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P 3.1 Innovations for Better Livelihoods

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Rodney Cooke

Rodney Cooke


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  • 1. Session P 3.1 Innovations for Better Livelihoods 30 October 2012 Chair: Rodney D. Cooke Facilitator: Patrick Dugan
  • 2. GCARD Roadmap identifies 6 key areas:• Collective focus on key priorities as determined & shaped by science and society• True and effective partnership between research and those it serves• Increasing investments to meet the huge challenges ahead• Enhancing capacities to generate, share and use agricultural knowledge for development• Effective linkages that embed research in wider development processes and commitments• Better demonstration of impacts and returns from agricultural innovation
  • 3. GCARD 2• Foresight for impact - matching research priorities to future development needs• Partnerships for impact This theme concerns the roles and actions needed by all partners along intended agricultural innovation pathways – as projected for the CGIAR CRPs and other national, regional and international partnership actions• Capacity development for impact
  • 4. Aim of the GCARD 2 Parallel Sessions• describe the outcomes expected with the programs reviewed;• identify key gaps which need to be addressed through new partnerships;• indicate what would be required to achieve large scale impactsThe focus of all sessions is on the practical actions to which interestedparties are prepared to commit, and the Outcomes that can be achievedover the next two years and reported back in 2014GCARD is intended as a process bringing to a head key issues identified byGFAR stakeholders as advances and or limitations to AR4D.
  • 5. The state of rural poverty today• Developing world remains more Rural population trends rural than urban: 55% of 1600 Millions of people population is rural – 3.1 billion 1400 1200 people 1000 800• Around 2020-2025 two major 600 changes expected: 400 200 oThe total rural population will 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 peak, and then start to Seri es 11 Rura l Sub-Sa ha ra n Afri ca decline Rura l South a nd Centra l As i a Rura l Mi ddl e Ea s t a nd North Afri ca Rura l La ti n Ameri ca a nd the Ca ri bbea n Rura l Ea s t a nd South Ea s t As i a Seri es 17 Pea k Rura l Popul a ti on SSA oThe total urban population Pea k Rura l Popul a ti on SCA Pea k Rura l Popul a ti on LAC Pea k Rura l Popul a ti on ESEA Pea k Rura l Popul a ti on MENA will overtake rural population
  • 6. The state of rural poverty todayRural share of total poverty Rural share of total poverty (Rural people as percentage of those living on less thanOf 1.4 billion people living on US$ 1.25 /day)<$1.25 a day, 70% – 1.0 billion Eastern Asiapeople – live in rural areas 100 South Asia 90 South Eastern• So despite urbanization, in much 80 Asia 70 of the developing world, poverty 60 Sub-Saharan Africa remains largely rural – 50 Latin America particularly in Asia and SSA 40 Middle East and 30 North Africa 20 Developing World Closest 1988 Closest 1998 Closest 2008
  • 7. Smallholders are key500 million smallholder farmsworldwide supporting around 2billion people. They:Farm 80% of the farmland in Asiaand Africa.Produce 80% of the foodconsumed in the developing worldFeed 1/3 of the global population.Women are increasingly thefarmers of the developing world,
  • 8. Relevance of addressing gender in ARD: Yields gap between men- and women-run farms of 20-30%Role of rural women Challenges facing rural women•Account for 43% of agricultural •Limited access to inputs, serviceslabour force in developing and rural infrastructurecountries; 50% in Eastern Asia and (technology, education, extension,SSA health, finance, markets, water,•Typically work 16 hours per day energy)•Multi-tasking with mix of •Represent fewer than 5% of allproductive and household agricultural land holders in NENA;responsibilities SSA average of 15% •Limited contribution to decision- making in home, organizations and community
  • 9. Farmers do agriculture: people–focus - and women are usually the farmers• 500 million smallholder farms worldwide The challenge: to transform smallholder agriculture into successful agribusinesses
  • 10. Sustainable agricultural intensification• Growing and wide interest in agric. approaches that are more sustainable and resilient as well as productive (e.g. IAASTD 2008).• SAI focuses on: improved soil / water management; harnessing of agro-ecological processes for enhancing soil fertility; selective/frugal use of external inputs; human capital for adapting/ innovating, and social capital to resolve landscape-scale problems• Includes practices such as: conservation agric. ; water and soil conservation techniques; micro- irrigation, rainwater management, drainage; integrated pest management (IPM); integrated plant nutrient management; crop rotation; integrated crop and livestock/fish systems; agro-forestry• None of the SAI practices represent an alternative to conventional approaches to intensification; rather, intended to be complementary• SAI means different things in different places: a systemic approach, context adaptation, and linking farmers’ own and scientific knowledge. Premium on knowledge and innovation makes it well-suited for young farmers
  • 11. Sustainable agricultural intensification• How to move the SAI agenda forward? Six elements of a policy and institutional framework: 1. Land tenure: security of tenure; easing up of land rental markets 2. Pricing, incentives and regulation: consistent with policy direction; environmental regulation; food product and process standards 3. Payment for environmental services: importance of soil carbon market for smallholder agric., to provide incentive to adopt SAI practices 4. Agricultural education: to develop capacity for SAI, need for improved agric. education and training for farmers and agric. specialists 5. Agricultural research: need for increased research expenditure / focus on SAI agenda, multi- stakeholder innovation, client orientation – TAR4D 6. Agricultural advisory services: need for joint-problem solving and farmer capacitation – key challenge one of upscaling
  • 12. The advent (almost) of agriculture in the climate change debates – CCCoPs and Rio: 4 key messages• Food security, poverty reduction and climate change are closely linked – must not be considered separately• Without strong CC adaptation measures, poverty and food security goals will not be met• Adaptation enhances FS and can reduce GHGs from agriculture• Climate smart agriculture offers triple wins for FS, adaptation and mitigation
  • 13. Creating opportunities in the non-farm rural economy•The RNFE is important for risk The share of non-agricultural income in total rural income, bymanagement and for escaping country per capita GDPpoverty. Large number of rural 80people, rich and poor, are involved Indonesia 00 Bulgaria 01in it. 60 Bangladesh 00 Pakistan 01 Albania 05 Panama 03 Guatemala 00•As economies grow, so the RNFE Nepal 96 Ecuador 98 Nicaragua 01 40 Ghana 98expands; its importance is growing Malawi 04 Viet Nam 98 Madagascar 93•In some countries in Asia and L. 20 Nigeria 04America, non-farm income sources 0already make up a higher % of rural 0 2000 4000 6000 8000incomes than agriculture GDP per capita (US$ PPP, constant 2000)
  • 14. RPR - What needs to be done ?Attention and investment needed around four cross-cutting issues:• Investing in the rural areas – making them a better place to live and do business (infrastructure, services, governance)• Making the rural environment less risky, and helping poor rural people to better manage risk• Strengthening individual capacities – expand access to education, TVSD in particular, adapted to rural needs, and with specific focus on agriculture• Continuing to strengthen collective capacities of rural people – to give them confidence, power and security; help them reduce risk, manage assets, market produce; represent and negotiate their interests
  • 15. Conditions for smallholder development: New directions for smallholderagriculture - IFAD 2011( and after S. Wiggins, 2009)• Favourable investment climate for farming- no distorting tax/ import subsidies• Investment in rural public goods - agric R& D, rural roads, education and health - care• Strengthened rural institutions- market support, rural finance, NR rights, access to technologies, collective action• Access to K for Sustainable farm intensification
  • 16. RPR - What needs to be done, and how?1. Smallholder agriculture continues to play a key role in the economic development of many countries and remains a major source of economic opportunity for rural people – a step up, if not a route out of poverty. o What sort of agriculture? In all regions, it must be: commercially oriented and linked to markets; increasingly productive; sustainable in its use of natural resources; and resilient to shocks and effects of climate change2. At the same time, there remains need to harness the drivers of RNFE to create alternative opportunities for rural men and women to move out of poverty o A successful agriculture will create possibilities for growth in the RNFE; and will create need for employment creation in RNFE o In addition, other new drivers of growth in the RNFE are emerging in some countries
  • 17. Thank you for your attention!