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P3.3. Strengthening Capacity for Agricultural Inovation in PC & PC Countries
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P3.3. Strengthening Capacity for Agricultural Inovation in PC & PC Countries

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J. J. Mbonigaba Muhinda

J. J. Mbonigaba Muhinda


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  • 1. Strengthening Capacity for Agricultural Innovation in PC & PC CountriesSector Development and Approaches to Capacity Strengthening in Rwanda (1994 – to date) Prof. J.J. Mbonigaba Muhinda, PhD Kigali, 6th Sep 2012
  • 2. Outline Country ba ckground Agriculture S e ctor ba ckground S e ctor contribution to the Economy S e ctor de ve lopme nt & ke y mile s tone s /ta rge ts Ca pa city s tre ngthe ning inte rve ntions & Impa ct to the s e ctor de ve lopme nt Ca pa city s tre ngthe ning for a gricultura l re s e a rch a nd innova tion 2
  • 3. Rwanda background Rwa nda ’s e conomy is la rge ly a gra ria n • ~ 11 mill pe ople •>80% of popula tion de pe nd on a griculture • 34% of na tiona l GDP  Tota l La nd a re a = 24,700 s q. km  P opula tion de ns ity = 407 pe rs ons / s q. km  Ara ble la nd = 91% of la nd (2,294,390 Ha )  Cultiva te d la nd (Ca s h a nd Food crops ) = 1,735,025 Ha  Cultiva te d la nd (Food crops ; 2011 B) = 935,176 Ha 3
  • 4. Country background (…) Be twe e n 1990 a nd 1994, Rwa nda ha s s uffe re d a civil wa r followe d by the Ge nocide The wa r ha s de s troye d e xis ting infra s tructure s a nd de e ply a ffe ct both huma n a nd ins titutiona l ca pa citie s , a s we ll a s live lihood of Rwa nda ns S ince 1994, the s e curity a nd politica l s ta bility ha ve be e n re s tore d De ce ntra lize d a dminis tra tive s tructure s tha t e ncoura ge the pa rticipa tion of the popula tion in rura l de ve lopme nt ha ve be e n e s ta blis he d on loca l le ve l 4
  • 5. Country background (…) In 1996, the Gove rnme nt s ta rte d a ne w progra m ca lle d “Shadow Programme” to a ddre s s e me rge ncie s a nd re cons truction of the Country From 1998-2001, Rwa nda unde rtook a progra m of re form tha t ma rke d the be ginning of the proce s s of s us ta ina ble de ve lopme nt re s ulting in:  Ela bora tion a nd la unch of Na tiona l P ove rty Re duction P la n (NPRP) in the fra me work of Vis ion 2 020 in 2000  Ela bora tion the Na tiona l Inve s tme nt S tra te gy (NIS) in 2010 horizon in 2001 5
  • 6. Agriculture sector-background Agriculture in Rwa nda re ma ins the tra de s e ctor tha t holds pote ntia ls for e xpa ns ion Howe ve r, a gricultura l growth wa s 0.5% in the 80’s a nd –3.9% in the 90’s Low a gricultura l growth lie d a t the ce ntra l core of unde r-pe rforming e conomy in the 80’s picture d limita tion in re s ource s ba s e , de clining s oil fe rtility a nd e xce ptiona lly low utiliza tion of mode rn a gricultura l inputs S ince the be ginning of the ye a r 80 highly growing popula tion wa s be coming more a nd more obvious ly a ne ga tive impa ct on la nds occupa tion: ove re xploita tion a nd s oil e ros ion le a ding to de cline s oil fe rtility
  • 7. Sector background (…) Inte ns ive a griculture ha s the n be e n cons ide re d a nd ne ce s s a ry me a s ure s we re unde rta ke n(introduction of che mica l fe rtilize rs , fighting e ros ion, inte re s t in orga nic ma nure , e tc.) The s e e fforts did not howe ve r re s ult in e xpe cte d outcome s be ca us e the y we re ma inly dire cte d to s e lf-s ufficie ncy a nd did not le a d to the cre a tion of mone ta ry income Othe r hindra nce s we re ove rlooke d, s uch a s :  Agricultura l tools we re rudime nta ry a nd did not re ce ive much a tte ntion;  Control of wa te r a nd e s pe cia lly wa te r for irriga tion wa s little e ns ure d;  Anima l hus ba ndry wa s not s ufficie ntly de ve lope d, he nce le s s productive .
  • 8. Sector background (…) From this ba ckground, a griculture a nd live s tock ha ve be come a ma jor conce rn of the Gove rnme nt in the re cons truction pe riod a fte r the Ge nocide The goa l wa s to re ve rs e the tre nd a nd bring a bout we ll- be ing of the popula tion through ide ntifica tion of a libe ra lize d a nd ma rke t-orie nte d a gricultura l e conomy, food s e curity a nd pove rty re duction Re s e a rch s hould be a n importa nt ba ckbone for this policy He nce , e la bora tion of the a gricultura l policy a nd re la te d s tra te gie s to imple me nt it we re initia te d fa voure d pa rticipa tory a pproa ch 8
  • 9. Agriculture contribution to the National Economy % Rate of Sector Growth 2006-2011 • 32-34% of Rwa nda ’s GDP • 70% of e xports • Employme nt > 80% of popula tion • P rovide s 90% na tiona l food ne e ds Ave ra ge a nnua l a gricultura l growth ha s be e n 5% ove r the pa s t 5 ye a rs , unde rpinne d bys trong growth in production of s ta ple food crops 9
  • 10. S e ctor de ve lopme nt & ke y mile s tone s The mis s ion: to ins ure food s e curity for the Country through incre a s ing productivity of Agriculture a nd Live s tock Re s ource s a va ila ble : wa te r, ma rs hla nds , la nd, s oil a nd pe ople to our a dva nta ge a nd s us ta ina bly 10 10
  • 11. Sector strategic orientation Dive rs ifica tion a nd inte ns ifica tion of pla nt, a nima l a nd fis h production Dive rs ifica tion of income a nd e mployme nt s ource s for rura l popula tions Linking products to na tiona l, re giona l a nd Inte rna tiona l ma rke ts S us ta ina ble ma na ge me nt of na tura l re s ource s , pa rticula rly s oil a nd wa te r Orga niza tion, mobiliza tion a nd ca pa city-building for produce rs Ca pa city-building for s e rvice provide rs a nd priva te -s e ctor de ve lopme nt Cre a ting a n e na bling e nvironme nt for inve s tme nt in a griculture P romoting ge nde r a nd youth a pproa ch in a griculture s e ctor 11
  • 12. Sector strategic orientation (…) Shifting Towards Private Sector Led Agriculture GrowthFROM... ...TO... 2020 TARGETS $1200 GDP per capita Food Security Guaranteeing through Economic Average annual sectorFood Availability Growth growth of 8.5% between 2012-2017 Public Private Investment... Investment... Production of 2,500 kcal/person/day Farmers as Farmers as Active 3.2 million off-farm jobsPassive Recipients Market Players 5% of households with Borderline Poor Food Government as Government as Consumption Score direct provider facilitator (Food Security Indicator) 12
  • 13. Sector priority programs Crop Inte ns ifica tion P rogra m Irriga tion & me cha niza tion infra s tructure de ve lopme nt P os t-Ha rve s t Ha ndling a nd s tora ge Live s tock mode rniza tion & ge ne tic improve me nt P romoting Exports a nd High-Va lue Crops Innova tion through a n Active Re s e a rch Age nda 13
  • 14. Sector milestones: MDG & Vision 2020 Target inAgriculture Sector MDGs Indicator 2020GDP pe r ca pita in US dolla rs 900Ave ra ge re a l GDP growth ra te (%) 8Ave ra ge re a l growth ra te of the Agricultura l S e ctor (%) 6Ave ra ge re a l growth ra te of the Indus try S e ctor (%) 12Ave ra ge re a l growth ra te of the S e rvice S e ctor (%) 11Agricultura l production (kca l/pe rs on/da y) 2,200Agricultura l popula tion (% of a ctive popula tion) 50Us e of fe rtilize rs (Kg/ he cta re / ye a r) 15Us e of che mica l or orga nic fe rtilize rs (% of hous e holds ) 50La nd unde r “mode rnize d” a gric (%) 50S oil e ros ion prote ction (% tota l la nd) 90Fina ncia l cre dits to the Agricultura l S e ctor (%) 20
  • 15. Sector milestones: EDPRS & GoR ProgramEDPRS Current EDPRS GoR 2017 Targets TargetsP e rce nta ge of Ara ble La nd 87.3% 100 100P rote cte d Aga ins t S oil Eros ionMa rs hla nds De ve lope d (ha ) 23,683 20,000 65,000P roduction of Coffe e (MT) 16,373 23,000 34,000 (2011)Fe rtilize r a pplica tion (Kg/Ha /Ye a r) 29 12 45Numbe r of HH us ing Improve d 71% 20% 100%S e e ds 15
  • 16. Capacity strengthening interventions & Impact to the sector development Thre e ke y ca pa city building a re a s  P olicy re forms  Ins titutiona l ca pa city building  Huma n ca pa city building 16
  • 17. Policy reforms & CB: SPAT 1 & 2 The S PAT II ha s be e n de ve lope d in re s pons e to the ne e d for a n upda te d s tra te gy for a griculture (S PAT I) The S PAT II bringing it fully into cons ona nce EDP RS , pros pe ctive , long‐te rm Vis ion 2020 a nd the Na tiona l Inve s tme nt S tra te gy The S PAT II s e rve s to e la bora te a nd de ve lop the progra mme s , s ub‐progra mme s a nd a ctivitie s tha t s hould le a d a gricultura l de ve lopme nt, a nd s o will guide imple me nta tion a s we ll a s forming the ba s is for a S e ctor‐ Wide Approa ch (S WAp) in a griculture .
  • 18. Policy reforms & CB: SPAT 2 framework 18
  • 19. Policy reforms & CB: EDPRS Unde r the EDP RS proce s s , four ma jor progra ms we re de fine d for the pe riod 2008-2012, which toge the r re pre s e nt Rwa nda ’s prioritie s a cros s the four CAADP P illa rs . Gove rnme nt s e e s imple me nta tion of EDP RS a s s tra te gy to a chie ve a nd e xce e d the 6% CAADP growth ta rge t Gove rnme nt committe d to imple me nt Ma puto-de cla ra tion (10%) 19
  • 20. Policy reforms & CB: CAADP implementation Gove rnme nt commitme nt for a nd us e of CAADP compa ct, Nove mbe r 2006 The focus of the CAADP proce s s wa s to s tre ngthe n a nd a dd va lue to the S PAT unde r the ongoing EDP RS . The ultima te goa l of the CAADP proce s s in Rwa nda wa s to a ns we r tha t ca ll for the a gricultura l s e ctor, by:  He lping de fine a cohe re nt long te rm fra me work to guide the pla nning a nd imple me nta tion of EDP S /S PAT progra mme s unde r the Vis ion 2020 a ge nda  De ve loping e xis ting a nd ne w s tra te gy a na lys is a nd knowle dge s upport  Fa cilita te pe e r re vie w, dia logue , a nd e vide nce ba s e d pla nning a nd imple me nta tion of a gricultura l s e ctor policie s a nd s tra te gie s . 20 20
  • 21. Policy reforms & CB: SPAT 3 & EDPRS2 Curre ntly the GoR is unde rta king formula tion of EDP RS 2 & S PAT 3 for 2013-2017 EDP RS 2 prioritie s  De ve lopme nt of Qua lity Irriga tion & Me cha niza tion S ys te ms (us ing public & priva te re s ource s )  Compre he ns ive Approa ch to La nd Hus ba ndry (S oil Fe rtility, S oil Cons e rva tion, Wa te r Ha rve s ting & Ma na ge me nt, Live s tock Fe e d)  Incre a s e d us e of a gricultura l inputs (orga nic a nd mine ra l fe rtilize rs & improve d qua lity s e e ds )  De ve lop the a gricultura l pos t-ha rve s t ha ndling & s tora ge s ys te m a nd fa rme r ca pa city  De ve lop a nd ta rge t with priva te s e ctor high-va lue commodity cha ins , e ncoura ging innova tion  Live s tock mode rniza tion  Agricultura l re s e a rch a ge nda is s tre ngthe ne d a ccording to de ma nd drive n by fa rme rs 21 21
  • 22. Impact to the sector development Production & productivity increase for key staplesLa nd cons olida tion, inputs provis ion a nd proximity e xte ns ion s e rvice s through theCrop Inte ns ifica tion P rogra mme ha ve be e n the ma in contributors to this growth 22
  • 23. Production & productivity increase (…) 23
  • 24. Production & productivity increase (…) 24
  • 25. Impact to the sector development: food security trend21/30 dis tricts vulne ra ble to food ins e curity in 2007 while in 2011, a lldis tricts we re food s e cure 25
  • 26. Impact to the sector development: povertyreduction 26
  • 27. Poverty reduction mapping (2012) 27
  • 28. Utilizing regional potential to poverty reduction Land use Area (Ha) Area (%) category Annual 228,968 33 cropping Coffee 185,389 26 plantation Tea plantation 123,660 18 Range 139,714 20 Forest 25,079 4 Total 707,621 100 28
  • 29. Home Grown Solutions There are a number of home-grown programmes and initiatives that have contributed to great changes 1. PRODUCTION 2. VALUE-ADDITION 3. MARKETING• La nd Us e • P romotion ofCons olida tion •Drying Grounds a nd Community-ba s e d S tora ge linke d to high- P urcha s ing•One Cow P e r P oor production a re a sFa mily •One Cup of Milk pe r •Community-ba s e d Child•HIMO Approa ch to colle ction ce nte rsTe rra cing (Milk, Horticulture e tc) • HIMO Approa ch for Fe e de r Roa d• Community-ba s e d Cons tructionMa rs hla ndDe ve lopme nt forIrriga tion 29
  • 30. Home growing solutions: e.g. terracing 30
  • 31. Home growing solutions: e.g. irrigation 31
  • 32. Home growing solutions: e.g. one cow & onecup 32
  • 33. Research capacity strengthening and innovation Crop production a nd prote ction  De ve lopme nt of high yie lding a nd re s is ta nt crop va rie tie s  Dis e a s e s a nd pe s ts control  Tis s ue culture de ve lopme nt for s ta ple food crops , horticulture , coffe e a nd tre e s . Anima l re s ource s for e nha nce d food s e curity  Anima l ge ne tic improve me nt (cros s ing, a rtificia l ins e mina tion & e mbryo tra ns fe r), a nima l nutrition a nd a nima l he a lth S us ta ina ble na tura l re s ource s ma na ge me nt  S oil fe rtility ma na ge me nt a nd s oil cons e rva tion  Wa te r re s ource s ma na ge me nt a nd irriga tion  Fore s try a nd a gro-fore s try s ys te ms  Agro-me te orology a nd clima te cha nge a da pta tion 33
  • 34. Research capacity strengthening and innovation Ge ne Ba nk e s ta blis hme nt for pla nt a nd a nima l ge ne tic re s ource s (ge rmpla s ms ) re cons titutions (s ome ha ve be e n los t a fte r 1994). Tis s ue culture de ve lopme nt for s ta ple food, horticulture , coffe e a nd tre e s . Inte gra tion of Re s e a rch a nd Exte ns ion for de ve lopme nt S ta ff ca pa city building (P hD, MS c, S hort Cours e s ) e .g. S CARDA progra m of FARA, NCB progra m, e tc. 34
  • 35. Sector Challenges Low involve me nt of the priva te s e ctor in a griculture s e ctor: Low inve s tme nts , we a k ca pa city of loca l priva te e ntre pre ne urs in a griculture infra s tructure ,… Acce s s to Fina nce : Re lucta nce of Fina ncia l ins titutions in le nding a griculture Ins ufficie nt s kills in ke y doma ins s uch a s irriga tion, me cha niza tion, bre e ding, pos t ha rve s t…. P ublic Inve s tme nt a nd funding Agriculture vs . Ta rge ts 35