East asia chee - shorter

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East asia chee - shorter

  1. 1. Ancient World History - CHEE Lecture on East Asia or China CHINA map-modern.gif
  2. 2. Three Sage-Kings Chinese ancient legends: • Yao • Shun • Yu who laid the foundations of Chinese society
  3. 3. King Yao •Modest •Sincere •Respectful Yao’s virtues brought harmony to his own family, the larger society and ultimately, to all of China
  4. 4. King Shun •Ordered the four seasons of the year •Instituted uniform weights, measures, and time!
  5. 5. King Yu Most dashing of the sagekings •Vigorous & tireless worker •Rescued China from raging and flooding Yellow River •Started the Xia dynasty
  6. 6. Yellow River, “Huang He” China’s sorrow
  7. 7. King Yu the Great Worked tirelessly for 13 years without returning home •Left home 5 days after he got married, even passing his home 3 times, but did not stop •Dredged the river to deepen it •Dug canals parallel to the river, so that floods would flow to the sea He became a popular hero and the epitome of selfless dedication and commitment to Chinese society
  8. 8. Timeline - China Timeline 400,000 years ago Earliest human inhabitants 7000 BCE Domestication of rice, pigs 5000-3000 BCE Yangshao society 2200-1766 BCE Xia Dynasty (Sage King YU) 1766-1122 Shang dynasty Shang oracle bones – development of writing 1122-256 Zhou Dynasty Book of Songs
  9. 9. Yellow River, “Huang He” 4700 km, 2920 miles, Yangshao society flourished 5000-3000 BCE, Yellow River Valley Periodic flooding – “China’s Sorrow”
  10. 10. Yangshao: 5000-3000 BCE Banpo Village • Painted pottery • Bronze tools
  11. 11. The Earliest Dynasties Xia 2200 BCE Shang 1766 BCE Zhou 1122- 256 BCE
  12. 12. King Yu the Great Worked tirelessly for 13 years without returning home •Left home 5 days after he got married, even passing his home 3 times, but did not stop •Dredged the river to deepen it •Dug canals parallel to the river, so that floods would flow to the sea He became a popular hero and the epitome of selfless dedication and commitment to Chinese society
  13. 13. Xia Dynasty 2200 BCE Not much known • Sage King Yu the Great • Hereditary monarchy • Effective flood control • Developing metallurgy bronze • Erlitou (recent excavation)
  14. 14. Shang Dynasty – 1766 BCE •Bronze metallurgy from 1200 BCE •Large armies •Horse-drawn chariots Shang Axes
  15. 15. Shang Dynasty – 1766 BCE •Political organization: fortified cities, loyal to center –1000 cities –Capital moved six times •Other regional kingdoms coexist: Sanxingdui Shang Axes
  16. 16. Tomb of Fu Hao* – 1250 BCE, Anyang • 16 human beings (guards) • 6 dogs • 6900 cowry shells *smaller than the 11 other tombs of kings
  17. 17. Tomb of Fu Hao – 1250 BCE, Anyang •755 jade carvings •564 bone carvings •468 bronze weapons, bells, mirrors •5 ivory cups •11 pottery objects
  18. 18. Fu Hao Yinxu King Wu Ding’s favorite consort, or wife, out of 64 • Supervised her own estate/fiefdom • Presided over sacrificial ceremonies • Served as a general on several military campaigns, 13K troops
  19. 19. Shang Dynasty Burial Practices Live burials alongside deceased member of ruling class – – – – mostly slaves servants, friends, hunting companions – wives Later replaced by monuments
  20. 20. Oracle Bone from Shang Dynasty •Questions to the spirit world regarding the future
  21. 21. Evolution of Chinese Characters from Shang Dynasty to Present
  22. 22. Ancient capitals map
  23. 23. Zhou Dynasty, 1122-256 BCE • “Mandate of Heaven” - rule by decree, no law codes • Decentralization of authority - villages opposed to Shang leadership, stop paying taxes, near the end • Shang monopoly on Bronze ends – others also create cheap weapons with iron • Early money or cash economy develops
  24. 24. Social Classes What is missing? • Ruling classes - hereditary privilege – Palatial compounds, luxurious lifestyle – Supported by tax revenues – Defended by monopoloy on bronze weaponry • • • • artisans, craftsmen merchant class – long distance trade Large class of peasants Slave class
  25. 25. Yes, you’re right China never develops a powerful priestly class
  26. 26. Mandate of Heaven • heavenly powers, although not specific (often just known as “tian”) granted emperors the power to govern • a concept of service, or reciprocity, unique to Asia? • Heaven – Emperor - Earth
  27. 27. Southern Expansion of Chinese Society Yangzi Valley – Yangzi river: Chang Jiang, “long river” – Excellent for rice cultivation – Irrigation system developed The State of Chu – challenged Zhou dynasty – influenced by Chinese
  28. 28. Decline of the Zhou Dynasty Beginning in the Eighth Century BCE • Northern nomads invade (preMongol/Turks) • Decentralized leadership strengthens regional powers (no to taxes!) • Iron metallurgy – cheap & strong weaponry • Internal dissention: the Period of the Warring States (403-221 BCE)
  29. 29. Zhou Literature • Confucius • Book of Changes - Manual for divination • Book of History • Book of Etiquette (Book of Rites) • Book of Songs • Many books written on bamboo strips, and destroyed by Emperor Qin Shihuangdi c. 221 BCE
  30. 30. Nomadic Peoples of Central Asia • Steppe nomads (pre-Mongol/Turks) – Poor lands for cultivation, extensive herding activities – 4000 BCE – horses – 2900 BCE - bronze metallurgy • Extensive trade with sedentary cultures in China • Tensions: frequent raiding
  31. 31. Period of the Warring States (403-221 BCE)
  32. 32. 2500 year old Noodles Discovered in, Turpan, Xinjiang Province, China
  33. 33. Kong Fuzi Confucius 551-479 BCE “a wise person honors the gods but keeps a distance from them”
  34. 34. Confucius & his disciples Master Philosopher Kong 551-479 BCE –Analects •Aristocratic roots •Decade of unemployment, wandering •Returned home a failure, and died •Unwilling to compromise principles •Interest in developing leadership & values
  35. 35. What are the five Confucian relationships? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. father and son ( 父子 ), ruler and subject ( 君臣 ), husband and wife ( 夫 婦 ), elder and younger brother ( 兄弟 ), between friends ( 朋友 ) There should be a sixth – Teacher/Student
  36. 36. Confucius & his disciples •Ren - kindness, beneveloence •Li - Propriety •Xiao - Filial piety •Traits lead to development of junzi - Ideal leaders
  37. 37. Mencius (372-289 BCE) • Principal Confucian scholar • Optimist, belief in power of ren • Not influential during lifetime – Considered prime exponent of Confucian thought since 10th century
  38. 38. Xunzi (298-238 BCE) • Career as government administrator • Belief in fundamental selfishness of humanity – Compare with Mencius • Emphasis on li, rigid propriety • discipline
  39. 39. Laozi – Daoism (Taoism) – Sixth Century BCE
  40. 40. Legalist • Promotes the state • military & agriculture • clear and strict laws were essential to control human nature • discouraged scholarship, business, and the arts. Shang Yang (390-338 BCE), The Book of the Lord Shang
  41. 41. Legalism Han Feizi (280-233 BCE)
  42. 42. Unification of China • Qin dynasty develops, 4th-3rd centuries BCE • Generous land grants under Shang Yang – Private farmers decrease power of large landholders – Increasing centralization of power • Improved military technology
  43. 43. The First Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221-210 BCE) •Legalist •Military General •Unifies China by crushing local rulers
  44. 44. Qin Unification & Qin Dynasty, 221-207 B.C.E. •Standardized: –Script –Laws –Currencies –Weights & measures •Built roads, bridges
  45. 45. Qin Shihuangdi • • • • • executed critics Burnt books Buried 460 scholars alive Exiled others Fear of death/desire for immortality • Built himself a tomb
  46. 46. 15K Terra Cotta Soldiers – third century BCE 15,000
  47. 47. Tomb of the First Emperor •Built by 700,000 workers •Slaves, concubines, and craftsmen sacrificed and buried Excavated in 1974, 15,000 terra cotta soldiers
  48. 48. Terra Cotta Soldiers different ranks/personalities
  49. 49. Hanging out with a terra cotta soldier
  50. 50. The Han Dynasty - Centralization Former Han (206 BCE- 9 CE) & Later Han (25 – 220 CE) Liu Bang forms new Han dynasty
  51. 51. Han Wudi: Martial Emperor 141-87 BCE Han dynasty peaked under Han Wudi • Built roads & canals • Opened the imperial university to prepare young men for government service (3K to 30K students) • increased taxes
  52. 52. Han Imperial Expansion c. 87 B.C.E. Han Wudi invades Vietnam, a part of Korea, and briefly dominates the nomadic Xiongnu
  53. 53. Han Empire large landholdings – creates greater disparity between poor & wealthy
  54. 54. Han Wudi expands empire Han Wudi invades Vietnam, a part of Korea, and briefly dominates the nomadic Xiongnu
  55. 55. Major Han Technological Developments • Increased – iron weapons – food cultivation – Silkworm industry (4000 BCE) – Paper, even toilet paper – (Sixth century CE) Silkworm cocoons become silk thread
  56. 56. Han Dynasty - Population Growth 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 220 BCE 9 CE Population (millions)
  57. 57. Han Dynasty - Wealth/Poverty Disparity Jade Burial Suit - Liu Sheng 113 BCE
  58. 58. Historian Sima Qian – castrated in 99 BCE “A man has only one death. That death may be as weighty as Mount T’ai, or it may be as light as a goose feather. It all depends upon the way he uses it . . . the reason I have not refused to bear these ills and have continued to live, dwelling in vileness and disgrace without taking my leave, is that I grieve that I have things in my heart which I have not been able to express fully, and I am shamed to think that after I am gone my writing will not be known to posterity . . . If it may be handed down to men who will appreciate it, and penetrate to the villages and great cities, then though I should suffer a thousand mutilations, what regret would I have?” Wrote 130 chapters on early imperial China
  59. 59. Wang Mang: The Socialist Emperor (9-23 CE) • “Mandate of Heaven” passed from the Hans to his family • massive social reforms including land redistribution • Assassinated by disgruntled landlords
  60. 60. Later Han Dynasty (25-220 CE) Han emperors struggled to reassert political control • Wealth/poverty divide • land distribution problems, coupled with famine, drought • 189 CE – 2K eunuchs killed by a Han relative • Internal court intrigue • 220 CE - Han Dynasty collapses Yellow Turban Rebellion – Peasants – 184 CE
  61. 61. Ban Zhao (Pan Chao) - first century First Chinese female court historian After father, brother, and finished their Book of Han 99 CE – author of Lessons for Women Reinforcing Qin, Han patriarchy and female virtues, obedience to husband and his family, subservience, loyalty
  62. 62. Part II – China
  63. 63. Han Dynasty - (206 BCE- 9 CE) (25 – 220 CE) After the Fall of the Han, China faced three centuries of disorder – with the Huns, Turks conquering parts of northern China
  64. 64. 589-618 The Sui Dynasty 618-945 Tang Dynasty 960-1260 The Song Dynasty
  65. 65. China & the Silk Road
  66. 66. Arab merchant Suleiman admiring China, c.851 “No one in China is treated unjustly.” c. 851 remarkable level of political stability and sophistication during the Tang & Song dynasties, unmatched in the world •Great food - spices from Southeast Asia •Luxury goods - like tortoise shells from Vietnam, pearls from India, horses and melons from central Asia, •musicians from Persia, •Chinese sold silk, porcelain & laquerware (Chinese china).
  67. 67. Restoration of Centralized Imperial Rule – Sui Dynasty (589-618) • Implemented huge public works projects • High taxes • Labor conscription Emperor Yang Jian
  68. 68. Sui Dynasty & The Grand Canal starts in the 6th c. BCE
  69. 69. The Grand Canal • Created to link north and south China – 2000km (1240 miles) – Roads on either bank • Millions of laborers • Effective until the 20th century railroads
  70. 70. The Grand Canal today
  71. 71. The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE)
  72. 72. Tang Taizong (r. 627-649 CE) •Second emperor and the best •Ambitious & ruthless Murdered two brothers, pushed father aside to take throne •Strong Confucian ruler –Built a splendid capital at Chang’an (Xian) –Crime rate low –Taxes low –Rice prices low –Stability, prosperity Turkish & Chinese ancestry
  73. 73. Chang’an (Xian) – “Perpetual Peace” Seventh Century - Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million residents
  74. 74. Chang’an (Xian) at night Xian - 8 million today
  75. 75. Chang’an (Xian) today Xian - 8 million today
  76. 76. Empress Wu, (692-712) Only female Empress in China
  77. 77. Tang (618-907 CE) Major Achievements • Transportation and postal services • Meritocracy – Confucian exam system • (Military expansion) • Equal-field System – 20% of land hereditary ownership – 80% redistributed according to formula • Family size, land fertility • Corruption, loss of land to Buddhist monasteries
  78. 78. Pingyao 平遥县 – Confucian Study Room - 840
  79. 79. Pingyao, China -UNESCO Heritage City • Pingyao origins? • Gate/walls built during Ming period ~1340s
  80. 80. Pingyao, China -UNESCO Heritage City • Pingyao origins? • Gate/walls built during Ming period ~1340s
  81. 81. Pinyao Roofs/Walls ~1340s, elephant & lion?
  82. 82. Xuanzang 玄奘 (629-645) 16 year Buddhist Pilgrimage Defying emperor Tang, he travels abroad Stranded in the oasis city of Turpan (just SE of Urumqi) on the silk road. The ruler of Turpan lavishes him with gifts, • • • • • • • 24 letters of intro, 500 bolts of silk, 2 carts of fruit, 30 horses, 25 laborers, 500 more bolts of silk, with gold, silver and clothes for his own personal use. returns to china in the year 645, with nearly 700 books, after traveling 10K plus miles, and receives a welcome return from Emperor Tang.
  83. 83. Xuanzang’s travels reveals the Silk Road
  84. 84. Buddhism arrives China via the Silk Road – Second century BCE
  85. 85. Buddhism attracts a following in Dunhuang, China, c. Fourth Century CE
  86. 86. Dunhuang Cave Temples 600-1000 CE Gained popularity because Buddhists gave to the poor during economic hard times
  87. 87. Chan (Zen) Buddhism or Chinese Buddhism • Adapted Buddhism to Chinese culture – Dharma = dao – Nirvana = wuwei • Salvation for entire family for generations – “one son in monastery for ten generations of salvation” • Changed emphasis from texts to meditation
  88. 88. Xian Mosque – Seventh Century Xian - Beginning of the Silk Road
  89. 89. Xian Mosque – Seventh Century
  90. 90. Xian Mosque – Courtyards and arches
  91. 91. Tang Decline • Emperor obsessed with music, favorite concubine, partying, neglecting country • An Lushan Rebellion 755-763 • Huang Chao – 875-884 Tang decline continues, rebellions in 9th century, last emperor abdicates 907
  92. 92. An Lushan Rebellion – 755-763 755 - An Lushan, former military commander captures capital Chang’an & Luoyang 763 - rebellion crushed with nomadic Uighur mercenaries who sacked Chang’an & Luoyang
  93. 93. Huang Chao – 875-884 • Chinese Robin Hood – stole from the rich and gave to the poor
  94. 94. The Song Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E.
  95. 95. Song Taizu (r. 960-976 CE) First emperor, a former military leader – Early retirement to Generals, creating a weak military – brilliant achievements in civil administration, industry, education, and the arts
  96. 96. Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE) • weak state • mistrusted military • Emphasized education, the arts, administration, industry
  97. 97. Patriarchal Social Structures • Increased emphasis on ancestor worship – Elaborate grave rituals – Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors
  98. 98. Footbinding Gains Popularity
  99. 99. Rapid Population Growth 120 100 80 60 Millions 40 20 0 600 CE 1000 • Result of increased agricultural production • Effective food distribution system • Growth in overland/maritime trade
  100. 100. Agriculture - Tang & Song Dynasties • Fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year • improved irrigationwater wheels, canals • Terrace farming
  101. 101. c. 800-1200 Rapid Growth in Maritime Trade 13th Century Song Ship • • • • • River Boats - 1085 China emerged for the first time as a sea power, with a navy for coastal defense and a fleet carrying rice from south to north. Shipyards constructed over 600 vessels annually seagoing craft entered the Yangzi River numbered in the tens of thousands. some southeastern maritime counties, 1/3 of the population actually lived aboard a vessel The imperial government depended on maritime trade for at least 20 percent of its cash revenue
  102. 102. Technology and Industry • Porcelain (“Chinaware”) • Increased iron production – better tools, weapons • Gunpowder invented • Naval technology- Magnetic compass • Earlier printing techniques refined • Moveable type by mid-11th century & woodblocks
  103. 103. Tang & Song China -Sophisticated Economy • “Flying cash:” (Checks & promissory notes) • Paper money – copper shortage – riots when not honored • Government claims monopoly on money production in 11th century
  104. 104. Song (960-1279) Weaknesses • Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy – Two peasant rebellions in 12th c. – Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy • Civil service leadership of military – Unable to contain nomadic attacks – Lacked military training – Jurchen conquer, force Song dynasty to Hangzhou, southern China (Southern Song)
  105. 105. 1279 - Mongols invade 1280-1365 Yuan Dynasty
  106. 106. 1402 - Kangnido 강리도 Map–Choseun Korea (1392-1897
  107. 107. Korean Kangnido map – 1402 - names
  108. 108. Korean map of Africa – c.1402
  109. 109. Emperor Hongwu (r. 1368-1398) • • • • • • • founder of the Ming dynasty, an uneducated, peasant, saw himself as a “divinely ordained restorer of traditional Chinese values and institutions” Re-instituted Confucian civil scholar bureaucratic system of governance rejected previous regime’s tolerance to maritime commerce and foreigners Prohibited private commercial trade Replaced trade with political hierarchical tribute relationships drew upon an eclectic mix of Buddhism, Daoism, and Manicheanism (Persian Zoroastrianism & Christianity)
  110. 110. Emperor Yongle (r. 1403-1424) • • • • sends large sea expeditions Motive? to “show Chinese hegemony” and monopolize maritime traffic, according to Findlay moves capital north to Beijing (from Nanjing) to deter Mongol attacks commissions 23,000-roll Encyclopedia
  111. 111. Chinese Yongle Encyclopedia Yongle Encyclopedia 1403 Diderot Encyclopedia 1773
  112. 112. Chinese Map
  113. 113. 1405-1433 Chinese Admiral Zheng He’s Voyages
  114. 114. Ming China, 1368-1644 •Ming (“Brilliant”) dynasty comes to power after Mongol Yuan dynasty driven out •Founded by Emperor Hongwu (r. 1368-1398) •Used traveling officials called Mandarins and large number of eunuchs to maintain control •Emperor Yongle (r. 1403-1424) experiments with sea expeditions, moves capital north to Beijing to deter Mongol attacks
  115. 115. Admiral Zheng He 郑和 • Muslim, Eunuch • 1405-1433 - 7 sets of expeditions • Some with 300 ships, 28K men • Chinese junks—with private cabins, bathrooms, passenger lounges, African stewards, and plentiful cargo space • Song copper coins (jiazhi) became common currency for small-scale transactions throughout Southeast Asia
  116. 116. Chinese Junk versus Christopher Columbus’s Ship? Ibn Battuta Mall, Dubai, UAE
  117. 117. Chinese and European voyages of exploration, 1405-1498.
  118. 118. The Great Wall • Origins before 4th century BCE, ruins from Qin dynasty in 3rd century BCE • Rebuilt under Ming rule, 15th-16th centuries • 1,550 miles, 33-49 feet high – Guard towers – Room for housing soldiers
  119. 119. The Great Wall of China •Starts before 4th century BCE, •Qin dynasty in 3rd century BCE, Qin Shihuangdi •Rebuilt under Ming rule, 15th-16th centuries •1,550 miles, 33-49 feet high –Guard towers –Room for housing soldiers
  120. 120. Eradicating the Mongol Past • Ming emperors encourage abandonment of Mongol names, dress • Support study of Confucian classics • Civil service examinations renewed
  121. 121. Jesuit Missionary Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) attempt to convert Ming Emperor Wanli – Mastered Chinese while in China (15821610) – Brought gifts • Prisms, harpsichords, chiming clocks
  122. 122. Ricci’s East Asia Map
  123. 123. Ming Decline • 16th century maritime pirates harm coastal trade • Navy, government unable to respond effectively • Emperors secluded in Forbidden City, palace compound in Beijing – Hedonists – Emperor Wanli (r. 1572-1620) abandons imperial activity to eunuchs
  124. 124. Ming Collapse • Famine, peasant rebellions in early 17th century • Rebels take Beijing in 1644 • Manchu fighters enter from the north and retake city • Manchus refuse to allow reestablishment of Ming dynasty • Establish Qing (“Pure”) Dynasty
  125. 125. The Qing empire, 1644-1911
  126. 126. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) • Manchus originally pastoral nomads, north of Great Wall • Chieftan Nurhaci (r. 1616-1626) unifies tribes into state, develops laws, military • Establishes control over Korea, Mongolia, China – War with Ming loyalists to 1680 – Support from many Chinese, fed up with Ming corruption • Manchus forbid intermarriage, study of Manchu language by Chinese, force Manchu hairstyles as sign of loyalty
  127. 127. Emperor Kangxi (r. 1661-1722) • Confucian scholar, poet • Military conquests: island of Taiwan, Tibet, central Asia • Grandson Emperor Qianlong (r. 1736-1795) expands territory – Height of Qing dynasty – Great prosperity, tax collection cancelled on several occasions
  128. 128. The “Son of Heaven” • Ming, Qing Emperors considered quasidivine • Hundreds of concubines, thousands of eunuch servants • Clothing designs, name characters forbidden to rest of population • The kowtow: three bows, nine head-knocks
  129. 129. The Scholar-Bureaucrats • Ran government on a day-to-day basis • Graduates from intense civil service examinations – Open only to men – Curriculum: Confucian classics, calligraphy, poetry, essay writing – Also: history, literature
  130. 130. The Civil Service Examinations • District, provincial, and metropolitan levels • Only 300 allowed to pass at highest level – Multiple attempts common • Students expected to bring bedding, chamber pots for three-day uninterrupted examinations – Students searched for printed materials before entering private cells
  131. 131. Examination System and Society • Ferocious competition • Qing dynasty: 1 million degree holders compete for 20,000 government positions – Remainder turn to teaching, tutoring positions • Some corruption, cheating • Advantage for wealthy classes: hiring private tutors, etc. • But open to all, tremendous opportunity for social mobility
  132. 132. The Patriarchal Family • Filial piety understood as duty of child to parent; individual to emperor • Eldest son favored • Clan-based authority groups augment government services
  133. 133. Gender Relations • Males receive preferential status • Economic factor: girls join husband’s family – Infanticide common • Widows strongly encouraged not to remarry – Chaste widows honored with ceremonial arches • Men control divorce – Grounds: from infidelity to talking too much
  134. 134. Footbinding • Origins in Song dynasty (960-1279 CE) • Linen strips binds and deforms female child’s feet • Perceived aesthetic value • Statement of social status and/or expectations – Commoners might bind feet of especially pretty girls to enhance marriage prospects
  135. 135. Woman with Bound Feet
  136. 136. Population Growth and Economic Development • Only 11% of China arable • Intense, garden-style agriculture necessary • American food crops introduced in 17th century – Maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts • Rebellion and war reduce population in 17 th century – Offset by increase due to American crops
  137. 137. Chinese Population Growth 250 200 150 Millions 100 50 0 1500 1600 1650 1700 1750
  138. 138. Foreign Trade • Silk, porcelain, tea, lacquerware • Chinese in turn import relatively little – Spices, animal skins, woolen textiles • Paid for exports with silver bullion from Americas • After Emperor Yongle’s early maritime expeditions (1405-1433), Ming dynasty abandons large-scale maritime trade plans – In part to appease southern populations
  139. 139. Trade in Southeast Asia • Chinese merchants continue to be active in southeast Asia, esp. Manila • Extensive dealings with Dutch VOC
  140. 140. Government and Technology • During Tang and Song dynasties (7th-13th centuries), China a world leader in technology • Stagnates during Ming and Qing dynasties – European cannons purchased, based on early Chinese invention of gunpowder • Government suppressed technological advancement, fearing social instability would result – Mass labor over productivity
  141. 141. Classes in Chinese Society • Privileged Classes – Scholar-bureaucrats, gentry – Distinctive clothing with ranks – Immunity from some legal proceedings, taxes, labor service • Working classes – Peasants, artisans/workers, merchants – Confucian doctrine gives greatest status to peasants – Merchant activity not actively supported • Lower classes – Military, beggars, slaves
  142. 142. Neo-Confucianism • Version of Confucian thought promoted by Zhu Xi (1130-1200 CE) – Confucian morality with Buddhist logic • Education at various levels promoted – Hanlin Academy, Beijing – Provincial schools • Compilation of massive Yongle Encyclopedia • Development of popular novels as well
  143. 143. Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) • Jesuits return under Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), attempt to convert Ming Emperor Wanli – Mastered Chinese before first visit in 1601 – Brought western mechanical technology • Prisms, harpsichords, clocks
  144. 144. Christianity in China • Nestorian, Roman Catholic Christians had presence in China – Disappeared with plague and social chaos of 14th century • Jesuits return under Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), attempt to convert Ming Emperor Wanli – Mastered Chinese before first visit in 1601 – Brought western mechanical technology • Prisms, harpsichords, clocks
  145. 145. Confucianism and Christianity • Argued that Christianity was consistent with Confucianism – Differences due to Neo-Confucian distortions • Yet few converts in China – Approx. 200,000 mid 18th century, about 0.08 percent of population – Christian absolutism difficult for Chinese to accept • Franciscans and Dominicans convince Pope that Jesuits compromising Christianity with Chinese traditions (e.g. ancestor worship) • Emperor Kangxi bans Christian preaching in China
  146. 146. Copyright 2014 Professor Chee Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations. Please read textbook Bentley et al.

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