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Lecture 11   nationalist movements in asia -11.2013

Lecture 11 nationalist movements in asia -11.2013



nationalism, Asia

nationalism, Asia



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    Lecture 11   nationalist movements in asia -11.2013 Lecture 11 nationalist movements in asia -11.2013 Presentation Transcript

    • Professor Chee Nationalist Movements & Decolonization in Asia 1
    • Nationalist Movements
    • Edward Said. Culture & Imperialism. 1994 "Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation and acquisition… Out of imperialism, notions about culture were classified, reinforced, criticised or rejected." Edward W. Said.
    • British Empire – late Nineteenth Century Conquest of India begins in the 1700s First Dutch, later the English begin settling the Cape in the 1650s
    • India o The Jewel of the Crown o Legacy of British colonialism o Deep division between Hindus, Muslims o Role of Mohandas Ghandi 5
    • India’s Quest for Home Rule o Indian National Congress – (1885), to promote self-rule o Initial support from both Hindus and Muslims o Original position in favor or collaboration with British, after World War I moved to opposition o Muslim League (1906) – British encouraged, financially supported, to blunt Congress 6
    • Dutch East India Company (VOC) 16021799 Plaque from the Castle at the Cape of Good Hope
    • British arrive at the Cape 1805 • Tensions between Brits & Boers • Tensions between Boers & African nations/groups • Boers Trek inland & North, “Voortrekers” British Africa – c. 1902
    • End of the Slave Trade • The U.S. & Europe outlaw the slave trade in the first half of the nineteenth century. 1803 – Denmark 1807 - Great Britain 1808 - the US 1814 – France 1817 - the Netherlands 1845 - Spain
    • South African Cape • Slave trade ended in 1807 • Abolition – slave emancipation 1834
    • End of Chattel Slavery as an Institution • • • • 1794, 1848 – France 1833 – GB 1865 - US Today - an estimated 200 million people live in servitude.
    • Indentured Laborers From the 1820s o2.5 million between 1820 and 1914 from Asia & the Pacific islands oIndian indentured laborers exported to Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana, Curacao, South Africa, Kenya, Uganda, Mauritius, Seychelles
    • 1860-1911 150K Indian Indentured Immigration to Natal Passenger Indians – free Muslim merchants from West India (Bombay) to Natal 150,000 Indentured Indians from (Northern & East India) Calcutta & Madras to Natal
    • Bill Freund. Insiders & Outsiders. 1995 • Describes Indians as “outsiders and insiders” and people who possess a “bipolar cultural universe” • Adapt their own cultural and economic responses to their unique circumstances in South Africa
    • Indians in South Africa? Gandhi Develops his political consciousness while in South Africa, 1893-1915 Mohandas Gandhi. Hind Swaraj (Indian Self-Rule), 1909 Satyagraha or Soul Force Civil disobedience as a national policy Mohandas K. Gandhi (18691948)
    • Gandhi starts Passive Resistance Campaigns, c.1908 in South Africa Further campaigning in India from 1915+ Non-cooperation Movement (1920-1922) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) Boycott of British Institutions Armritsar Massacre (1919)
    • Gandhi Returns to India in 1915 o Returned to India 1915, made Indian National Congress into a mass movement o Titled Mahatma: “great soul” o A Hindu who opposed the caste system 17
    • Ghandi 18
    • Ghandi’s Passive Resistance o Ahimsa: non-violence o Satyagraha: passive resistance (“truth and firmness”) o Non-cooperation Movement (19201922) o Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) o Boycott of British Institutions o Armritsar Massacre (1919) 19
    • 1937 the Government of India Act 1947 India is divided into India & Pakistan & Gain Official Independence The Muslim League started in 1906 – with British assistance – take Pakistan (Jinnah as leader) The Indian National Congress (started in 1885 leads India (Jawaharlal Nehru as leader)
    • “Vivisection” of India o Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim League o Jawaharlal Nehru, Congress Party o 1947 partition o 500,000 killed o 10 million refugees o India moves toward nonalignment position – The “third path” 21
    • Muslims leave India, 1947 22
    • Jawaharlal Nehru, First Prime Minister of India, 1947-64 1955 – Bandung Conference 23 Asian and 6 African nations meet in Indonesia Jawaharlal Nehru calls for ononalignment during the Cold War, oStruggle against colonialism and racism “each country has not only the right to freedom but also to decide its own policy and way of life”
    • Muhammad Ali Jinnah proposes partition, creation of the State of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) 24
    • Gomberg Map: American Vision of the World - 1942
    • The Republic of China o Revolution in 1911 forces Emperor Puyi to abdicate o Sun Yatsen (1866-1925) proclaims Republic of China in 1912 o Political anarchy follows o Independent warlord exercise local control 26
    • Chinese Nationalism o May Fourth Movement o Students, urban intellectuals protest foreign interference o Especially Japanese interference o Maoism (kind of Marxism) increases in popularity Teacher & Librarian Mao Zedong (1893-1976)27
    • 1921 - Mao starts the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai o Very beloved leader o Maoism Peasants at the center Teacher & Librarian Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
    • 1923 Sun Yatsen – Created Nationalist People’s Party (Guomindang) Nationalist People’s Party (Guomindang) or the KMT– a Leninism based Nationalist Party Sun Yatsen (1866-1925)
    • 1925 Jiang Jieshi (Chiang KaiShek) takes over the GMT Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) a military general takes over the Nationalist Party – pro-foreigner
    • 1927 Jiang Jieshi (Brutal Northern Expedition) ends peaceful alliance & sets up temporary government in Nanjing
    • The Long March: 6,215 miles to north-west China, 1934 32
    • 1931 – Japanese invade Manchuria “Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere” or “Asia for the Asians” 33
    • 1935 – Italians invade Ethiopia o Benito Mussolini invades Ethiopia o 275K Ethiopians killed o 2K Italian troops killed, o Italia also invades Eritrea, Libya, Albania Italian soldiers on their way to Eritrea, 1935
    • 1936 - Emperor Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari)pleads with the League of Nations to save Ethiopia from Italian Aggression o The League took no action until after the fall of France in 1940.
    • 1937 – Japanese invade China, Rape of Nanjing “Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere” or “Asia for the Asians” 36
    • Chinese Resistance – Japanese Invasion of Manchuria, Nanjing o Japanese aggression spurs “United Front” policy between Chinese Communists and Nationalists o Guerilla warfare ties down half of the Japanese army o Yet continued clashes between Communists and Nationalists o Communists gain popular support, upper hand by end of the war 37
    • The People’s Republic of China o Civil war between Communists and Nationalists erupts after defeat of Japan o Jiang Jieshi (Chang Kai-shek) forced to retreat to island of Taiwan with Nationalist forces o Takes most of China’s gold reserves o Mao Zedong proclaims People’s Republic of China, 1949 o Begins dramatic transformation of Chinese society into Communist mold 38
    • General Jiang Jiashi – Republic of China (ROC) – Taiwan- with US Aid Taiwanese are anti- one China
    • Grace Chee 2013 Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee. You may want to read your primary sources, textbook, and other readings/videos on Etudes modules