C3.2. Improving extension


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Trevor Nichols

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  • Practical solutions to everyday problems (Individual) Innovations in Extension need to take realistic account of the everyday pressures of being an extension worker on the ground – they are drowning, not waving. We need practical and better problem-solving approaches Speak plainly and from experience. In this debate, ask ourselves if all this theorising uses language or scenarios that an extension worker would recognise as a real world sitaution: ‘evidence based’ extension approaches will resonate more Work with what is already there (Organisational) Don’t reinvent the wheel but try to be inclusive with a small coordinated network of effective and willing partners, resources Moving slowly forward But, seeking near-complete capability delivery from every EAS participant is another recipe for protracted failure – take the best of what you can find and give it strength through coordinated processes and common standards
  • In positioning CABI as the Global Plant Health Centre, we will extend the the current pilot project on Plant Clinics to train plant doctors and establish a network of plant health clinics in at least 25 countries around the globe. These plant health clinics will provide immediate benefits to local farmers but will also contribute surveillance and monitoring of plant pests and diseases to a comprehensive global database which will also contain content from CABI and other partners. Initial focus on Pest and Disease information but long term intention will be to cover all aspects of plant health. The database will have a significant part of its content which will be available on an open access basis, forming a public good which will help build knowledge in support of food security and trade. We also envisage that certainly value-added analytical tools, reports and consultancy services will be paid for so as to ensure that the concept is financially self-sustaining.
  • Clinic in DRC
  • The ‘Proposed Organisation Structure’ slide states the CABI staff members who are proposed to fulfil the roles identified as required for the project (depending on the project level) – note that the availability of these staff members for this project should already be confirmed. Corporate Management (and authorisation of a project) will be dependent on project level, as given below for Donor-funded or Investment projects respectively: Donor-funded Projects: Level 1 (Gross Income > £250k) = PMG Level 2 (Gross Income £50k-£250k) = Global Director, Publishing Business Innovation Forum (PBIF), or EMT Member Level 3 (Gross Income < £50k) = Regional Director, Publishing Senior Manager, or EMT Member Any Level with NPC < 15% = PMG Investment Projects: Level 1 (Total Implementation Costs > £250k) = PMG Level 2 (Total Implementation Costs £50k-£250k) = EMT Member Level 3 (Total Implementation Costs < £50k) = Regional Director, Publishing Senior Manager, or EMT Member Any Level with any of the following = PMG Total CAPEX > £50k Internal Rate of Return (IRR) < 10% Payback > Year 4 Project Board The roles should be filled by CABI staff with external perspectives being represented by a CABI staff member. Where Project Board meetings occur, these should be internal to CABI, with ‘special’ Project Board meetings being held with external parties as required. Projects of level 3 may not have a Project Board, however there should always be a Project Executive.
  • The elements of a plant health system are made of extension players (Govt, NGOs), research (institutes), regulatory (NPPO, Govt) and the input suppliers (agri-dealers). Most farmers get most of their advice from sometimes loosely-regulated agri-dealers and seldom see an extension worker. Strength of arrows indicates typical strength of relationship and interaction With Plantwise, CABI uses plant clinics as the unifying means to link up a portfolio of trained players to offer objective advice via plant clinics, owned and run by the combined local partners. The clinics/doctors, over time, can ensure that agri-dealers stock safer chemicals (when and only if a chemical intervention is required), & stock the most appropriate types of chemicals (branded, licensed), building up trust that a farmer gets objective advice, appropriate dosage instructions, etc
  • Using Plantwise as an example of how we’ve made this work – and scale – we have seen that to build robust PHS extension systems consistently rely on the ability to: Embed innovations (e.g. plant clinics) in existing extension and advisory services Combining groups, assessing contribution and skills Alignment of mandates, job roles and responsibilities (research, extension, phytosanitary) Leverage complementary delivery approaches Effective (ethical) working ties with agrodealers and input supply (i.e. work with players, don’t bypass) Renewable resource allocation: funds and personnel. Not new money, but smarter use of existing funds and resources. Get their financial/resource commitment up-front, to avoid the 3yr project cycle of boom and bust
  • Political : federal vs. states [Bolivia, DR Congo]. E.G. DRC is not one country, effectively it is at least 4, requiring localised approaches and partnerships Inter-Institutional : Uganda (NAADs and MAAIF vs. local government); Sri Lanka (several ministries work in agriculture) Sectoral : pluralistic advisory services (mixed role of NGOs in Nepal and Bangladesh) Ethical : working with agrodealers (good relations in Bolivia) Capacity : from weak & fragile (Sierra Leone) to robust & dynamic (Kenya) Strategic : independent ownership & management of plant clinics
  • Consistent approach Apply standard methods with measurable results (M&E) Coordinated effort Identify and understand local partners, working within their constraints to reveal new possibilities Training, communication Enabling & encouraging Identify and share lessons Develop solutions together
  • From the GFRAS position paper, CABI/AIRCA can contribute to debate and action on the following points
  • From the GFRAS position paper, CABI can contribute to debate and action on the following points
  • From the GFRAS position paper, CABI can contribute to debate and action on the following points
  • C3.2. Improving extension

    1. 1. Improving ExtensionStrengthening Global Capacities for Effective Knowledge and Advisory Services Trevor Nicholls, Chief Executive Officer, CABI GCARD 2012-GFRAS, 30 October 2012 www.cabi.org KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
    2. 2. In briefCABI ● CABI provides scientific expertise and information about agriculture and the environment ● Activities include: scientific publishing, development projects and research, and microbial services ● Established in 1910 ● Not-for-profit ● Owned by 47 member countries ● Approximately 350 staff worldwide
    3. 3. Communicating with farmersImpact Reach
    4. 4. Back tobasics: Key capacities ● Practical solutions to everyday problems (Individual) ● Better problem-solving approaches ● Evidence based extension resonates more ● Work with what is already there (Organisational) ● Partners, resources - moving slowly forward ● Pragmatic alliances – not everyone can do everything
    5. 5. www.plantise.org Content from CABI and partners Expertise from CABI and partners screen shot Knowledge Bank Plant Knowledge Bank Clinics Plant doctors Plant ClinicsData for prevention, Public good: trade, Practical assistance for identification and knowledge, food security farmers management Global reporting network
    6. 6. Set up at local How the clinics workmeeting placesFree at the point ofuseFarmers come withproblems andsamplesReceive a diagnosisand a ‘prescription’from the plantdoctor.
    7. 7. Country Plans 2012 East AsiaCaribbean & ChinaCentralAmerica SE Asia Cambodia Nicaragua C&W Asia Vietnam Honduras Barbados Africa Pakistan Grenada DR Congo Afghanistan Trinidad & Kenya South AsiaTobago Rwanda Bangladesh South Suriname Sierra Leone India America Tanzania Nepal Bolivia Uganda Sri Lanka Peru Ghana
    8. 8. Involvement of all players to strengthenfarmer extension
    9. 9. Plantwisecase study: A Plant Health Systems approach Robust PHS extension systems require you to: ● Embed innovations in existing services ● Combine groups; assess contribution and skills ● Align mandates, roles and responsibilities ● Leverage complementary delivery approaches ● Build effective working ties with all players, using renewable resources
    10. 10. India – Africa Mobile Agro-Advisorypartnerships India and Africa ● India – successful pilot project with IKSL (IFFCO/Airtel) ● Over 3 million users – receive 5 free “push” messages each day, follow up enquiries charged at local rates ● CABI created ‘Direct 2 Farm’–database of farmer centred actionable information ● Africa: leveraging on work in India – working with GSMA projects to develop mobile agro advisory services with Airtel in Kenya; with ESOKO in Ghana.
    11. 11. Communicating with farmers ….. many more optionsImpact Reach
    12. 12. Scaling up challenges● Political: federal vs. states● Inter-Institutional: overlapping remits● Sectoral: pluralistic advisory services● Ethical: working with agrodealers● Capacity: from weak & fragile, to robust & dynamic● Strategic: independent ownership & management of plant clinics
    13. 13. Healthy landscapes (AIRCA) –making rural communities more viableReducing risk Increasing sustainability Crop/fertilizer/water mix for better  Lose less to increase output/ nutrition and yield quality with fewer inputs Crop types and practices for  Protection of biodiversity on and resilience to change off farm Improved knowledge of and  Management of ecosystem access to markets services, practices and use Control of invasive species  Involvement of women Reduced food insecurity, improved quality of life Reduced or reversed rural migration
    14. 14. Strengtheningextension: CABI’s role (Plantwise approach) ● Consistent approach ● Apply standard methods, and measure ● Coordinated effort ● Identify and understand local partners ● Work within partners’ limits ● Training, communication ● Enabling & encouraging ● Identify and share lessons ● Develop solutions together
    15. 15. CABI contribution – Global● G1&2.Through AIRCA & CABI membership, support capacity development and policy advocacy @ national/regional levels. Participate in networks● G3. Through Plantwise (PW), adopt practical frameworks/training modules, and papers outlining lessons learned● G4. Advocacy via PW on evidence-based success● G5. Demonstrate positive role of partnerships in EAS● G6. Through CABI membership, share experiences● G7. Facilitate country-to-country learning
    16. 16. CABI contribution – RegionalThrough working with regional partners●R2. Aggregate, structure & publish evidence via R4D,GARA and, if invited, other KM repositories●R5. Through PW & CABI membership consultation, shareexperiences, train stakeholders, and advocate pragmaticapproaches
    17. 17. Capacity priorities, individualThrough working with national partners●N2. Capacity assessments and referral: e.g. Directory ofDiagnostic Services●N4. Facilitate stakeholder workshops to learn what worksand what did not●N5. Experiment with ICTs to scale out extension (e.g. IKSL,India)●N7. Lesson learning and improved planning via researchinternships
    18. 18. teşekkür ederim ke itumetse graziekiitos terima kasih tak xie-xie merci спасибоefharistó faleminderit cảm ơn cô 谢谢 salamat asante sana நன்றி dhanyawaad शुक्रियाक्रिया zikomo mersidanke ありがとう Assalamualikum urakoze stuh-tee благодаря thank you gracias Trevor Nicholls E: t.nicholls@cabi.org T: +44 (0)1491 832111 www.cabi.org KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE