Factors Affecting Farming


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Factors Affecting Farming

  1. 1. Factors Affecting Farming<br />
  2. 2. Environmental Factors<br />Cultural Factors<br />Economic Factors<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Physical Factors Affecting Farming<br />
  5. 5. Temperature<br /><ul><li>Critical for plant growth because each plant or crop type requires a minimum growing temperature.
  6. 6. In temperate latitudes this is 6°C. Below this members of the grass family, including cereals, cannot grow.</li></ul>Growing Season – the number of days between the last frost of spring and first frost of autumn.<br /><ul><li>Growing season varies by crop; Cotton needs 200, Spring Wheat needs 90.</li></li></ul><li>Precipitation / Water Supply<br />The Mean annual rainfall for an area determines whether farming is likely to be based upon tree crops, grass, cereals or irrigation.<br />Few crops can grow when there is less than 250mm a year.<br />Seasonal distribution is more significant than annual total.<br />Long steady periods of rain allow the water to soak into the soil.<br />Short heavy downpours lead to surface runoff and soil erosion.<br />
  7. 7. Altitude<br />Growth is controlled by decrease in temperature at height.<br />In Britain few grasses (including hay) can produce commercial yields above 300m.<br />In warmer latitudes wheat can ripen at 3000m.<br />
  8. 8. Wind<br />Wind increases evapotranspiration rate.<br />This allows the soil to dry out and to become vulnerable to erosion.<br />Some winds are beneficial to agriculture, e.g. Chinook. Melts snow on the prairies, lengthening the growing season.<br />
  9. 9. Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting Farming<br />
  10. 10. Land Tenure<br />Who owns the land?<br />Farmers may be owner-occupiers, tenants, landless labourers or state employees on the land which they farm.<br />Cash Tenancy<br />Share Cropping<br />
  11. 11. Inheritance Laws and Farm Size<br />
  12. 12. Economic Factors Affecting Farming<br />
  13. 13. Transport<br />Types of transport available, time taken, and the cost of moving raw materials.<br />For perishable commodities (e.g. Milk) an efficient transport network is an necessity.<br />For bulky goods (e.g. Potatoes) transport costs must be lower for outputs to be profitable.<br />Items should be grown as close to market as possible.<br />
  14. 14. Markets<br />Role of the market is closely linked with transport.<br />Market demand depends on size and affluence of the market population.<br />It also depends on religious and cultural beliefs.<br />
  15. 15. Technology<br />Technological developments such as new strains of seed, cross-breeding of animals, improved machinery and irrigation may extend the areas of optimal conditions and the limits of production (Green Revolution).<br />Lack of capital may mean that countries are unable to take advantage of these developments.<br />
  16. 16. Governments<br />In centrally planned governments it is the state not the individual that makes the farming decision.<br />EU quotas and subsidies can affect crop choice.<br />
  17. 17. To what extent do you agree with the assertion that Economic Factors are more important that Physical Factors in food production.<br />