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    Lecture 2   european conquest of africa - online shorter Lecture 2 european conquest of africa - online shorter Presentation Transcript

    • Lecture 2- European Conquest of Africa - Why? How? Europeans carved 20% of the world’s landmass in the last quarter of the nineteenth century
    • African States Before conquest c. 1880s
    • European/American Image of Africa as Sleeping & Exotique Daniel Chester French, 1902-7, French is also the sculptor of Abraham Lincoln, Lincoln Memorial.Africa Statue, the US Custom House in NYC.
    • Indirect & Direct Agents of European colonialism Indirect Agents – Explorers - travel tales of exotic Africa – Missionaries/educators – civilizing mission Direct Agents – Charter Companies – “charter” – allows a company to rule in the name of a country, for profit (private military) – East India Company (India & East Africa) – British South Africa Company – Royal African Company – West Africa
    • What did these explorers & missionaries find?
    • British Explorer James Bruce & Ethiopia 1768 – a Scot, James Bruce, traveled to Ethiopia, and upon his return in 1783, told stories of the the mystique of the Gondar castles of Ethiopia only a few believed that Africans could have built such a splendid city.
    • Chateau Gondar, Ethiopia
    • Ethiopia: Axum – Obelisk (stelaes) – largest single stone stelae in the world funerary or grave marker
    • Ethiopia: Axum King Ezana (r.320-360) Creates the first Christian Empire in the World o Axum stopped erecting stelaes or obelisks and changed to building crosses o The Roman Emperor Constantine Asks Ezana for Advice, 4th Century, two Superpowers of the time Obelisk (stelaes) at over 115 feet– largest funerary or grave markers in the world Axum (Ethiopian) coin – 4th Century CE
    • King Solomon & Queen Sheba Thirteenth century text – Oxford Library? Menelik - Solomonic dynasty Axum - Ark of the Covenant
    • Axum – Lalibela churches ninth century to the Twelfth centuries 11 churches cut from rock
    • The trading world of the Indian Ocean Thousands of years of trading between Africa and Asia (with India & Ceylon at the center
    • Connecting to the Silk Road
    • Indian Ocean Trade – African flask Ilha de Mozambique Museum
    • Indian Ocean Trade – Indian flask Ilha de Mozambique Museum
    • Indian Ocean Trade – Chinese flask Ilha de Mozambique Museum – Early Sixteenth Century Ming Ceramics
    • East African Swahili Coast – important Indian Ocean trading site                                                                                                                     
    • Great Zimbabwe – Trade links to the Swahili Coast Chinese pottery Arabian coins East African goods
    • Southern Africa: Great Zimbabwe – Great Stone Buildings – Eleventh to the Fifteenth Centuries
    • Indian Ocean Trade with links to Trans-Saharan Trade and West Africa including Timbuktu
    • Trans-Saharan Trade with Camel Travel • Seventh Century BCE - Camels arrive from SW Asia • Fourth century CE – 70-90 days journey • 25K camels crossing at its height
    • British Explorer Mungo Park Reached Timbuktu but Died en Route Back 1795-7, 1805-6 Park, a Scot, visited the Niger with the African Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa, or the African Association, a British society dedicated to the exploration of West Africa.
    • René Caillié Reaches Timbuktu & Publishes Volumes o Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo; and across the Great Desert, to Morocco, performed in the years 1824-1828 (2 Vols), London: Colburn & Bentley, 1830. o Journal d'un voyage à Temboctou et à Jenné, dans l'Afrique centrale ... pendant les années 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827, 1828 ... (3 Vols), Paris: Imprimerie Royale. 1830 Rue René Caillié in Timbuktu
    • Travel on the Niger River
    • Famous Timbuktu from the tenth century
    • Sankore University
    • Mosque – Jenne, Mali ninth century?                                                                                           
    • Djenne Mosque
    • Jenne (Djenne) Mali Residential Street 1906 Edward Fortier postcard
    • Streets of Djenne
    • C. Fifteenth Century: Chinese Stop Exploring Europeans Start & Conquer
    • Global Balance of Power Shift: Growing European Rivalry in the Nineteenth Century British defeat China British conquer India French & Dutch conquer Southeast Asia Spanish, Portuguese, English already conquered the Americas and took African Slaves Why did Europeans want to conquer and colonize Africa?
    • 1860s shift… • Explorations – large expeditions, rather than individual wandering romantics • Charter Companies • King Leopold II • German unification (1871) & desire for colonies
    • Nineteenth Century Inventions • Steamships • Rifles • Quinine 1840 – British defeated China in the Opium War. China’s nemesis also became Africa’s nemesis.
    • Another Example: Egypt’s Suez Canal Sparks More European Rivalry! British & French Both Want Egypt
    • 1882 – British Invades Egypt When the French are not looking…
    • Another Example: Why do the British Conquer South Africa? Diamonds discovered in 1869, British South Africa Company start Kimberly Mines
    • Cecil Rhodes, British South Africa Company “…we are the finest race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race.” Look at his shadow
    • Berlin Conference 1883-84 Bismarck leads Gentlemen’s Agreement Paper Partition? •European power to announce their territorial claims •Claims only valid if they are able to colonize & effectively rule they check British power in Africa, opening more to French, Germans and King Leopold II
    • British Africa Territorial Gains in Africa from 1873 to 1903
    • Another Example: Why Was the Belgian King Leopold Interested in the Congo? Belgian Steamship on the Congo River
    • Invention of Bicycles – Baden, (Germany) c. 1820
    • Invention of cars – Benz model, (Germany) c. 1885
    • Dr. David Livingstone – Medical doctor Missionary, Explorer (1813-1873) • Africans called him an old man possessed by baraka or spirituality • Scottish Presbyterian missionary and explorer for the London Missionary Society. • First to make a trans-continental journey across Africa • a proponent of new missions and trade, in southern/central Africa.
    • Source of the Nile – Lake Victoria Livingstone •1866 - Proved that Lake Victoria was the source of the Nile and names it Lake Victoria. •Zambezi Expedition - First to see Victoria Falls, and named it after Queen Victoria
    • King Leopold Hired Stanley to chart the Congo River •Livingstone was missing the last 6 years of his life – the NY Herald sent Stanley to find him. •How I Found Livingstone by Henry Morton Stanley became a bestseller. •“the very worst book about the very best subject,” said Florence Nightingale
    • Africa – Rivers Map
    • King Leopold II of Belgium Private company Private army – la Force Publique 700% profit off of rubber, free forced labor $1.1 billion in personal wealth, one of the largest at that time Burnt royal archives to destroy evidence
    • First Human Rights Activist? Edward Dene Morel Uncovers Genocide in the Belgian Congo Along with British Consul Roger Casement, uncovers the genocide in the Belgian Congo, Shipping Clerk, Chief Clerk, Congo Business •Leading expert journalist on West/Central African Affairs •Started the West African Mail, newspaper •Circulated 15K brochures, 3750+ letters on the “Secret Society of Expert Murderers”
    • 1906 Punch political cartoon King Leopold & the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zaire Rubber – 700% profit 10 million African Deaths, ½ the population (Native Colonial Affairs) # of hands cut off? Tappers forced to work
    • Africa Before & After Partition
    • 1880s –Polish Artist Epitomizes the Power Struggle Over Africa
    • Who/What/When/Where/Why/How Europeans Colonized Africa? Does that answer your question?