower
  30. 30. Tamerlane or Timur the Lame (c. 1336-1405) Turkish conqueror with Mongol roots oBorrowed Khan’s model to conquer Asia, Anatolia, India, and parts of China in the Fourteenth Century
  31. 31. Tamerlane's Empire c. 1405
  32. 32. After Tamerlane’s Death, Empire Falls into Three Parts: Ottoman (Turkey) Mughal (India) Safavid (Persia)
  33. 33. Ottoman Empire 1289-1923 Ottoman Empire (Turkey) 1280-1326 Osman Bey – founder of the Osmanli or Ottoman dynasty 1451-1481 r. Mehmed II the Conqueror 1453 Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Mehmed converts Hagia Sophia to a mosque 1516 Turks conquer Cairo & Egypt 1520-1566 r. Suleyman (Solomon) the Magnificent (& Harem) 1550-57 builds the Suleymaniye or the Grand Mosque of Istanbul 1610s Sultan Ahmed builds the Blue Mosque or the Sultan Ahmed Mosque – Turkey’s national mosque 1680s Ottomans pushed back from Vienna, stops Ottoman expansion 1800s Ottoms lose Greece, Serbia & Egypt 1908“Proclamation of the Young Turks” Powerful empire, with great contributions to art & architecture
  34. 34. Osman Bey starts the Ottoman Empire o Osman Bey (1258-1324) charismatic leader from Anatolia starts the empire o Followers known as Osmanlis (Ottomans) or o Ghazis – warriors of the faith o Declares independence from Abbasid Saljuq sultan in 1299 o Attacks Byzantine (Roman) empire w slave troops
  35. 35. Ottoman Conquests •1350s Ottomans conquer parts of Europe, the Balkans - Peasants unhappy with Byzantines & welcome the Ottomans
  36. 36. Mehmed II Captures Constantinople, 1453 Play Guillaume DuFay 2-13 Lamentatio sanctae Matris Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae Sultan Mehmed II (“Mehmed the Conqueror”) 1432-81
  37. 37. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (originally built sixth century) Ottomans renamed the city Istanbul, capital of the empire
  38. 38. Hagia Sophia – Sixth Century, Roman
  39. 39. Suleyman the Magnificent (reign 1520-66) Expands the Ottoman Empire with the Egyptian navy oBecomes a threat to Europe’s Hapsburgs (Vienna) oConquers Safavids (Persia)
  40. 40. Ottomans Built Stunning Architecture Blue Mosque - 1616
  41. 41. Blue Mosque – Blue Tiles
  42. 42. The Safavid Empire (Persia) 1501-1722 Safavid dynasty (former Persian empire) 1501-1524 r. of Shah Ismail (founder of the Safavid dynasty & Twelver shiism) 1588-1629 r. of Shah Abbas the Great (Shah of Shahs, also known for converting Christians to Islam)
  43. 43. The Safavid Empire (Persia) 1501-1722 Safavid dynasty (former Persian empire) 1501-1524 r. of Shah Ismail (founder of the Safavid dynasty & Twelver shiism) 1514 Battle of Chaldiran 1588-1629 r. of Shah Abbas the Great (Shah of Shahs, also known for converting Christians to Islam)
  44. 44. Shah Ismail Starts the Safavid Empire with Twelver Shiism as the Official State Religion, by Force o young military leader, r. 1501- 1524 o Empire called Safavid, after Safi al-Din (1252-1334), Sufi thinker o proclaims official religion: Twelver Shiism
  45. 45. Twelver Shiism (Blend of Shiism & Turkish militancy) o Wear distinctive red hats, called qizilbash (“red heads”) o Believe that there are twelve imams after Muhammad o 12th imam in hiding, ready to take power one day (maybe Ismail was the 12th ?) o Military liked the idea as they felt respected
  46. 46. Shiite Pilgrims at Karbala (near Baghdad, Iraq) considered a gateway into heaven
  47. 47. Ottomans Defeat the Safavids (Persia) Battle of Chaldiran (1514) o Selim the Grim attacks Safavids o Religiosity – Safavids refuse to use gunpowder o Ottoman gunpowder technology allow for victory
  48. 48. Shah Abbas the Great (r. 1588-1629) revitalizes weakened Safavid empire o Reforms the military & administration o Expands trade
  49. 49. Shah Abbas Moves Capital to Isfahan City
  50. 50. Isfahan Mosque • ? Original date? • Rebuilt at the end of the 16th century by Shah Abbas
  51. 51. Isfahan Courtyard
  52. 52. Isfahan Bazaar • Shah Abbas expands trade
  53. 53. Grave of Hafez Beloved 14th Century Poet, Shiraz, Safavid Empire
  54. 54. The Mughal Empire or South Asia – Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan
  55. 55. The Mughal Empire or South Asia – Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan 1526-1858 Mughal dynasty - [moo-guh l] Mo•ghul (mŏŏ-gŭl', mō-) (India) 1498 Portuguese Vasco da Gama arrives at Calicut, Southwest India 1526 Babur (descendant of Tamerland & Genghis Khan) seizes Delhi and starts the Mughal dynasty 1556-1605 Reign of Akbar 1608 English arrive – Surat, SW India 1628-1657 r. of Emperor Shah Jahan 1639 English build fort at Madras – Southeast India 1648 Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal (for his wife) (English imitation in 1815 – Royal Pavilion @Brighton, after the British victory over Napoleon at Waterloo) 1659-1707 r. of Aurangzeb 1739 Persians sack Delhi 1757 Battle of Plassey – British East India Company conquer Bengal area 1770s famines lead to 1/3 population loss, under BEIC tax administration 1858 British crown colonizes India
  56. 56. Babur the Tiger, Founds the Mughal Empire Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the Tiger), Turk & Mongol a Chagatai Turk (with ties to Chinggis Khan & Tamerlane), oSoldier of fortune oFounds Mughal (Persian for Mongol) dynasty oinvades northern India, 1523, with gunpowder technology oConquers Delhi in 1526 oExpands through most of the Indian subcontinent
  57. 57. The Architect of the Mughal Empire, Akbar & the “Divine Faith” o Akbar ((r. 1556-1605) o Created the largest & greatest Indian Empire in 2000 years, o conquered the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar o Created a centralized government o Wins fear and respect after throwing Adham Khan, army general out the window twice o (Second time just to make sure he was dead) o Religiously tolerant, promoted “Divine Faith” with Emperor as ruler, allowed for syncretic form of Islam & Hinduism
  58. 58. Shah Jahan – Taj Mahal – 1632-50 Tomb for wife, Mumtaz Mahal, 18 year project, 21K workers
  59. 59. Aurangzeb Expands the Empire & Attempts to Crush Hinduism Aurangzeb (r. 1659-1707) oExpands Mughal empire into southern India oHostile to Hinduism o Demolished Hindu temples, replaced with mosques o Tax on Hindus to encourage conversion
  60. 60. Common Elements of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires • Empires based on military conquest (“gunpowder empires”) • Prestige of dynasty dependent on piety and military prowess of the ruler – Close relations with Sufism, ghazi tradition • Steppe Turkish traditions – Issuance of unilateral decrees – Intra-family conflicts over power • 1595 Sultan massacres 19 brothers (some infants), 15 expectant women (strangulation with silk)
  61. 61. Population Growth 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1500 1600 1700 1800 Mughal Safavid Ottoman
  62. 62. Religious Diversity • Ottoman Empire: Christians, Jews • Safavid Empire: Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians • Mughal Empire: Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Christians, Sikhs • Mughal Akbar most tolerant – Received Jesuits politely, but resented Christian exclusivity – Enthusiastic about syncretic Sikhism, self-serving “Divine Faith”
  63. 63. Women and Politics • Women officially banned from political activity • But tradition of revering mothers, 1st wives from Chinggis Khan • Süleyman the Magnificent defers to concubine Hürrem Sultana – Originally Roxelana, Ukrainian woman – Convinces husband to murder eldest son in favor of her own child
  64. 64. Agriculture and Trade • American crops effect less dramatic change in Muslim empires – Coffee, tobacco important – Initial opposition from conservative circles, fearing lax morality of coffee houses • Population growth also reflects territorial additions and losses • Trade with English East India Company, French East India Company, and Dutch VOC
  65. 65. Status of Religious Minorities • Non-Muslim protected people: dhimmi – Payment of special tax: jizya – Freedom of worship, property, legal affairs • Ottoman communities: millet system of self- administration • Mughal rule: Muslims supreme, but work in tandem with Hindus – Under Akbar, jizya abolished – Reaction under Aurangzeb
  66. 66. Capital Cities • Istanbul cultural capital of Ottoman empire, massive monumental architecture • Rededication of Hagia Sofia church as Aya Sofiya mosque • Ishafan major Persian city • Akbar builds magnificent Fatehpur Sikri – Chooses site without sufficient water supply, abandoned – Taj Mahal example of Mughal architecture
  67. 67. Deterioration of Imperial Leadership • Ottoman princes become lazy through luxury – Selim the Sot (r. 1566-1574) – Ibrahim the Crazy (r.1640-1648) • Attempts to isolate them compounds the problem • Religious tensions between conservatives and liberals intensify – Role of women • Wahhabi movement in Arabia denounces Ottomans as unfit to rule – Force destruction of observatory, printing press • Safavid Shiites persecute Sunnis, non-Muslims and even Sufis
  68. 68. Economic and Military Decline • Foreign trade controlled by Europeans • Military, administrative network expensive to maintain – Janissaries mutiny when paid with debased coinage, 1589, other revolts follow • Unproductive wars • European military technology advances faster than Ottomans can purchase it
  69. 69. Cultural Conservatism • Europeans actively studying Islamic cultures for purposes of trade, missionary activities • Islamic empires less interested in outside world • Swiftly fell behind in technological development – E.g. Jews from Spain establish 1st printing press in Anatolia in late 15th century – But printing of books in Turkish and Arabic forbidden until 1729 • Handwritten books preferred, but weak levels of dissemination
  70. 70. Study Guide Print/Take notes on Study Guide and think about terms/questions Questions to consider: Did Islamic empires decline? If so, why? Think about both internal and external factors that bring about this change.