Lecture 11 - Nationalist Movements in Asia


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Lecture 11 - Nationalist Movements in Asia

  1. 1. 1 Professor Chee - Nationalist Movements & Decolonization in Asia
  2. 2. Nationalist Movements in Africa Questions to consider: oWhat is nationalism? oWhat inspired nationalist movements? oWho were the nationalist leaders? oWhat kind of political philosophies did they adapt? oHow did they organize? oHow did the cold war influence them?
  3. 3. Nationalist Movements
  4. 4. Edward Said. Culture & Imperialism. 1994 "Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation and acquisition… Out of imperialism, notions about culture were classified, reinforced, criticised or rejected." Edward W. Said.
  5. 5. Why Indians in South Africa? Gandhi Develops his political consciousness while in South Africa, 1893-1915 Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869- 1948)
  6. 6. British Empire – late Nineteenth Century Conquest of India begins in the 1700s First Dutch, later the English begin settling the Cape in the 1650s
  7. 7. 7 India o The Jewel of the Crown o Legacy of British colonialism o Deep division between Hindus, Muslims o Role of Mohandas Gandhi
  8. 8. Dutch Arrive First to South Africa and Start Colonizing with the Dutch East India Company (VOC) 1602-1799 Plaque from a Castle at the Cape of Good Hope o Call themselves Boers or Afrikaners (white Africans) o Speak a Dutch derived language, Afrikaans
  9. 9. Then the British arrive at the Cape in 1805 Adding another Layer to Colonization o Tensions between Brits & Boers o Tensions between Boers & African nations/groups o Boers Trek inland & North, Voortrekers” British Africa – c. 1902
  10. 10. End of the Slave Trade The U.S. & Europe outlaw the slave trade in the first half of the nineteenth century. 1803 – Denmark 1807 - Great Britain 1808 - the US 1814 – France 1817 - the Netherlands 1845 - Spain
  11. 11. End of Chattel Slavery as an Institution • 1794, 1848 – France • 1833 – GB • 1865 - US • Today - an estimated 200 million people live in servitude.
  12. 12. South African Cape o Slave trade ended in 1807 o Abolition – slave emancipation - 1834
  13. 13. British Move Indentured Laborers From the 1820s o2.5 million between 1820 and 1914 from Asia & the Pacific islands oIndian indentured laborers exported to Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana, Curacao, South Africa, Kenya, Uganda, Mauritius, Seychelles
  14. 14. 1860-1911 150K Indian Indentured Immigration to Natal Passenger Indians – free Muslim merchants from West India (Bombay) to Natal 150,000 Indentured Indians from (Northern & East India) Calcutta & Madras to Natal
  15. 15. Indians in South Africa Become Insiders & Outsiders o Describes Indians as “outsiders and insiders” and people who possess a “bipolar cultural universe” o Adapt their own cultural and economic responses to their unique circumstances in South Africa Bill Freund. Insiders & Outsiders. 1995
  16. 16. Gandhi starts Passive Resistance Campaigns, c.1908 in South Africa Satyagraha or Soul Force & Civil disobedience to fight pass system & discrimination Mohandas Gandhi. Hind Swaraj (Indian Self-Rule), 1909
  17. 17. Gandhi Returns to India in 1915 to Join the Indian Nationalist Movement o Chooses Ahmedabad, India,” largest Gujarat city as base, important for handicrafts & textiles o  made Indian National Congress into a mass movement 17
  18. 18. Continues Passive Resistance Campaigns from India, 1915+ oAhimsa: non-violence oSatyagraha: passive resistance (“truth and firmness”) Armritsar Massacre (1919) Non-cooperation Movement (1920- 1922) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) Boycott of British products & institutions  
  19. 19. India’s Quest for Home Rule o Indian National Congress – (1885), to promote self-rule o Initial support from both Hindus and Muslims o Original position in favor or collaboration with British, after World War I moved to opposition o Muslim League (1906) – British encouraged, financially supported, to blunt Congress 19
  20. 20. The Muslim League’s Jinnah Calls for the the Creation of a Muslim State 20 The Muslim League started in 1906 – with British assistance Muhammad Ali Jinnah propose the creation of a Muslim state, Pakistan
  21. 21. 1947 Official Independence with India & Pakistan The British Grants India Self- Rule with the 1937 Government of India Act
  22. 22. 1947 - “Vivisection” of India o 500,000 killed o 10 million refugees
  23. 23. During the Cold War, India Pushes for Nonalignment: the “third path” Nehru organizes the 1955 Bandung Conference 23 Asian & 6 African nations represented in Indonesia ononalignment during the Cold War, oStruggle against colonialism and racism “each country has not only the right to freedom but also to decide its own policy and way of life”Jawaharlal Nehru, First Prime Minister of India, 1947-64
  24. 24. The Republic of China o Revolution in 1911 forces the child Emperor Puyi to abdicate o Sun Yatsen (1866-1925) proclaims Republic of China in 1912 o Political anarchy & economic disintegration follows o Independent warlord exercise local control 24 Sun Yatsen (1866-1925)
  25. 25. Chinese Nationalism o May Fourth Movement (1919) o Post Paris 1919 Peace Conference o Students, urban intellectuals protest foreign interference o U.S. & Japanese interference in self-government o Maoism (kind of Marxism) increases in popularity Professor Chee’s note: Remember that in Chinese, last names come first! 25 Teacher & Librarian Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
  26. 26. 1921 - Mao starts the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai o Mao, very beloved leader o Maoism - Peasants at the center o Anti-imperialist (U.S. & Japanese) o national unity Teacher & Librarian Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
  27. 27. 1923 - Sun Yatsen – Created Nationalist People’s Party, the Guomindang Nationalist People’s Party, or the Guomindang or the KMT– a Leninism based Nationalist Party oElimination of special privileges for foreigners oNational reunification oEconomic development oDemocratic republican government Sun Yatsen (1866-1925)
  28. 28. Unfortunately, in 1925, Military Hardliner Jiang Jieshi takes over the Guomindang After Sun Yatsen’s death, Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) takes over the Guomindang Jiang, a military general & pro-foreigner hardliner
  29. 29. 1927 Northern Expedition - Jiang & Guomindang Brutally Defeat the Maoists or Communists o Jiang Jieshi massacres thousands o ends the peaceful alliance between the Maoists & the Guomindang o sets up temporary government in Nanjing
  30. 30. 1934 - the Communists Retreat 6215 miles to NW China, Yan’an in the Long March 30 Mao emerges as the successful and popular leader of Chinese peasants
  31. 31. 31 WWII: 1931 – Japanese invade Manchuria “Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere” or “Asia for the Asians”
  32. 32. WII: 1935 – Italians invade Ethiopia Italian soldiers on their way to Eritrea, 1935 o Benito Mussolini invades Ethiopia o 275K Ethiopians killed o 2K Italian troops killed, o Italia also invades Eritrea, Libya, Albania
  33. 33. 1936 - Emperor Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari)pleads with the League of Nations to save Ethiopia from Italian Aggression o The League took no action until after the fall of France in 1940.
  34. 34. 34 WWII: 1937 – Japanese invade China, Rape of Nanjing, Home of the Nationalists or the Guomindang “Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere” or “Asia for the Asians”
  35. 35. Chinese Resistance – Japanese Invasion of Manchuria, Nanjing o Japanese aggression spurs “United Front” policy between Chinese Communists and Nationalists o Guerilla warfare ties down half of the Japanese army o Yet continued clashes between Communists and Nationalists o Communists gain popular support, upper hand by end of the war 35
  36. 36. The People’s Republic of China o Civil war between Communists and Nationalists erupts after defeat of Japan o Jiang Jieshi (Chang Kai-shek) forced to retreat to island of Taiwan with Nationalist forces o Takes most of China’s gold reserves o Mao Zedong proclaims People’s Republic of China, 1949 o Begins dramatic transformation of Chinese society into Communist mold 36
  37. 37. General Jiang Jiashi – Republic of China (ROC) – Taiwan- with US Aid Taiwanese are a territory supported by the U.S., and anti- one China
  38. 38. Grace Chee © May 2015 Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee. You may want to read your primary sources, textbook, and other readings/videos on Etudes modules