P3.1. Dryland Systems Research ProgramPresentation Transcript
Dryland Systems Research ProgramEffective Partnerships for Research Impact
Dryland Systems of the World Drylands•Physical water scarcity•Rapid natural resource degradationand desertification•Groundwater depletion•Drought•Climate change will make them drier PremiseSuccessful dryland production systemsevolve through an integrated approachthat includes the right mix of:• Innovative partnerships•Diverse technologies, and•Appropriate policies.
Oveview: Partnership in Dryland Systems• Part of conceptual framework and one of four Strategic Research Themes• Partners set research priorities and identified “Action Sites”• A simple example of how partnership in a systems approach can achieve impact even under very marginal dryland conditions• Partnership in governance
Conceptual Framework• Framework Development Workshop January 2012• Designed with participants from CG centers (ICRISAT, ILRI, Bioversity, IWMI, CIP, ICRAF)) and FARA/SSA-CP• SRT1: Approaches and models for strengthening innovation systems, building stakeholder innovation capacity, and linking knowledge to policy action
Partner Involvement in Inception Phase Site selection and characterization• Consultative selection of Action Sites—ministries, NARES, etc.• Groundwork in 5 regions to characterize Target Areas (SRT2, risk management, and SRT3, sustainable intensification)--NARES• Regional Inception Workshops to prioritize research—multiple stakeholders
Characterization of Target Areas Criteria Limits for SRT 2 Limits for SRT 3 Length of growing period <90 days 90-180 days Distribution of poverty Hunger and malnutrition (food security, no of people, % of people) Aridity Index 0.03 to 0.35 0.35-0.65 Environmental risk (Rainfall variability, CV>15% CV<15% access to irrigation, Land degradation(soil salinity, soil High Low-medium erosion) Market access Travel time >2 Travel time <2 hrs hrs Population density
Criteria for selection of Action Sites Characteristics of potential Action Sites in Target Areas Target Area Potential Potential Potential Action Site 1 Satellite Site 1 Satellite Site 2 Country Geographical location Accessibility Potential for hypothesis testing Representativeness Potential for out- scaling (impact) Potential to attract funds Potential to interact with CRPs
West Africa & Dry Savannas SRT2: the KKM (Kano-Katsina-Maradi) action transect SRT3: the WBS (Wa-Bobo-Sikasso) action transectRegional:INSAH/CILSSBurkina Faso:INERAGhana: ARI,CSIRMali: IERNiger: INRANNigeria: ARC
South Asia Bangladesh: BARI India: ICAR, CRIDA, CAZRI, FES, NRAA, Watershed Organization Trust Pakistan: BARI, CSO, PARC, SSD• Rajasthan (SRT2)• Chakwal, Pakistan as satellite site, mainly SRT2• Bijapur, Karnataka, India , SRT3 (black soils).• Anantapur & Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh SRT2/3 (red soils)• Maharashtra/ Karnataka Pradesh, satellite SRT3
Central Asia and Caucasus SRT2: Aral Sea Basin and Rasht Valley SRT3: Fergana ValleyCentral Asia and Caucasus:Kazakhstan: South-Western ScientificProduction Center ofAgricultureTajikistan: TAASTurkmenistan: NationalFarmers’ Association, NASUzbekistan: KashkadaryaResearch Institute
North Africa and West Asia• SRT2: Jordan/Syria;• SRT2: Satellite: Béni Khedache-Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia• SRT3: Mekness region of Morocco; Egypt Nile delta• SRT3 Satellites: Karkheh River Basin, IranEgypt: ARCJordan: NCAREMorocco: INRASyria: GCSAR,Agha KhanFoundationTunisia: IRA
East & Southern Africa SRT2: Northeastern Kenya and Southeastern Ethiopia SRT3: Chinyanja Triangle (central and southern Malawi, eastern province of Zambia, and the Tete Province of MozambiqueEast and Southern Africa:Ethiopia: EIARKenya: KARISouth Africa: CSIR, Univ. ofFt Hare, WRCSudan: ARCZambia: University ofZambia
Partner Involvement in Inception Phase Research Prioritization• 16 Common Hypotheses • 20 Common Outputs
Partnership involvement in Activities (North Africa & West Asia)SRT 2 SRT3
Partnerships in Systems Research Biological control of the pearl millet head miner• Became serious pest during 1970s in marginal dryland systems of Sahel• Sahel has some of the world’s poorest countries with weak institutions and resource-poor farmers• Over 25 years, multiple funding partners (CILSS, FAO, USAID, McKnight Foundation and BM Gates Foundation)• Over 25 years, multiple research partners (CIRAD, Texas A&M, ICRISAT, IITA, ISRA, IER, INERA) on pest ecology via several uncoordinated short-term projects• Group of prominent national scientists funded by McKnight Foundation developed and deployed a systems-based IPM program• Trained farmers to raise and release parasitic wasp to kill the head miner.
Better Model for Systems Research and Development• Emphasis on partnership (McKnight Foundation)• National research partners take the lead and gain recognition, leading to uptake and institutional strengthening• Farmers, technicians, students, animateurs, etc. have integrated roles, facilitating adoption• CG centers, “Advanced Research Institutes,” etc. play a supporting partner role• Prominent role for women as scientists, farmers, and beneficiaries
Outputs, Impact, and OutcomeOutput: On-farm methodology for mass rearingand release of parasitoid waspImpact (after 3 years): Release in 385 villages,with an effective coverage approaching morethan 200,000 ha. Estimates suggest yieldincreases of ~40% in the areas of intervention,and that ~72% of larvae akilled.Outcome: National researchers, adequatelysupported and empowered, deliver real andeffective solutions that are:•Scientifically sound•Meet the needs of the smallholder farmers, and•Contribute significantly to improved foodsecurity, community resilience, and reducedpoverty.
Outscaling1. Spillover effects a) Neighboring villages informally seek to learn from animateurs b) Widespread recognition from farmer organizations and local, regional, and national governments (upscaling effects)2. Good prospects for regional expansion to wherever pearl millet head miner is a production constraint (e.g. from Senegal to Sudan).3. Because capacity was built at many community levels , the technology can spread based on community involvement without the need for large external financial support.