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Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
Lecture 10   decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa
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Lecture 10 decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa

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Lecture: Decolonization & Neocolonialism , with the example of the Belgian Congo & South Africa

Lecture: Decolonization & Neocolonialism , with the example of the Belgian Congo & South Africa

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  • 1. Professor Chee Lecture on Decolonization & Neocolonialism – With the Example of the Congo & South Africa
  • 2. What is Neocolonialism? Intrusion of foreign economic domination, as well as military and political intervention, in states that have already achieved independence from colonial rule
  • 3. Robert F. Kennedy in Capetown - 1966 "Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope... •4 years after Sharpville… •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6o57dEuXj-Y
  • 4. What are Nationalist Movements?
  • 5. Edward Said. Culture & Imperialism. 1994 "Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation and acquisition… Out of imperialism, notions about culture were classified, reinforced, criticised or rejected." Edward W. Said.
  • 6. British Empire – late Nineteenth Century Conquest of India begins in the 1700s First Dutch, later the English begin settling the Cape in the 1650s
  • 7. Indians in South Africa? Gandhi Develops his political consciousness while in South Africa, 1893-1915 Mohandas Gandhi. Hind Swaraj (Indian Self-Rule), 1909 Satyagraha or Soul Force Civil disobedience as a national policy
  • 8. The First World War (1914-18) o colonies became natural extensions of tensions among European nations o 1 million Africans conscripted in the British army o 1.5 million Indians conscripted in the British army o preventing aggression & rights to self-determination
  • 9. 1925-61 Fanon African elite o Christian o European educated o Worked for European colonial governments/companies o Economic, cultural, and social benefits during colonial rule o Some looked to the precolonial past for inspiration, identities based on ethnicity, religion, and languages Frantz Fanon. Black Skin, White Mask. Peau noire, masques blancs. 1953 Psychologist from Martinique, France & later, Algeria
  • 10. African elite
  • 11. Paris – 30s -Senghor, Césaire, Damas & Negritude Negritude – origins w Francophone African (& Caribbean) students in Paris in the 1930s “Blackness” – celebrated African culture based on emotion superior to European empiricism and scientifically driven society Léopold Senghor Senegal President (1960-80) their personal friendship also a symbolic encounter between Africa and the African Diaspora Poet Aimé Césaire from Martinique Léon Gontran Damas from Guiana, First African selected to the French Assembly (1948-51)
  • 12. Négritude: “Blackness” o Influence of “black is beautiful” from USA o Revolt against white colonial values, reaffirmation of African civilization o Connection with socialism, Communism o Geopolitical implications 12
  • 13. Pan-Africanism A set of ideas and ideologies (the social, cultural, political, economic, material, and spiritual aspects), uniting all Africans throughout the world. Linked by a common experience of oppression and slavery, the movement promotes negritude, or a sense of African pride, and worked towards self-determination
  • 14. Pan-Africanism o Black advancement o Back to Africa/separatism o African unity in Africa
  • 15. Back to Africa Late eighteenth century or the 1700s – African Americans (like Paul Cuffe and Prince Hall (and later Olaudah Equiano from the West Indies/England)) advocated for African emigration new settlements in the West African coast, Sierra Leone and Liberia.
  • 16. Sierra Leone o 1787 – Society of Friends & Abolition Society o Krio – resettled African/British Blacks o 1808 became Britain’s first West African colony
  • 17. Liberia o Settled by the American Colonization Society o Freed African American Slaves from the early nineteenth century (1820s)
  • 18. Europeanization of the Economy Rodney. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. 1973 Loss of African male labor
  • 19. African Slave Trade to be replaced by “legitimate commerce” Cash crops – peanuts (groundnuts), palm oil, cocoa, bananas, Gold, firearms, alcohol
  • 20. WEB DuBois (1868-1963) o an American Harvard Ph.D. started the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909 o the organization promotes Black advancement. o He also started pan-African congresses or conferences beginning around WWI. o After the fifth pan-african congress, Nkrumah a leader from Ghana takes over
  • 21. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) o a Jamaican o Africa for the Africans o called on people of African heritage from around the globe to return and establish a pan-African state o In the U.S., started UNIA – Universal Negro Improvement Association (1920s).
  • 22. 1937 the Government of India Act 1947 India is divided into India & Pakistan & Gain Official Independence The Muslim League started in 1906 – with British assistance – take Pakistan (Jinnah as leader) The Indian National Congress (started in 1885 leads India (Jawaharlal Nehru as leader)
  • 23. WWII & Consequences for Africa 1. Europe fatigued & very poor 2. US & SU became super powers (and begins the cold war conflict) 3. United Nations Charter - 1945 4. Colonized Asian countries demanded independence. Africans were inspired, finding themselves on a stronger moral ground.
  • 24. The cold war, 1949-1962 Conflict between two superpowers, the U.S. and the S.U. which polarized the world into spheres of influence for the two superpowers, along political, ideological and economic hostile lines. Both countries refrained from direct armed conflict in Europe, but not in Africa, Asia, Latin America.
  • 25. American Vision of the World - 1942
  • 26. Jawaharlal Nehru, First Prime Minister of India, 1947-64, on Nationalism 1955 – Bandung Conference 23 Asian and 6 African nations meet in Indonesia Jawaharlal Nehru calls for ononalignment during the Cold War, oStruggle against colonialism and racism “each country has not only the right to freedom but also to decide its own policy and way of life”
  • 27. 1957 – Ghana first African country to gain independence “Seek ye first the political kingdom” o1949 - Started the Convention People’s Party (CPP) o1957 - won independence for Ghana (the former Gold Coast) from the British in 1957. oOusted as Ghana President in 1966 oPromoted Negritude—a pride in African traditions oLed the Organization of African Unity from 1961+ (which eventually becomes the African Union. Kwame Nkrumah First President
  • 28. Kwame Nkrumah leading Independence Celebrations
  • 29. Decolonization of Africa While the French allowed most of their west and equatorial African colonies to become independent, including thirteen alone in 1960 (“the year of Africa”), they fought tenaciously to maintain control over Algeria
  • 30. Decolonization in Africa o 19th century “scramble for Africa” left a legacy of colonial competition o Internal divisions – Ethnic – Linguistic – religious 30
  • 31. Organization of African Unity (OAU) • Formed 1962 • Declared boundaries permanent – Despite arbitrary nature, necessary to forestall conflicts • Promotion of PanAfricanism • Failure to prevent ethnic strife, even Nkrumah deposed 1966 31
  • 32. Genocide in the Belgian Congo – King Leopold’s Association Internacional de Congo 1880 - 20 million 1910 – 8.5 million
  • 33. Invention of Bicycles – Baden, (Germany) c. 1820
  • 34. Invention of cars – Benz model, (Germany) c. 1885
  • 35. King Leopold II of Belgium 1890 – 100 tons of rubber – 60K pounds 1896 – 1300 tons 1898 – 2000 tons 1901 – 6000 tons – 720K pounds Fondation de la Couronne donated 2.4 million pounds for Belgian public works projects
  • 36. King Leopold’s Association Africans forced to collect rubber in lieu of paying taxes to the state Villages given quotas 1906 Punch political cartoon
  • 37. Hands as evidence of killings, that soldiers did not waste their bullets Those who didn’t pay were flogged, killed, and eventually hands cut off
  • 38. 1960 - Belgian Congo Gains Independence June 1960 oPatrice Lumumba the first democratically elected leader of the Democratic Republic of Congo, becomes Prime Minister omakes a speech on independence that offends the Belgian king
  • 39. July 1960 – the province of Katanga Secedes o with support from the Belgian government and mining companies such as Union Minière, and 6000 troops o copper, gold and uranium, the richest and most developed areas of the Congo
  • 40. Colonel Joseph Mobutu overthrew Lumumba; Belgian officers executed Lumumba & others – Jan 1961 o the President of Republic of the Congo, from 1965 – 1997 o Supported by Belgium & the US o Mobutu renamed DRC, Zaire in 1971 o Why is this problematic?
  • 41. South Africa o Apartheid (1948) o 87% of territory for whites o Division of Africans into tribes, settlement in “homelands” o African National Congress publishes Freedom Charter (1955) o Repression of ANC causes worldwide ostracism of SA 41
  • 42. System of Laws creating Apartheid Land appropriated (taken) from Africans for European settlers Passlaws – Africans, Asians, “Coloreds” Creation of townships African nationalists jailed
  • 43. Students Shot in Soweto Uprising - 1976 o 20K students marched through Soweto protesting the decree that education was to be in Afrikaans o Nearly 200 kids killed 43
  • 44. Nelson Mandela – after 27 years in Prison 1990 – released and legalized the ANC 44
  • 45. 1994 – First Election in South Africa Nelson Mandela First President from 1994-99 ANC now in power Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, “Inauguration Speech, 1994” Begins slow dismantling of Apartheid
  • 46. Post-Independence Difficulties o Civil wars in Rwanda, Burundi, Angola o Economic hardship o Instability of democratic regimes 46
  • 47. Developments in Latin America • Mexico: failed attempts to redistribute land • Argentina: military dominate politics – Juan Perón (1895-1974) elected president, 1946 – Wife Eva (Evita) especially popular (1919-1952) • Guatemala and Nicaragua: US intervention as local governments attempt to control US economic interests • Under Reagan, US supports anti-communist Contra forces 47
  • 48. Grace Chee 2013 Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee (because I have not had a chance to review them). You may want to read your primary sources, textbook, and other readings/videos on Etudes modules

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