What is GIS?

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An introductory presentation on GIS (Geographical Information Systems) for my Year 10 Geographers working on the CCEA Syllabus.

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  • GIS is not just about visualisationIt provides powerful analysis capabilities as well.
  • What is GIS?

    1. 1. GIS<br />Geographical Information<br />Systems<br />
    2. 2. What is GI<br />Geographical Information<br />Any information that has a spatial element is Geographical.<br />That is any information that can be located on a map.<br />
    3. 3. Using GI to solve problems – Cholera Epidemic<br />
    4. 4. Original map by Dr. John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854 <br />
    5. 5. 1854 London – Cholera (after Dr. John Snow)<br />
    6. 6. Source: ESRI<br />
    7. 7. “…a digital map, data located on the map, and a software application (GIS) that links the two together” Diana Freeman (2004)<br />Slide from: Alan Parkinson <br />
    8. 8. GIS-what makes it so successful?<br />Attributive information:<br />What it is?<br />Information about its location: Where?<br />Kind: Oak<br />Height: 15m<br />Age: 75<br />51°N, 112°W<br />Tool for gathering, organizing, analyzing spatial data to produce geographic information<br />With GIS we can describe an object in two interrelated ways:<br />
    9. 9. GIS database<br />Attr.<br />data<br />Kind: Oak<br />Height: 15m<br />Age: 75<br />Spatialdata<br />51°N, 112°W<br />Spatial (location) data and attributive (describing) data are stored into the GIS relational database<br />
    10. 10. Where is GIS?<br />
    11. 11. Where is GIS?<br />Aviation<br />Telecommunications<br />Nature Conservation<br />Petroleum<br />Agriculture<br />Parks & Recreation<br />Mining<br />Forestry<br />Museum<br />Coastal & Marine Protection<br />Port & Airport Management<br />Retail<br />Health<br />Search & Rescue<br />Education<br />Economic Development<br />Defence<br />National Mapping<br />Insurance<br />Government<br />Security<br />Engineering<br />Tourism<br />Town Planning<br />Banking<br />Facility Management<br />Street Lighting<br />Public Safety<br />Logistics<br />Land Registry<br />Waste Collection<br />Highways<br />Asset Management<br />Landscape Planning<br />Utilities<br />Surveying<br />
    12. 12. Properties<br />Census Data<br />Health Statistics<br />Utility Networks<br />Policy Holders<br />Land Ownership<br />Flood Risk<br />Rivers/Canals<br />Locations<br />CCTV Coverage<br />Building Plans<br />Assets<br />Road Network<br />Woodland<br />Geology/Soils<br />Terrain<br />GIS is basedon layers ofInformation<br />
    13. 13. Value of GIS - Spatial Analysis<br />Identify features within a target area<br />Perform comparative time-based analytics<br />Display features on a map<br />Trigger activities based on location<br />Show which features are related<br />Change location of a feature<br />Create thematic maps<br />Show clusters and hotspots<br />Change the attributesof a feature<br />Perform proximity analysis<br />Analyse where to reallocate resources<br />View locations over a satellite image<br />Answer what-if scenarios<br />Find a route from A to B across a network<br />Find a route from A to B considering impedances<br />

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