Professor Chee
Lecture 2- European Conquest of Africa -
Why? How?
Europeans carved 20% of
the world’s landmass in
the last...
African States
Before conquest
c. 1880s
European/American Image of Africa as Sleeping
& Exotique
Daniel Chester French, 1902-7, French is also the sculptor of Abr...
Indirect & Direct Agents of
European colonialism
Indirect Agents
– Explorers - travel tales of exotic Africa
– Missionarie...
What did these explorers &
missionaries find?
British Explorer James Bruce & Ethiopia
1768 – a Scot, James
Bruce, traveled to
Ethiopia, and upon his
return in 1783, tol...
Chateau Gondar, Ethiopia
Ethiopia: Axum – Obelisk (stelaes) –
largest single stone stelae in the world
funerary or grave marker
Ethiopia: Axum King Ezana (r.320-360)
Creates the first Christian Empire in the World
o Axum stopped erecting stelaes or o...
King Solomon & Queen Sheba
Thirteenth century text
– Oxford Library?
Menelik - Solomonic
dynasty
Axum - Ark of the
Covenant
Axum – Lalibela churches
ninth century to the Twelfth centuries
11 churches cut from rock
The trading world of the Indian Ocean
Thousands of years of trading between Africa and Asia (with India & Ceylon at the ce...
Connecting to the Silk Road
Indian Ocean Trade – African flask
Ilha de Mozambique Museum
Indian Ocean Trade – Indian flask
Ilha de Mozambique Museum
Indian Ocean Trade – Chinese flask
Ilha de Mozambique Museum – Early Sixteenth Century Ming
Ceramics
East African Swahili Coast –
important Indian Ocean trading site
                                                         ...
Great Zimbabwe –
Trade links to the
Swahili Coast
Chinese pottery
Arabian coins
East African goods
Southern Africa: Great Zimbabwe –
Great Stone Buildings – Eleventh to the Fifteenth Centuries
Indian Ocean Trade with links to
Trans-Saharan Trade and West Africa including
Timbuktu
Trans-Saharan Trade with Camel Travel
• Seventh Century BCE - Camels arrive from SW Asia
• Fourth century CE – 70-90 days ...
British Explorer
Mungo Park
Reached
Timbuktu but Died
en Route Back
1795-7, 1805-6 Park, a Scot, visited the
Niger with th...
René Caillié Reaches Timbuktu & Publishes
Volumes
o Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo; and across the Great Dese...
Travel on the Niger River
Famous Timbuktu
from the tenth century
Sankore University
Mosque – Jenne, Mali
ninth century?
                                                                                      ...
Djenne Mosque
Jenne (Djenne) Mali Residential Street
1906 Edward Fortier postcard
Streets of Djenne
C. Fifteenth Century: Chinese Stop Exploring
Europeans Start & Conquer
Global Balance of Power Shift:
Growing European Rivalry in the
Nineteenth Century
British defeat China
British conquer Ind...
1860s shift…
• Explorations – large expeditions, rather
than individual wandering romantics
• Charter Companies
• King Leo...
Nineteenth Century Inventions
• Steamships
• Rifles
• Quinine
1840 – British defeated China in the Opium War. China’s
neme...
Another Example:
Egypt’s Suez Canal Sparks
More European Rivalry!
British & French Both Want
Egypt
1882 – British Invades Egypt
When the French are not looking…
Another Example:
Why do the British Conquer South Africa?
Diamonds discovered in 1869, British South
Africa Company start ...
Cecil Rhodes,
British South
Africa Company
“…we are the finest race in the
world, and that the more of the
world we inhabi...
Berlin Conference 1883-84
Bismarck leads Gentlemen’s Agreement
Paper Partition?
•European power
to announce their
territor...
British Africa Territorial Gains
in Africa from 1873 to 1903
Another Example: Why Was the Belgian
King Leopold Interested in the Congo?
Belgian Steamship on the
Congo River
Invention of Bicycles – Baden, (Germany) c.
1820
Invention of cars – Benz model, (Germany)
c. 1885
Dr. David Livingstone – Medical doctor
Missionary, Explorer (1813-1873)
• Africans called him an old man
possessed by bara...
Source of the Nile – Lake Victoria
Livingstone
•1866 - Proved that Lake
Victoria was the source of the
Nile and names it L...
King Leopold Hired Stanley to chart the Congo
River
•Livingstone was missing
the last 6 years of his life –
the NY Herald ...
Africa –
Rivers
Map
King Leopold II of
Belgium
Private company
Private army – la Force
Publique
700% profit off of rubber, free
forced labor
$...
First Human Rights Activist?
Edward Dene Morel Uncovers Genocide in the
Belgian Congo
Along with British Consul
Roger Case...
1906 Punch
political cartoon
King Leopold & the
Democratic Republic
of Congo or Zaire
Rubber – 700% profit
10 million Afri...
Africa Before & After Partition
1880s –Polish Artist Epitomizes
the Power Struggle Over Africa
Who/What/When/Where/Why/How
Europeans Colonized Africa?
Copyright Grace Chee
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question?
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Lecture 2 european conquest of africa - online shorter

  1. 1. Professor Chee Lecture 2- European Conquest of Africa - Why? How? Europeans carved 20% of the world’s landmass in the last quarter of the nineteenth century
  2. 2. African States Before conquest c. 1880s
  3. 3. European/American Image of Africa as Sleeping & Exotique Daniel Chester French, 1902-7, French is also the sculptor of Abraham Lincoln, Lincoln Memorial.Africa Statue, the US Custom House in NYC.
  4. 4. Indirect & Direct Agents of European colonialism Indirect Agents – Explorers - travel tales of exotic Africa – Missionaries/educators – civilizing mission Direct Agents – Charter Companies – “charter” – allows a company to rule in the name of a country, for profit (private military) – East India Company (India & East Africa) – British South Africa Company – Royal African Company – West Africa
  5. 5. What did these explorers & missionaries find?
  6. 6. British Explorer James Bruce & Ethiopia 1768 – a Scot, James Bruce, traveled to Ethiopia, and upon his return in 1783, told stories of the the mystique of the Gondar castles of Ethiopia only a few believed that Africans could have built such a splendid city.
  7. 7. Chateau Gondar, Ethiopia
  8. 8. Ethiopia: Axum – Obelisk (stelaes) – largest single stone stelae in the world funerary or grave marker
  9. 9. Ethiopia: Axum King Ezana (r.320-360) Creates the first Christian Empire in the World o Axum stopped erecting stelaes or obelisks and changed to building crosses o The Roman Emperor Constantine Asks Ezana for Advice, 4th Century, two Superpowers of the time Obelisk (stelaes) at over 115 feet– largest funerary or grave markers in the world Axum (Ethiopian) coin – 4th Century CE
  10. 10. King Solomon & Queen Sheba Thirteenth century text – Oxford Library? Menelik - Solomonic dynasty Axum - Ark of the Covenant
  11. 11. Axum – Lalibela churches ninth century to the Twelfth centuries 11 churches cut from rock
  12. 12. The trading world of the Indian Ocean Thousands of years of trading between Africa and Asia (with India & Ceylon at the center
  13. 13. Connecting to the Silk Road
  14. 14. Indian Ocean Trade – African flask Ilha de Mozambique Museum
  15. 15. Indian Ocean Trade – Indian flask Ilha de Mozambique Museum
  16. 16. Indian Ocean Trade – Chinese flask Ilha de Mozambique Museum – Early Sixteenth Century Ming Ceramics
  17. 17. East African Swahili Coast – important Indian Ocean trading site                                                                                                                     
  18. 18. Great Zimbabwe – Trade links to the Swahili Coast Chinese pottery Arabian coins East African goods
  19. 19. Southern Africa: Great Zimbabwe – Great Stone Buildings – Eleventh to the Fifteenth Centuries
  20. 20. Indian Ocean Trade with links to Trans-Saharan Trade and West Africa including Timbuktu
  21. 21. Trans-Saharan Trade with Camel Travel • Seventh Century BCE - Camels arrive from SW Asia • Fourth century CE – 70-90 days journey • 25K camels crossing at its height
  22. 22. British Explorer Mungo Park Reached Timbuktu but Died en Route Back 1795-7, 1805-6 Park, a Scot, visited the Niger with the African Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa, or the African Association, a British society dedicated to the exploration of West Africa.
  23. 23. René Caillié Reaches Timbuktu & Publishes Volumes o Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo; and across the Great Desert, to Morocco, performed in the years 1824-1828 (2 Vols), London: Colburn & Bentley, 1830. o Journal d'un voyage à Temboctou et à Jenné, dans l'Afrique centrale ... pendant les années 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827, 1828 ... (3 Vols), Paris: Imprimerie Royale. 1830 Rue René Caillié in Timbuktu
  24. 24. Travel on the Niger River
  25. 25. Famous Timbuktu from the tenth century
  26. 26. Sankore University
  27. 27. Mosque – Jenne, Mali ninth century?                                                                                           
  28. 28. Djenne Mosque
  29. 29. Jenne (Djenne) Mali Residential Street 1906 Edward Fortier postcard
  30. 30. Streets of Djenne
  31. 31. C. Fifteenth Century: Chinese Stop Exploring Europeans Start & Conquer
  32. 32. Global Balance of Power Shift: Growing European Rivalry in the Nineteenth Century British defeat China British conquer India French & Dutch conquer Southeast Asia Spanish, Portuguese, English already conquered the Americas and took African Slaves Why did Europeans want to conquer and colonize Africa?
  33. 33. 1860s shift… • Explorations – large expeditions, rather than individual wandering romantics • Charter Companies • King Leopold II • German unification (1871) & desire for colonies
  34. 34. Nineteenth Century Inventions • Steamships • Rifles • Quinine 1840 – British defeated China in the Opium War. China’s nemesis also became Africa’s nemesis.
  35. 35. Another Example: Egypt’s Suez Canal Sparks More European Rivalry! British & French Both Want Egypt
  36. 36. 1882 – British Invades Egypt When the French are not looking…
  37. 37. Another Example: Why do the British Conquer South Africa? Diamonds discovered in 1869, British South Africa Company start Kimberly Mines
  38. 38. Cecil Rhodes, British South Africa Company “…we are the finest race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race.” Look at his shadow
  39. 39. Berlin Conference 1883-84 Bismarck leads Gentlemen’s Agreement Paper Partition? •European power to announce their territorial claims •Claims only valid if they are able to colonize & effectively rule they check British power in Africa, opening more to French, Germans and King Leopold II
  40. 40. British Africa Territorial Gains in Africa from 1873 to 1903
  41. 41. Another Example: Why Was the Belgian King Leopold Interested in the Congo? Belgian Steamship on the Congo River
  42. 42. Invention of Bicycles – Baden, (Germany) c. 1820
  43. 43. Invention of cars – Benz model, (Germany) c. 1885
  44. 44. Dr. David Livingstone – Medical doctor Missionary, Explorer (1813-1873) • Africans called him an old man possessed by baraka or spirituality • Scottish Presbyterian missionary and explorer for the London Missionary Society. • First to make a trans-continental journey across Africa • a proponent of new missions and trade, in southern/central Africa.
  45. 45. Source of the Nile – Lake Victoria Livingstone •1866 - Proved that Lake Victoria was the source of the Nile and names it Lake Victoria. •Zambezi Expedition - First to see Victoria Falls, and named it after Queen Victoria
  46. 46. King Leopold Hired Stanley to chart the Congo River •Livingstone was missing the last 6 years of his life – the NY Herald sent Stanley to find him. •How I Found Livingstone by Henry Morton Stanley became a bestseller. •“the very worst book about the very best subject,” said Florence Nightingale
  47. 47. Africa – Rivers Map
  48. 48. King Leopold II of Belgium Private company Private army – la Force Publique 700% profit off of rubber, free forced labor $1.1 billion in personal wealth, one of the largest at that time Burnt royal archives to destroy evidence
  49. 49. First Human Rights Activist? Edward Dene Morel Uncovers Genocide in the Belgian Congo Along with British Consul Roger Casement, uncovers the genocide in the Belgian Congo, Shipping Clerk, Chief Clerk, Congo Business •Leading expert journalist on West/Central African Affairs •Started the West African Mail, newspaper •Circulated 15K brochures, 3750+ letters on the “Secret Society of Expert Murderers”
  50. 50. 1906 Punch political cartoon King Leopold & the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zaire Rubber – 700% profit 10 million African Deaths, ½ the population (Native Colonial Affairs) # of hands cut off? Tappers forced to work
  51. 51. Africa Before & After Partition
  52. 52. 1880s –Polish Artist Epitomizes the Power Struggle Over Africa
  53. 53. Who/What/When/Where/Why/How Europeans Colonized Africa? Copyright Grace Chee Does that answer your question?

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