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World History Ancient Americas

World History Ancient Americas

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    Americas   chee Americas chee Presentation Transcript

    • Mesoamerica – Ancient World History CHEE - LACCD
    • TIMELINE – Mesoamerica 18K BCE Asia and America connected by the ice ages humans migrate (in tiny numbers) to the Americas? 16K BCE glaciers melt 15,000 BCE Small numbers of migrants from Siberia to Americas 13,000 BCE first large wave of migration from Siberia (Russia to Alaska) 9500 BCE humans reach South America 8-7000 BCE Origins of agriculture in Mesoamerica (chili peppers, avocadoes) 4000 BCE maize (corn) cultivation in Mesoamerica 1200-100 BCE Olmec society (around central America) San Lorenzo (1200-800BCE), La Venta (800-400 BCE), and Tres Zapotes (400-100 BCE) 200 BCE -750 CE 300 – 1100 CE 950-1150 1325-1519 Teotihuacan society (Pyramid of the Sun & Moon) Maya society Toltec society Aztec empire
    • How to write an essay Intro (thesis - for example, Mesoamerica’s isolation to the other continents made them more vulnerable to disease and conquest, leading to the European conquest of the region in the fifteenth century with disease and technological arms) Body (3 major points) 1. Document “X” reveals something about this society in the 14th Century BCE… 2. 3. Conclusion (wrap-up)
    • Bering Land Bridge
    • Migrations to the Americas 18,000 BCE Asia & America connected by the ice ages - humans migrate (in tiny numbers) to the Americas? 16,000 BCE Glaciers melt 15,000 BCE Small numbers of migrants from Siberia to Americas 13,000 BCE first large wave of migration from Siberia (Russia to Alaska) 9500 BCE humans reach South America
    • Bering Land Bridge – PBS
    • Mesoamerican agriculture 8-7000 BCE beans chili peppers avocados Squashes gourds 4000 BCE - maize (corn)
    • 1200-100 BCE Olmec society (around central America)
    • Olmecs – “Rubber People” – name/people unknown Largest, nearly 10 feet tall, 20 tons
    • Olmec Ceremonial Centers 1200 – 800 BCE San Lorenzo (Veracruz) 800-400 BCE La Venta (Tabasco) 400-100 BCE Tres Zapotes (Veracruz)
    • La Venta Pyramid 800,000 man-days of labor?
    • Olmec Decline? They left a legacy for later Mesoamerican societies, such as •Maize •Ceremonial centers with pyramids as temples •Calendar •Ball games & rituals involving human sacrifice
    • Heirs to the Olmecs 200 BCE -750 CE Teotihuacan society (Pyramid of the Sun & Moon) 300 – 1100 CE Maya society Tikal, Palenque, & Chichen Itza
    • Teotihuacan society 200 BCE – 750 CE most famous – Pyramids of the Sun & Moon
    • Teotihuacan, 30 miles NE of Mexico City Teotihuacan
    • Heirs of the Olmecs: Teotihuacan Society (200 BCE – 750 CE) • Thriving city of 200,000 – one of the largest in the world • Pyramid – 2/3 size of the one in Egypt • Probably a theocracy? Religious leadership • Much still unknown about its fall
    • Heirs of the Olmec: Mayan Society 300 BCE – 1100 CE • Cultivated maize, cacao, cotton • Built 80 + ceremonial centers, with pyramids, palaces & temples • Built many small city-kingdoms, such as Tikal, Palenque & Chichen Itza • Kingdoms fought with each other, in hand-to-hand combat, bringing captives back
    • 300 BCE – 1100 CE Mayan Society (S. Mexico & Guatemala) Tikal
    • Tikal (Guatemala)
    • Palenque (Chiapas, Mexico)
    • Chichen Itza (Yucatan, Mexico) Ninth Century – formed a loose empire, but Mayan society declined
    • Mayan Society – class structure • Kings & rulers • Large class of priests – elaborate calendar, knowledge of writing, astronomy, & mathematics (invention of 0) (we will read Popul Vuh) • Hereditary nobility – owned land & organized the military • Maya merchants – ruling & noble classes • Professional architects & sculptors • Artisans – pottery, tools & cotton textiles • Peasants & slaves – most of physical labor
    • Mayan writing Ideographic elements & syllables
    • Mayan writing Only 4 books remain, as they were destroyed by the Spanish conquistadores in the sixteenth century
    • From the Olmecs: Mayan Calendar Solar year of 365 days Ritual year of 260 days, 20 months of 13 days 52 years – for the 2 calendars to mesh
    • From the Olmecs: Bloodletting rituals • Sacrifices involved shedding human blood, to prompt gods to send rain – War captives – royalty as volunteers King Shield Jaguar, with wife, Lady Xoc, with a thorn & rope through her tongue, letting blood into a basket
    • The Toltec and Aztec empires, 950-1520 C.E.
    • Height of the Toltec empire 950-1150 (around Tula – 50km NW of modern Mexico city) 1175 collapse of the Toltec empire • capital city of Tula, (50km northwest of modern Mexico city) • 60K people + another 60K in surrounding regions • grew rich from trade and agricultural produce (from irrigating the Tula river) such as maize, beans, peppers, tomatoes, chiles and cotton, as well as weaving, pottery, and obsidian art (like the Teotihuacan) • Tula collapsed after 1175 because of civil strife and foreign nomadic invasions from the northwestern Mexico
    • The Aztec Empire (Mexica) (“the place of the seven legendary caves”) • Aka, the Mexica (meh-SHEE-kah), the majority people • spoke Nahuatl • migrated from the north to central Mexico in the mid-thirteenth century? • Neighbors thought of them as troublemakers - kidnapped women, and took land/farm products that others cultivated
    • Aztec (Mexica) Tenochtitlan-1345 Dredged soil from lake bottom to create fertile plots of land Chinampas, up to 7 crops per year 
    • Aztec city of Tenochtitlan • built the city, on an island in Lake Texcoco, of 200,000 • controlled an empire of 12 million engulfing most of Mesoamerica, with nearly 500 subject territories paying tribute • Created a system of alliances, tribute, trade, and a powerful army
    • Tenochtitlan (Spanish build on top, becomes Mexico City)
    • Tenochtitlan – “a dream”? Bernal Diaz del Castillo
    • Tenochtitlan – artist renderings
    • Aztec or Mexica Society dominated by warriors, who came from the aristocracy ( they ate the best food, wore the best clothes, and even met as a council to choose the emperors)
    • Aztec Empire Priests, also shared the rank among the Mexica elite, not only presiding over religious ceremonies but some also became important rulers (Motecuzoma II 15021520 when the Spanish came and conquered) Aztec demon
    • Aztec or Mexica Society • Women, with the exception of the honored position as child bearer, played almost no public role in Aztec society, though they were active in the marketplaces. • Slaves worked as domestic servants, despite constant warfare, they were usually Mexica Aztec Vessel
    • Bernardino de Sahagun. Florentine Codex Franciscan priest, anthropologic al study of the Aztecs or the Mexica
    • Malinche “Dona Marina” & Cortes c. 1519 Spanish to Maya to Nahuatl Interpreter, advisor & lover
    • Diego Rivera. Slavery, oppression, & genocide & the Spanish Conquest
    • Hernan Cortes (1519-1521) (~550 men) & the Aztecs
    • Andean Societies • Migration into South America c. 12000 BCE • Climate – warm & dry c. 8000 BCE • Largely independent from Mesoamerica • Highly individualized due to geography
    • Ancient South America – little known • • • • no written records 3000 BCE food cultivation Mochica State 300-700 CE (pottery vessels) Chavin Cult - New religion in central Andes, 900-300 BCE - little known about particulars of religion • South America, contemporary Peru Intricate stone carvings
    • Newest Discovery – Buena Vista, Peru – 2200 BCE
    • Buena Vista – 2200 BCE Archeologists discovered this site close to Lima, Peru
    • The Incas • built an elaborate series of over 10,000 miles of roads, 3500 miles long Cuzco, capital of the Inca empire, 300,000 Inca Empire of 11 million from the twelfth- fifteenth centuries?
    • Machu Picchu & The Incas No much known about Machu Picchu, 15th century? Discovered only in 1911 Inca Empire of 11 million from the twelfth- fifteenth centuries?
    • The Incas & Quipu • Ruled as a military & admin elite • Armies of conquered peoples • No writing, but had quipu, cords of various colors & lengths, with knots
    • Guaman Poma’s Nueva coronica Gathering the Harvest – Incas before the Spanish Conquest
    • o The Incas & Francisco Pizarro (180 men) 1532-3 o Francisco Pizarro & 180 Spanish men o arrived when the Inca ruling party was disputing – exploited civil strife o 1533- took Cuzo – capital o killed the ruling party including the Inca ruler Atahualpa – until they received gold.
    • Copyright 2012 - CHEE Professor Chee does not endorse any other lectures on slideshare or other websites for her world history students