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Instructor skills workshop for online development

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The presentation/seminar outlines the collaborative process and resultant Instructor Skills Workshop (ISW) for Online Development (ISWOD). Educators may find it difficult to migrate onsite courses …

The presentation/seminar outlines the collaborative process and resultant Instructor Skills Workshop (ISW) for Online Development (ISWOD). Educators may find it difficult to migrate onsite courses into an online environment. ISWOD encourages practicing Adult Educators to develop and re-purpose lessons using sound pedagogical tools and techniques for the online environment.

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  • Social Development Theory (Vygotsky)Summary: Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior.Originator: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934).Key terms: Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)Vygotsky’s Social Development TheoryVygotsky’s Social Development Theory is the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who lived during Russian Revolution. Vygotsky’s work was largely unkown to the West until it was published in 1962.Vygotsky’s theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes:Major themes: Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean Piaget’s understanding of child development (in which development necessarily precedes learning), Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. He states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” (Vygotsky, 1978).The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, coach, or older adult, but the MKO could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers.The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone.Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environments. Initially children develop these tools to serve solely as social functions, ways to communicate needs. Vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills.Applications of the Vygotsky’s Social Development TheoryMany schools have traditionally held a transmissionist or instructionist model in which a teacher or lecturer ‘transmits’ information to students. In contrast, Vygotsky’s theory promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning. Roles of the teacher and student are therefore shifted, as a teacher should collaborate with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning construction in students. Learning therefore becomes a reciprocal experience for the students and teacher.For more information, see:Driscoll, M. P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Crawford, K. (1996) Vygotskian approaches to human development in the information era. Educational Studies in Mathematics. (31) 43-62.Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Wertsch, James V. Sohmer, Richard. (1995). Vygotsky on learning and development. Human Development. (38 ) 332-37.http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html
  • Develop learning strategies based on participant characteristics and subject matter level of difficulty. Demonstrate effective use of common online instructional aids, including media and social networking toolsCreate lesson design elements that include content, activities, learning interactions, and assessment pertaining to one or more specific learning outcomes. Design questioning techniques during an online session using technology that suits the constraints of a given learning environment. Deliver collaborative, learner-centred online lessons utilizing key elements of the BOPPPS and WebQuest design or planning models. Evaluate provided samples of online courses and lessons for compliance to good instructional design practices. Based on course and lesson observations, generate feedback that that fosters practical revisions.
  • ISW-Was built in the classic tradition of Behaviourism & Cognitivismfocus on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automaticISWOD-Was designed with Constructivism perspective and construct of the world, through individual experiences and schemaSocial Development Theory (Vygotsky)Summary: Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior.Originator: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934).Key terms: Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)Vygotsky’s Social Development TheoryVygotsky’s Social Development Theory is the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who lived during Russian Revolution. Vygotsky’s work was largely unkown to the West until it was published in 1962.Vygotsky’s theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes:Major themes: Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean Piaget’s understanding of child development (in which development necessarily precedes learning), Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. He states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” (Vygotsky, 1978).The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, coach, or older adult, but the MKO could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers.The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone.Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environments. Initially children develop these tools to serve solely as social functions, ways to communicate needs. Vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills.Applications of the Vygotsky’s Social Development TheoryMany schools have traditionally held a transmissionist or instructionist model in which a teacher or lecturer ‘transmits’ information to students. In contrast, Vygotsky’s theory promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning. Roles of the teacher and student are therefore shifted, as a teacher should collaborate with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning construction in students. Learning therefore becomes a reciprocal experience for the students and teacher.For more information, see:Driscoll, M. P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Crawford, K. (1996) Vygotskian approaches to human development in the information era. Educational Studies in Mathematics. (31) 43-62.Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Wertsch, James V. Sohmer, Richard. (1995). Vygotsky on learning and development. Human Development. (38 ) 332-37.http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html
  • The following are roles teacher play in networked learning environments:1. Amplifying2. Curating3. Wayfinding and socially-driven sensemaking4. Aggregating5. Filtering6. Modelling7. Persistent presence
  • The integration of cognition and emotions in meaning-making is important. Thinking and emotions influence each other. A theory of learning that only considers one dimension excludes a large part of how learning happens.Learning has an end goal - namely the increased ability to "do something". This increased competence might be in a practical sense (i.e. developing the ability to use a new software tool or learning how to skate) or in the ability to function more effectively in a knowledge era (self-awareness, personal information management, etc.). The "whole of learning" is not only gaining skill and understanding - actuation is a needed element. Principles of motivation and rapid decision making often determine whether or not a learner will actuate known principles.Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. A learner can exponentially improve their own learning by plugging into an existing network.Learning may reside in non-human appliances. Learning (in the sense that something is known, but not necessarily actuated) can rest in a community, a network, or a database.The capacity to know more is more critical that what is currently known. Knowing where to find information is more important than knowing information.Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate learning. Connection making provides far greater returns on effort than simply seeking to understand a single concept.
  • An opportunity for questions and discussions.
  • A list of procedures and steps, or a lecture slide with media.
  • An introduction that sets the stage and provides some background information.A task that is doable and interesting.A set of information sources needed to complete the task. Because pointers to resources are included, the learner is not left to wander through webspace completely adrift.A description of the process the learners should go through in accomplishing the task…broken out into clearly described steps.Some guidance on how to organize the information acquired. This can take the form of guiding questions, or directions to complete organizational frameworks such as timelines, concept maps, or cause-and-effect diagrams.A conclusion that brings closure to the quest, reminds the learners about what they've learned, and perhaps encourages them to extend the experience into other domains.
  • From the article, "Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed"by Gerald Grow, Ph.D. School of Journalism, Media & Graphic Arts Florida A&M University Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA available at: http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow

Transcript

  • 1. Instructor Skills Workshop for Online Development (ISWOD):On-site to On-line
    Presenters: Ginny Cathcart, Robin Popow, Sue Birtwell
    May 4th 2011
  • 2. Instructor Skills Workshop: On-site to On-line
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    2
    1. How many adult educators are present?
    2. What is your best or worst teaching or learning online experience. Why?
    3. How do we get from here to there?
  • 3. The People in the Collaboration
    • BCcampus Online Program Development Fund (OPDF) for values and resources
    • 4. Instructor Skills Workshops Network (ISW) for their inspiration and experience
    • 5. VCC Centre for Instructional Development for support and leadership
    • 6. Karen Belfer-VCC Project Manager
    • 7. Sue Birtwell-VCC
    • 8. Ginny Cathcart-VCC
    • 9. Tannis Morgan-JIBC
    • 10. Robin Popow-VCC
    • 11. Peer Evaluators
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    3
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    The Champions
    The Development Team
  • 12. ISWOD Presentation Description
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    4
    A robust collaboration created the course; future collaborations and partnerships will assure its survival.
    This presentation is about this collaboration and the process as much as it is about the deliverable.
    Collaboration for us was the sincere desire to work together; share ideas as equals in an intellectual endeavor.
    It is also about fluctuating and situational leadership and teaching and learning roles.
  • 13. 5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    5
    ISWOD Provides an experiential learning approach.
    Participants design and implement "mini-lessons" and receive feedback from their peers and the instructor.
    Encourages practicing educators to develop online lessons using sound andragogy (theory and practice.)
    Provides tools to re-purpose lessons for the online environment.
  • 14. Inspiration and History: The Instructional Skills Workshop (ISW)
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    6
    Who is familiar with the ISW ?
    3-4 day workshop
    small group setting
    enhancing teaching effectiveness
    participants design & conduct 3 “mini-lessons”
    verbal, written and video feedback from peers
    Cited at http://iswnetwork.ca/
  • 15. Collaborating to Create a Bridge: ISW to ISWOD
    ISW-built in the classic traditions of Behaviourism and Cognitivism
    ISWOD-developed within Constructivism perspectives and learning constructs
    Bridge-Connectivism
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    7
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
  • 16. 5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    8
    Challenges: Teacher-Learner Roles Change in the Networked Environment
    Teacher/instructor/professor play numerous roles in a traditional classroom:
    role model, encourager, supporter, guide, synthesizer
    Most importantly, offers a narrative of coherence of a particular discipline.
    8
    Cited April 28th 2011 at
    http://www.connectivism.ca/?p=220
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
  • 17. Connectivism, a learning theory for a digital age
    Coherence and lucidity are key to understanding our world.
    How do educators teach in ambiguous networks?
    For educators, control is being replaced with influence.
    Instead of controlling a classroom, a teacher now influences or shapes a network.
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    9
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    George Siemens Connectivism, Credit: Clix
    Cited April 28th 2011 at
    http://www.connectivism.ca/?p=220
  • 18. Some Principles of Connectivism
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    10
    Learning may reside in non-human appliances. (community, network, or database.)
    Knowing where to find information is more important than knowing information.
    Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate learning.
    Learning is a knowledge creation process...not only knowledge consumption.
    Reference: An Introduction to Connective Knowledge by Stephen Downes cited at http://www.downes.ca/
  • 19. Learning therefore becomes a reciprocal experience for the students and teachers
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    11
  • 20. Collaboration Challenges: Shift Happens!
    • Discovering the “process” interface
    • 21. Connecting traditional lesson planning models to techniques suited to learning and social sense- making online
    • 22. Reframing teacher-learner relationships within “Connectivism”
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    12
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
  • 23. The WebQuest: Critical Attributes
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    13
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/ted6020/webquest/
  • 24. Technique: Connect Onsite-Online
    BOPPPS-Content
    Bridge-in
    Objective
    Pre-test
    Participatory Learning
    Post-test
    Summary
    WebQuest-Process
    Introduction- set the stage
    Task-doable and interesting
    Information- sources to complete the task
    Description- of the process
    Guidance-how to organize the acquired information
    Conclusion- summary
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    14
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
  • 25. Non-critical Attributes of a WebQuest
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    15
    WebQuests–learning activities may be designed as…
    Group activities-cooperative learning groups
    Problem-based Learning- authentic cases, WIKIs
    Role Plays- MMORPGs or simulations
    Disciplinary or Interdisciplinary-collaborations
    Critical thinking-information literacy, research projects
  • 26. Onsite to Online: Let’s go to Vancouver
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    16
    Robin
    &
    SUE
  • 27. ISWOD Connects the Dots
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    17
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
  • 28. Staged Self-directed Learning Model
    5/1/2011 10:47 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    18
    Unintended Learning Outcomes-Continuous & Self-directed Learning
  • 29. Thank you for your interest
    “Good teaching means seeing the learning from the learner’s eyes” (Ramsden)
    5/1/2011 10:48 PM
    19
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    Good Teaching-Learning
    Is a Beautiful Thing
  • 30. References
    5/1/2011 10:48 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    20
    1. Anderson. C. (2010) Teaching in Social and Technological Networks. Cited April 28th 2011 at http://www.connectivism.ca/?p=220
    2. Downes, S. (2007). An Introduction to Connective Knowledge in Hug, Theo (ed.): Media, Knowledge & Education - Exploring new Spaces, Relations and Dynamics in Digital Media Ecologies. Proceedings of the International Conference June 25-26, 2007. Cited April 25th 2011at: http://www.downes.ca/post/33034
    3. Learning Theories. Cited April 25th 2011 at: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/SUSE/projects/ireport/articles/general/Educational%20Theories%20Summary.pdf
  • 31. References
    5/1/2011 10:48 PM
    CanadaMoot 2011-Edmonton Canada
    21
    4. Gerald Grow (1996) Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed Cited April 25th 2011 at: http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow
    5. Bernie Dodge (1997) WebQuests. Cited April 25th 2011 at: http://webquest.org/index.php
    6. Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. H, (1999) Leadership and the One Minute Manager, William Morrow. Cited April 25th 2011at: http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow/SSDL/Notes.html
    7. Ramsden, P (1998) Managing the Effective University in Higher Education Research and Development Vol 17, 3: October, pp. 347–370