Lecture 3 imperialism - south & east asia - online


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Lecture 3 imperialism - south & east asia - online

  1. 1. Professor Chee Lecture on European Imperialism – India & China Examples
  2. 2. What is Imperialism? Imperial powers (such as Europe, the U.S., and Japan) dominate other lands, who become their subjects, by military force, economic influence/coercion, religious or cultural coercion, so that imperial powers benefit or profit from their subject territories.
  3. 3. Rationale for Imperialism Christians, Spices, Gold… Raw materials Religious Zeal Racism – “scientific” or popular…
  4. 4. Joseph Arthur de Gobineau. Essays on the Inequality of the Human Races. 1851-53 Imperialism – both a product of and a generator of virulent racism! Pseudo-scientific racism with a racial hierarchy
  5. 5. Joseph Arthur de Gobineau. Essays on the Inequality of the Human Races. 1851-53 Pseudo-scientific racism with a racial hierarchy
  6. 6. Orientalism Edward Said – makes a powerful and compelling argument. Oriental (East) vs Occidental (West) depends on who is at the center. As Europeans were conquering territories, they thought of themselves at the center. He argues that orientalizing or the othering of peoples allows them to kill, enslave and conquer people, as the “other.”
  7. 7. India & China are two different examples o India is conquered by mostly the British and established as a colony o China is defeated in the Opium War but not colonized (except for Hong Kong & Macau)
  8. 8. Europeans Start Conquering Territories in the Indian Ocean 1510 Portuguese conquer Goa, India 1565 Spanish conquer Philippines 1619 Dutch started controlling Java ports 1682 – VOC control Sultanate of Java
  9. 9. Estado de India–Portuguese Capture Goa. India, 1510 1510 - Portuguese capture of Goa & Malabar Coast (Western India) 1700s – British start controlling parts of India 1857 – Sepoy uprising – a major nationalist uprising under British direct rule 1947 – India achieves independence with Gandhi
  10. 10. Frantz Fanon. Black Skin, White Mask. Peau noire, masques blancs. 1952 Psychologist from Martinique, Caribbean & later in life, moved to Algeria He referred to the African elite of the African diaspora, in Africa and the Americas, but also applies to Indian elite oChristian oEuropean educated (speaks English) oEconomic, cultural, and social benefits during colonial rule Map of French colonized areas?
  11. 11. British Empire – late Nineteenth Century
  12. 12. French Empire
  13. 13. China & the Silk Road
  14. 14. China & the Indian Ocean World Thousands of years of trading between Africa and Asia (with India & Ceylon at the center
  15. 15. Ming China, 1368-1644 o Founded by Emperor Hongwu (r. 1368-1398) o Ming (“Brilliant”) dynasty comes to power after Mongols are driven out (who called themselves the Yuan dynasty) o Emperors used traveling officials called Mandarins and large number of eunuchs to maintain control o Emperor Yongle (r. 1403-1424) experiments with sea expeditions, moves capital north to Beijing to deter Mongol attacks
  16. 16. Chinese Intellectual Achievements: Compare the Yongle Encyclopedia to the French Encyclopedia Chinese Yongle Encyclopedia 1403 French Diderot Encyclopedia 1773
  17. 17. Chinese (green) versus later European voyages of exploration, 1405-1498.
  18. 18. Chinese Explored the World of Asia and Africa with a prosperous shipping industry
  19. 19. Chinese Junk versus Christopher Columbus’s Ship? Ibn Battuta Mall, Dubai, UAE
  20. 20. 1405-1433 Chinese Admiral Zheng He’s Voyages
  21. 21. Admiral Zheng He 郑和 o Muslim Eunuch o 1405-1433 - 7 sets of expeditions o Some with 300 ships, 28K men o Chinese junks—with private cabins, bathrooms, passenger lounges, African stewards, and plentiful cargo space o Song copper coins (jiazhi) became common currency for small-scale transactions throughout Southeast Asia
  22. 22. Korean Kangnido map – 1402 - names
  23. 23. Europeans wanted to buy Chinese goods like silk, china, and teas, but Europeans did not much goods to sell to the Chinese… Tea Warehouse in Canton - 1790
  24. 24. Global Balance of Power Shift: Growing European Rivalry in the Nineteenth Century British conquer India French & Dutch conquer Southeast Asia Spanish, Portuguese, English already conquered the Americas and took African Slaves
  25. 25. British Go to War with China to Force Chinese to Trade in Illegal Opium Opium War (1839-1842) Illegal criminal product - 4500 chests/year 1839 – 40K chests oChinese are not colonized but forced to accept Treaty of Nanjing – 1842, a series of diplomatic & trade concessions oLoss of territory (Hong Kong) to the British oBritish extraterritoriality
  26. 26. Nineteenth Century Inventions o Steamships o Rifles o Quinine o Steamship & gunboat technology that defeats China also conquers Africa
  27. 27. Taiping Rebellion – 1850 further destabilizes China o Hong Xiuquan o Dreams he is Jesus Christ’s Brother o Attempted to overthrow government o 1864 - 30 million Chinese dead
  28. 28. East Asia – China, Korea, Japan We will discuss the decline in Chinese political power further in later sections
  29. 29. Grace Chee 2010