P1.1. Feeding a Billion Plus: the Indian Way
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  • 1. Feeding a Billion Plus:The Indian Way 29 October, 2012
  • 2. India Today… > 17% of the world‟s human & 11% livestock population and counting 4.2% of the world‟s water 2.4% of the world‟s area 142 m ha cultivated & 60 m ha net irrigated 138% cropping intensity 52% of population earns livelihood in agriculture 14.0% contribution in GDP 10.5% earning of total exports
  • 3. 2500 India in World Food Basket 2000 India World mt World India 1500 Cereals 2237.6 257.4 1000 Rice 455.6 104.3 500 Wheat 652.6 93.9 0 Coarse 1121.3 42.1 Meat Cereals Rice Fish Sugar Wheat Maize Oilseed Milk Coarse Grains Grains Maize 889.2 21.5 Developed Near East Latin Countries, na North Asia and 19 Africa, 37 America and the Oilseed 464.7 30 the Caribbean, Pacific, 578 53 Sub- Saharan Sugar 165.7 26 Africa, 239 Meat 290.6 6.8 Undernourishment in 2010, by region (million) Milk 710 127Exports: Rice 10 mmt, Wheat 2 mmt, Sugar 2 mmt, Cotton 2.2 mmt, Fish 0.8 mmt Fish 149.0 8.4
  • 4. T.E. 1990-91 Livestock, 20% Fisheries, 3% Composition (%) Forestry & Logging, 22% of Output of Horticulture, 1 6% Cereals, 23% Agriculture & Allied SectorsOther Crops &byproducts, 9 % Fibres, 2% Sugars, 4% Oilseeds, 7% Pulses, 4% Fisheries, 5% Forestry & Logging, 9% Livestock, 25% Cereals, 18% Horticulture, 2 0% T.E. 2011-12 Pulses, 3% Oilseeds, 6% Other Crops & Sugars, 4%Source: CSO byproducts, 7% Fibres, 3%
  • 5. Total Domestic Demand for Various Food Commodities: million tonnes Present Projected for 2050 Food Items 2009-2010 BAU MM UpsideCereals 196.4 311.5 358.7 406.9Pulses 17.8 35.1 46.3 50.3Foodgrains 214.2 346.6 405.0 457.1Edible Oils 15.7 29.5 39.0 45.2Vegetables 131.8 258.9 342.2 438.6Fruits 71.2 231.0 305.3 183.4Milk 111.5 303.7 401.4 483.6Sugar 22.0 44.1 58.3 58.2Meat 6.0 10.4 13.8 18.1Eggs 58.2 139.2 183.9 202.5Fish 7.1 16.9 22.4 27.0
  • 6. Past and Required Growth Rate to Meet Domestic Demand (%/year) Projected for 2050 Items Historical BAU MM UpsideCereals 2.25 0.67 1.03 1.36Sugar 2.57 1.39 2.12 2.11Pulses 0.92 1.84 2.57 2.79Edible oils 2.81 2.80 3.54 3.94Vegetables 3.35 1.63 2.36 3.01Fruits 3.31 2.90 3.64 2.29Milk 4.39 2.26 2.99 3.49Meat 4.22 1.31 2.04 2.75Eggs 5.66 2.09 2.83 3.08Fish 3.55 1.72 2.45 2.94 Total 1.92 2.57 2.82
  • 7. Food Supply Management INPUT SUPPORT MINIMUM FOOD SUPPORT PRODUCTION PRICEEXPORTBUFFER STOCK PDS BPL
  • 8. Partners in Food Production and DistributionMinistries of Central Government FARMERS/FISHERSMinistry of Food & Public Department of Agricultural & Distribution (MoFPD) Co-operation (DAC) Indian Council Department of Agricultural Ministry of Agriculture of Agricultural Research & Education (DARE) Research (ICAR)Ministry of Food Processing Department of Animal Industry (MoFPI) Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DAHD&F) Ministry of Commerce (MoC) State Governments Ministry of Rural Financial Institutions Development (MoRD) Private SectorMinistry of Environment & Forests(MoEF) Farmers‟ Organisations FARMERS/FISHERS
  • 9. Agriculture & Food-related Schemes National Food Security Mission (NFSM), 2007 National Agriculture Development Plan (RKVY), 2007 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2006 Mid-day Meal Scheme, 2009 National Mission for Empowerment of Women, 2010 National Horticulture Mission (NHM) Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), 1975
  • 10. Indian NARES Research Institutes: Natural Resource Management, Field Crops, Horticulture,98 Animal Science, Fisheries, Engineering, Education, Extension63 State Agricultural Universities, CAU & DUs630 Farm Science Centres (KVKs) CGIAR – ICAR – Universities - KVKs
  • 11. AgrInnovateIndiaMaking a Difference in NAIPIndian Agriculture: NATP NARP, NationalThe Journey of ICAR Gene Bank IVLP King Baudouin Award Lab-to-Land programme DARE First KVK at ASRB Puducherry First SAU at Pantnagar Commodity Research Institutes under ICAR ICAR IARI as Deemed-to-be University Imperial Council of Agricultural Research IARI, Pusa shifted to New Delhi Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory in Pune (shifted to Mukteshwar in 1893) Imperial Agricultural Research Institute
  • 12. ICAR - Global Partnerships No. of CountriesMOUs 65Work Plans of ICAR signed underthe umbrella MOUs of DST and 12DAC and JCM of MEABilateral/Multilateral Projects 50 CGIAR Collaborative Projects Indo-African Fellowships Indo-Afghanistan Fellowships ICAR International Scholarships
  • 13. Context and ConcernsMore From Less For MoreStress Agriculture, SecondaryAgriculture, Speciality AgricultureAgriculture-Food-Nutrition-Health-Environment-EmploymentSkill and Youth in AgricultureMarket Access
  • 14. Biodiversity for Pressures on Natural Posterity Resource BaseWorld (million ha) Deforestation Land degradation 107.43 Estimated Species 10 million Water erosion 57.15 Documented species 1.72 million Degraded forests 24.90 India: Among the 12 Mega bio- diversity Centres Wind erosion 10.46 India: 3 of the 34 Hot Spots of Salt-affected 6.32 Biodiversity Acid-affected 12.00 Soil erosion 12% of world‟s flora Others 8.60 7% of world‟s fauna Per capita agricultural National Bureaus of Plant, land availability Animal, Fish, Microbes and 0.34 ha (1950-51) Insects Desertification 0.17 ha (1999-2000) 0.12 ha (2010-2011)
  • 15. Climate Change and Natural Disasters
  • 16. Agro-ecosystem Specific ApproachRainfed: resource-based, farming systemperspectiveIrrigated: Raising yield potential; 5 agro-ecosystems andresource and input use efficiency; 14 production systemsresidue managementCoastal: Agri-horti-fishsystem, managerisk, salinity, nutrientArid: Agri-horti-livestock-pastoralsystem, manage abioticstress, soil fertility and winderosionHill & Mountain: Diversifiedsystem, micro-interventions, cold
  • 17. National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA )Identification of 15-20heat/drought tolerantcrops‟ cultivarsResilience to small andmarginal farmers andreduce production lossesat least by 25-30%Technologydemonstration in 100districts of 27 States 18 x Oregon IIHR 544 7 – 6 x KTP4 tolerant to highCapsicum (check) temperature (summer 2007) Comparison of pod size and pod filling
  • 18. Farm Science Centres(KVKs)West Tripura (Tripura) Faridkot (Punjab) Rajkot (Gujarat) Phulwama (J & K) Ropar (Punjab)Senapati (Manipur) Gondia (Maharashtra)
  • 19. National Agricultural Drought Assessment & Monitoring System . Rainfall deviations 300 250 200 % deviation 150 June 100 50 0 -50 . -100 12/6 19/6 6/6 3/710/7 17/7 24/7 31/7 7/8 14/8 21/8 28/8 4/9 11/9 18/9 25/9 July Sowing progress August Integration with ground data July September September October-0.27 -0.26 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 >0.6 District/ Sub-District Level Drought Monitoring
  • 20. 90 Rice varietal development 8180 Yield (Q/ha) 72 6770 59 59 60 57 60 5960 55 51 55 55 69 52 51 58 46 4550 5340 45 45 45 45 45 42.5 4330 37 38 35 3520100 Molecular Plant Breeding Improved Pusa Basmati 1 Rice Exports worth US$ 2.5 Rice Genome bn annually Total sequence: 15 Mb No. of genes: 2500 Chromosome 11 has 218 disease resistance-like genes (> 20 % of the whole genome)
  • 21. Rice Knowledge Management Portal To create, manage and share scientific, technology-related and market- related information for the benefit of the rice as a sectorInformation System for Services Extension Research Farmers Distance Learning
  • 22. Yield Potential (Q/ha)0 10 20 40 50 70 30 60 33.7 36 45.5 46 46.8 44 45.1 45.7 45.8 45.4 35.3 42.5 47.1 Variety (Year of Release) 51.3 61.5 48.9 63 62.9 61.5 61 Landmark wheat releases in India 64.1
  • 23. Corn 45 42 Food Feed 40 Industrial Total 35 35 Utilization (mt) GR set for Agriculture: 4% 30 28 25 22.5 22 Required GR: 4.7% 20.5 20 16.5 15 12.5 Current GR: 6.4 % 10 7 8 6.5 9 10.5 6 4.5 5 3.5 Current GR > target 0 2011-12 2015-16 2020-21 2025-26 Current production 21.5 mt Year 30.00 3000 Production (m t) 25.00 Area (m ha) 2500 Productivity (kg/ha) 20.00 2000 Area, Production Yield 15.00 1500 10.00 1000 5.00 500 0.00 0
  • 24. Crop Variety Releases Breeder Seed Production in „000 Quintals Improvement in Seed Replacement Rate (SRR)8070 2004-05 2005-0660 2006-07 2009 - 10 2007-085040302010 0 Wheat Paddy Gram Moong Arhar Groundnut Rape/mustard Soybean
  • 25. PPP: Crop Varieties: PUSA RH -10 and PUSA-1460 (Rice); HD 2967 (Wheat); and PEHM-5, QPM-9, Vivek Hybrid- 9 (Maize) Commercialized to More than 40 Seed Companies
  • 26. Transforming Farmers into Agripreneurs - Where Farmer Grows Sensitization Training & Capacity Building Legal & Commercial Handholding
  • 27. Net Water Productivity of Rice-Fish Farming Systems 7R R-F R-F-HC R-FDF 6 5 25 4 3 6 5 2 4 1 6 12 0 2 4 8 10 14 16 US C/m3 R-Rice, R-F- Rice- fish, R-FHC- Rice- fish –hort. crops, RFDF- Rice- fish diversified farming system
  • 28. Horticulture Produces (mt) Plantation Spices, 5.35 Mushroom, Crops, 12.007 0.041Aromatic, 0. Honey, 0.065 605 Flowers, 70.0 58 Vegetable, 14 Fruits, 74.87 6.554 8
  • 29. IPM & CBC Partnership Model for control of Papaya mealy bug Agri-Intelligence Surveillance Forecasting PseudleptomastixAcerophagus papayae mexicana
  • 30. Major Gains in Animal Production 281 India – leader in250.00 Milk production (MT) 176.00 milk production200.00 Per capita availability (g/day) for a decade 124.00150.00 112.00 127100.00 Area-based 53.90 50.00 21.20 Mineral mixture 17.00 as a major 0.00 1950-51 1968-69 1990-91 2010-11 2006-07 intervention 65 50.00 Egg production (billion nos) 53 40.00 Per capita availability (nos/h/yr) 25.00 30.00 21.10 20.00 10.00 5.00 5.30 10.00 1.83 0.00 1950-51 1968-69 1990-91 2006-07 2010-11
  • 31. ETT Mithun calf born from Indias first Ovum pick up cryopreserved embryo – IVF cattle calf Ten Calves produced in a year through ETT Noori – Cloning Glory AI in Pig
  • 32. Aquaculture Blue revolution through Carp Culture Improved Rohu thru‟ selection Diversified farming Shrimp as a Dollar earner
  • 33. Cage Farming Fish vendors with insulated boxes FishFestival
  • 34. Farm mechanization Machines demonstrated and found wide adoption in different regions Power Tiller Rice-wheat mechanisationPaddy transplanter Paddy drum seeder Groundnut sheller Plastic mulching Zero till drill Manual weeder
  • 35. Machinery for Precision Farming Multispectral camera Collects reflectance and crop image data of rice field N sensor N-sensor, Multispectral Camera and GPS mounted on paddy vehicle (modified paddy transplanter) Prediction models or patterns (disease, productivity) can be generated. Paddy transplanter mounted with N sensor, Multispectral camera and GPS Prototype tractor with data sensors tested for stability. Efficiently collects large scale data in fields.Prototype of High Clearance Tractor
  • 36. Ergonomic/Gender-friendly tools and equipment High Women workforce in agriculture – both production and processing Reducing drudgery and mainstreaming
  • 37. Impact of Mechanization Reduction in cost Crop Yield increase (%) of production (%)Castor 23 45Cotton 22 34Sorghum 36 38Groundnut 18 20Finger millet 35 32Redgram 18 35Soybean 20 35Maize 27 33
  • 38. US President‟s Interaction 6th November, 2010 Termed ICAR Tools as„Appropriate Technologies‟
  • 39. Protected Cultivation Annual production: 2,40,000 flowers Av. sale price per flower : US 4 cent Av. cost of production/flower: US 2 cent Net profit : US $ 4363 per annum = US $ 363 per month Economics of 100 sq meter greenhouse 20,000Output per batch seedlingsAverage number of batches per 5yearTotal output per annum 1,00,000Average cost of raising one 0.36 centseedlingAverage cost of seedling 0.9 centNet return US $ 546
  • 40. Renewable energy Solar tunnel drier 2-3 days as compared to 10-Drying time 12 days in openSavings in energy 6,000 kWh/annum/unit Solid state biogas plant 20% as compared toIncrease in gas yield conventional plantReduction in water 80%requirementEconomic Benefit US $ 73/plant/annum
  • 41. „Primary Agriculture toSecondary Agriculture‟
  • 42. Before feeding After feeding Parameters sorghum sorghumAge (yrs) 45.5 ± 5.11 45.5 ± 5.11Fasting Glucose 149.9 ± 48.51 135.7 ± 61.41(mg/dl)HbA1C (%) 7.6 ± 1.40 7.3 ± 1.49Insulin (µU/ml) 23.7 ± 17.25 22.6 ± 16.47Creatinine 0.9 ± 0.20 0.9 ± 0.18(mg/dl)Cholesterol 210.3 ± 58.04 183.2 ± 41.99(mg/dl)Triglycerides 130.4 ± 69.45 113.5 ± 89.67(mg/dl)
  • 43. Wine & Ethanol Litchi Wine Production: 450,000 t Wine from Jamun, Karonda and Sorghum Yield: 11.5% Pomegrenate (8-12%) Ethanol: 1100 l /ha
  • 44. Value Chain in Flowers Identified native species, standardized dyeing techniques, developed products and their Garlands packaging technologyHair adornment products Exporting about 1600 t/year valued at about US $ 1.73 million
  • 45. Value Chain on Banana Pseudostem India: 27 mt fruit yield 45 mt pseudostem waste About 10,000 kg of fibre extracted with 20 raspador units installed Total net income earned by farmers: US$ 6,000 Employment generated (man days): 2,960 Income earned by laborers: US$ 4,000
  • 46. Agricultural R&D Groundnut SugarcaneNARS: strategic Soybean Moong Wheat Barley Cotton Maize Jowar Bajra R&M Gram Rice Jutepartnership of with other 0.0scientific organizationsand international system -0.5 -0.4 Self-sufficiency in food production and surplus in -1.0 -0.8 -1.0 -1.0 some commodities -1.1 -1.1 -1.3 TFP share up to 70% in -1.5 output growth; recent IRR -1.6 -1.7 46% -1.9 -2.0 -2.0 Annual decrease (%) in Reduction in real cost of -2.1 -2.1 real cost of production 1-2% annually -2.3 production, 1975-2005 -2.5
  • 47. AUs: Students Intake & Placement in Agriculture 60 45 50 Universities Students x1000 35Universities 40 Students 25 30 15 20 10 5 0 -5 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1995 2010 2% 12% Years 1% 5% Ph.D., 2000 3% 7% 50% Masters, 8000 UG, 20% 25000 in Govt. Departments in Private Sector as Teachers in Research in Banks in NGOs Self Employed in Others Placement
  • 48. Niche Areas of Excellence Experiential Learning 30 Units 245 UnitsRCTs Inland saline soils for Agro-processing Vermi-compostingMedicinal and aquaculture Bio-fertilizer Bakery andaromatic plants Functional fermented confectionary products dairy products with MushroomArsenic toxicity Value addition in synbiotics ApiaryTemperate fruits Aonla, Mango, Tomato Biofuels Poultry and „Kagzi‟ limeFish production
  • 49. A Framework For Technology Development And Delivery System ACTIVITIES INSTITUTIONS OUTPUTBasic & Strategic National: ICAR Institutes and Universities Principles, Processes and Research National / Region-Specific Strategic Methodologies Research: SAUs, AICRPs, Private Sector KNOWLEDGE SAUs / AICRPs Technologies & Products Applied & Adaptive Research Private Sector Proprietary Products Technology Location, Situation, SAssessment, Refinement KVKs, ZRSs ystem specific ICTs, Mass and Demonstration Technologies Media etc ATMAs SAUs (District Level) Co- Line Departments Block Ops, NGOs, PRI s Panchayat & Village Farmers Outcome Enhanced Profitability, Productivity, Sustainability, Livelihood, Security, Employment generation, Competitiveness and Food, Nutrition & Environmental Security Basic District Level Interactive Extension Model (BDLIEM)
  • 50. „Reaching the Unreached‟
  • 51. m-Krishi Fisheries e-CoursesAdvisory Service Degree Programs Covered B.Sc. (Agri.), B.V.Sc. & AH, B.Sc. (Hort.), B.F.Sc., B. Sc. (Home Sci.), B. Tech (Dairy Tech), B. Tech (Agril. Engg.)
  • 52. Network of Indian Agri-Business Incubators (10 BPDUs)
  • 53. Global Conference on Women in Agriculture 13-15 March, 2012, New Delhi, India
  • 54. Farm Innovators:Partners in„RainbowRevolution‟
  • 55. IPR and Technology CommercializationPatents (2012)Applications filed 50Cumulative 726Granted Patents 137Foreign Patent Applications 3 PCT + A few National PhasePlant VarietiesApplications Filed 842Published Applications 503Registered / protected Varieties 198Trademarks (21)“PUSA” by IARI, New Delhi“ARKA” by IIHR, Bengaluru“IISR” by IISR (Spices), Calicut“KNOCK WP” and “TRIVIR 1%” by DOR, Hyderabad“CIFAX”, “CIFABROOD” “Jayanti Rohu” by CIFA, Bhubaneswar“Vanaraja” and “Gramapriya” by PD Poultry, HyderabadCopyrights (35)Registered copyrights on Softwares CIAE, Bhopal DSR (Soybean), Indore NBFGR, Lucknow NBPGR, New Delhi
  • 56. AGRINNOVATEINDIASeedsFarm Implements & MachineryDiagnostics & VaccinesValue Added ProductsProfessional Services & Turnkey ProjectsOverseas Operations
  • 57. World Bank Projects to facilitate Paradigm shift Paradigms Projects Funding PeriodResearch (Infrastructure) NARP I & II US $ 142 million 1978-1996HRD (Quality, relevance) AHRD US $ 74.2 million 1995-2003Technology (PSR, MM, NATP US $ 188 million 1998-2005CGP, COE, O&M, ITD)Technology into Use(Innovation, System) NAIP US $ 250 million 2006-2014(PCS, SRLS, BSR, O&M)190 Subprojects; 188 Leaders & 646 Partners; 364 Organisations;125,000 Stakeholders (Private, FOs, NGOs)Proposed NAEP in 2013
  • 58. ApproachSecondary Agriculture, SpecialityAgricultureConsortia Research PlatformsNational Agricultural InnovationFoundationNational Agricultural EducationProjectAgri-Tech Foresight Centre (ATFC)FIM Fabrication & PrimaryProcessing hubsQA & Certification facilities
  • 59. ApproachAg. R&D PolicyVision-2050TAP & GAPFarmer FIRSTStudent READYARYA (Attracting &Retaining Youth in Agriculture)
  • 60. We foresee…Climate Resilient & Diversified AgricultureEvergreen and Rainbow Revolution and Assureddiversification in food basketAgriculture as a sought after vocation and careerGlobal Partnerships in AgricultureFood-Self-Reliant and Healthy India
  • 61. THANK YOU